||The neutrality of this article is disputed. (December 2013)|
|• Hebrew||עַרְעָרָה בַּנֶּגֶב|
|• Also spelled||Ar'ara BaNegev (official)|
|• Type||Local council|
|• Head of Municipality||David Bonfeld (an acting mayor)|
|• Total||14,052 dunams (14.052 km2 or 5.426 sq mi)|
Ar'arat an-Naqab or Ar'ara BaNegev (Hebrew: עַרְעָרָה בַּנֶּגֶב, Arabic: عرعرة), previously called Aroer, is a Bedouin town (local council) in the South District of Israel. Its name stands for "the juniper tree in Negev". It is situated not far from the archaeological site of Aroer.
Ar'arat an-Naqab was founded in 1982 as part of a government project to settle Bedouins in permanent settlements. It is one of seven Bedouin townships in the Negev desert with approved plans and developed infrastructure (other six are: Hura, Lakiya, Shaqib al-Salam (Segev Shalom), Kuseife (Kseife), Tel as-Sabi (Tel-Sheva) and the city of Rahat, the largest among them).
Prior to the establishment of Israel, the Negev Bedouins were a semi-nomadic society that had been through a process of sedentariness since the Ottoman rule of the region. Most researches agree that Bedouins arrived to the Negev around 1800 AD, but there is evidence of earlier migrations as well.
During the British Mandate period the administration didn't provide a legal frame to justify and preserve lands’ ownership. In order to settle this issue, Israel’s land policy was adapted to a large extent from the Ottoman land regulations of 1858 as the only preceding legal frame. Thus Israel nationalized most of the Negev lands using the state’s land regulations from 1969.
Israel has continued the policy of sedentarization of Negev Bedouins imposed by the Ottoman authorities, and at first it included regulation and re-location - during the 1950s Israel has re-located two-thirds of the Negev Bedouins into an area that was under a martial law.
The next step was to establish seven townships built especially for Bedouins in order to sedentarize and urbanize them by offering them better life conditions, proper infrastructure and high quality public services in sanitation, health and education, and municipal services. But not all Bedouins agree to move from tents and structures built on the state lands into apartments prepared for them. In permanent planned villages like Ar'arat an-Naqab lives about 60% of Bedouin citizens of Israel, while the rest in illegal homes spread all over North Negev.
Process of sedentarization is full of hardships for any nation, since it means a harsh shift from one way of life to another - transition from wandering to permanent residence, and Bedouins whose society is based on tradition are no exception. The rate of unemployment remains high in Bedouin townships, as well as crime level. School through age 16 is mandatory by law, but the vast majority of the population does not receive a high school education. Women are discriminated in the patriarchal-type Bedouin society. There is another serious problem of trespassing on state lands and building unrecognized Bedouin settlements having no municipal status and facing demolition orders.
Yet Israel's attitude towards its Bedouin citizens has always been positive. The state uses all the means at her disposal to improve the life of the Negev Bedouin community, and Ar'arat an-Naqab is considered to be one of several flagship projects in this sense. Unlike illegal villages with scarce access to water, electricity and services, this village provides the residents with all their basic needs.
Despite the fact that unemployment level among Negev Bedouins is high, there are several employment opportunities in the region. Several industrial parks are situated in the area - Ramat Hovav, Hura, there are industrial zones in Beersheba, Arad and Dimona, etc. Other job opportunities are: several chemical plants near the Dead Sea like the Dead Sea Works, different high-tech companies and textile shops. There is a number of Bedouins working in the area of service.
There is a number of schools in the township.
Until 2009, Ar'arat an-Naqab's sewage either went through an old purification facility or into one of several pools that were created in the 1980s and posed an environmental hazard. As a result of the construction and expansion of nearby Nevatim Airbase, the Israel Air Force invested in the purification facility, making it modern and sufficient for the needs of the village as well as the airbase.
- PM Netanyahu meets with Negev Bedouin mayors MFA, November 3, 2011
- "Locality File" (XLS). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 2011. Retrieved February 2, 2013.
- Steven C. Dinero. Settling for Less: The Planned Resettlement of Israel's Negev Bedouin. Berghahn Books.
- Palmer, 1881, p.144
- State of Israel. Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. List of Issues to be taken up in Connection with the Consideration of Israel's Fourth and Fifth Periodic Reports of Israel (CEDAW/C/ISR/4 and CEDAW/C/ISR/5)
- "Local Authorities in Israel 2005, Publication #1295 - Municipality Profiles - Ar'ara BaNegev" (in Hebrew). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 2008-03-07.
- Dor Fridman. "About the Negev Bedouins". LocalEconomySeminar.
- Bedouin information, ILA, 2007
- Blueprint Negev. Working with Bedouin communities
- Sarab Abu-Rabia-Queder. The activism of Bedouin women: Social and political resistance Ben Gurion University
- Bedouins in the State of Israel
- Dr. Yosef Ben-David. The Bedouin in Israel Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, July 1, 1999
- Sarusi, Neta (August 21, 2009). "On the Purity of Collaboration". Bamahane (in Hebrew) (3001): p. 20.
- Lands of the Negev, a short film presented by Israel Land Administration describing the challenges faced in providing land management and infrastructure to the Bedouins in Israel's southern Negev region