Arab Higher Committee

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Arab High Committee)
Jump to: navigation, search
Members of the Arab Higher Committee, 1936. Front row from left to right: Raghib al-Nashashibi, Amin al-Husayni, Ahmed Hilmi Pasha, Gen. Manager of the Jerusalem Arab Bank, Abdul Latif Bey Es-Salah, chairman of the Arab National Party, Mr. Alfred Roke,

The Arab Higher Committee (Arabic: اللجنة العربية العليا) or the Higher National Committee was the central political organ of the Arab community of Mandate Palestine. It was established on 25 April 1936, on the initiative of Hajj Amin al-Husayni, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, and comprised the leaders of Palestinian Arab clans and political parties under the mufti's chairmanship. The Committee was outlawed by the British Mandatory administration in September 1937.

A committee of the same name was reconstituted by the Arab League in 1945, but went to abeyance after it proved ineffective during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. It was banned by Jordan in 1948, and sidestepped by Egypt and the Arab League with the formation of the All-Palestine Government in 1948.

Formation - 1936-37[edit]

The Higher Arab Committee was formed on 25 April 1936, and National Committees had been formed in all of the towns and some of the larger villages, during that month.[1] The Royal Commission of 1936-37 was impressed by the fact that the Arab national movement, sustained by the Committee, was far more efficient and comprehensive political machine than existed in earlier years. All the political parties presented a 'common front' and their leaders sit together on the Arab Higher Committee. Christian as well as Moslem Arabs are represented on it. With no opposition parties.[2]

The Committee was formed after 19 April call for a general strike of Arab workers and businesses, which marked the start of the 1936-39 Arab revolt. On 15 May 1936, endorsed the general strike, calling for an end to Jewish immigration, the nonpayment of taxes.[3] The strike was called off in October 1936 and the violence abated for about a year while the Peel Commission deliberated and in July 1937 recommended partition of Palestine into Jewish and Arab states. The Arab leadership in Palestine rejected the plan,[4][5] arguing that the Arabs had been promised independence and granting rights to the Jews was a betrayal. The Arabs emphatically rejected the principle of awarding any territory to the Jews.[6] After rejection of an Arab Higher Committee petition to hold an Arab conference in Jerusalem, hundreds of delegates from across the Arab world convened at the Bloudan Conference in Syria on 8 September 1937 and rejected both the partition and establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine.[7] After the rejection of the Peel proposals, the revolt resumed.

On 26 September 1937, the Acting British District Commissioner of Galilee, Lewis Yelland Andrews, was assassinated in Nazareth. The next day Britain outlawed the Arab Higher Committee,[8] and began to arrest its members. On 1 October 1937, the National Bloc, the Reform Party and the Istiqlal Party were dissolved.[9] The Raghib al-Nashashibi sponsored National Defence Party had withdrawn from the AHC soon after its formation and was not subject to the ban. Yaqub al-Ghusayn, Al-Khalidi and Ahmed Hilmi Pasha were arrested and then deported.[9] Jamal al-Husayni escaped to Syria, as did Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni. Amin al-Husayni managed to escape arrest, but was removed from the presidency of the Supreme Muslim Council.[10] The Committee was banned by the Mandate administration and three members (and two other Palestinian leaders) were deported to the Seychelles and the others moved into voluntary exile in neighbouring countries.[11] Awni Abd al-Hadi, who was out of the country at the time, was not allowed to return.

War period - 1938-45[edit]

When the Committee was outlawed in September 1937, six of its members were deported, its president Amin al-Husayni managed to escape arrest and went into exile in Beirut. Jamal al-Husayni escaped to Syria. Three other members were deported to the Seychelles, and other members moved into voluntary exile in neighbouring countries. Al-Hadi, who was out of the country at the time, was not allowed to return. Membership of the outlawed Committee had dwindled to Jamal al-Husayni (acting chairperson), Husayn al-Khalidi (secretary), Ahmed Hilmi Pasha and Emil Ghuri.[2][12] For all practical purposes, the Committee ceased to exist, however, this brought little change in the structure of Arab political life[2] and the Palestinian revolt continued.

With the indications of a new European war on the horizon, and in an endeavor to resolve the inter-communal issues in Palestine, the British government proposed in late 1938 a conference in London of the two Palestinian communities. Some Arab leaders welcomed the proposed London Conference but indicated that the British would need to deal with the disbanded Arab Higher Committee and with Amin al-Husayni. On 23 November 1938, the Colonial Secretary, Malcolm MacDonald, repeated his refusal to allow Amin al-Husayni to be a delegate, but was willing to allow the five Palestinian leaders held in the Seychelles to take part in the conference.[13] The deportees were released on 19 December and allowed to travel to Cairo and then, with Jamal Husseini, to Beirut where a new Arab Higher Committee (or Higher National Committee) was established. Amin al-Husayni was not a member of the Arab delegation but the delegation was clearly acting under his direction.[14] The London Conference commenced on 7 February 1939, but the Arab delegation refused to sit in the same room with the Jewish delegation present, and the conference broke up in March with no success. The British government presented its 1939 White Paper which was also rejected by both sides. The White Paper had, in effect, repudiated the Balfour Declaration.

The deportees were not allowed to return to Palestine until 1941. Amin Al-Husayni spent the war years in occupied Europe, actively collaborating with the Nazi leadership. Amin and Jamal al-Husayni were involved in the 1941 pro-Nazi Rashidi revolt in Iraq. Amin again evaded capture by Britain but Jamal was captured in 1941 and interned in Southern Rhodesia, where he was held until November 1945 when he was allowed to move to Cairo.[15][16] Husayn al-Khalidi returned to Palestine in 1943. Jamal al-Husayni returned to British Palestine in February 1946 as an official of the new Arab Higher Committee, by then recognised by the Mandate administration. Amin Al-Husayni never returned to British Palestine.

Reconstituted Committee - 1945-1948[edit]

After the end of the war, Amin al-Husayni managed to find his way to Egypt and stayed there until 1959, when he moved to Lebanon. On 22 March 1945, the Arab League was formed.

In November 1945, the Arab League reconstituted the Arab Higher Committee comprising twelve members[17] as the supreme executive body of Palestinian Arabs in the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine. The committee was dominated by the Palestine Arab Party and was immediately recognised by Arab League countries. The Mandate government recognised the new Committee two months later. In February 1946, Jamal al-Husayni returned to Palestine and immediately set about reorganising and enlarging the Committee, becoming its acting president. The Istiqlal Party and other nationalist groups objected to these moves, and formed a rival Arab Higher Front.

Following the vote in the United Nations on 29 November 1947 in favour of the Partition Plan for Palestine, the Arab Higher Committee declared a three-day strike and public protest to begin on 2 December 1947, in protest at the vote. The call led to the 1947 Jerusalem riots between 2–5 December 1947, resulting in many deaths and property damage.

Committee Composition[edit]

In 1936, the members of the Committee were:

As of April 1946, the members of the reconstituted Committee were:

In May 1946, the Arab League ordered the dissolution of the AHC and AHR and formed a five-member Arab Higher Executive, under Amin al-Husayni's chairmanship, and based in Cairo. The new AHE consisted of:

In January 1947, it was renamed the "Arab Higher Committee", with Amin al-Husayni as its chairman and Jamal al-Husayni as vice-chairman, and expanded to include the four remaining core members plus Hasan Abu Sa'ud, Izhak Darwish al-Husayni, Izzat Darwaza, Rafiq al-Tamimi and Mu'in al-Madi. This restructuring of the AHC to include additional supporters of Amin al-Husayni was seen as a bid to increase his political power.[21]

Criticism[edit]

Anwar Nusseibeh, a Palestinian nationalist who believed that the best way to advance Palestinian interest was to operate within whichever regime was in power, criticized the Arab Higher Committee's performance during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War as being unaware and ineffective at best and ambivalent at worst to the needs of the Palestinian Arab population. In a personal note, Nusseibeh wrote, "Obviously they thought of the Palestine adventure in terms of an easy walkover for the Arabs, and the only point that seemed to worry them was credit for the expected victory. ... [They] were determined that the Palestine Arabs should at all costs be excluded."[22]

The Arab community, being essentially agrarian, is loosely knit and mainly concerned with local interests. In the absence of an elective body to represent divergences of interest, it therefore shows a high degree of centralization in its political life.[2] The Arab Higher Committee presented a 'common front' for all political parties. There was no opposition party. Decisions taken at the center.[2] Differences of approach and interest, can be discerned, the more so from the strong pressure that is brought against them. In times of crisis, as in 1936-1938, such pressure has taken the form of intimidation and assassination. At present time, nonconformity regarding any important question on which the Arab Higher Committee has pronounced a policy is represented as disloyalty to the Arab nation.[2]

The Committee became politically irrelevant after the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, and banned from the Jordanian occupied West Bank. Instead, the Arab League - led by Egypt - decided to set up the All-Palestine Government in Gaza on 8 September 1948 under the nominal leadership of al-Husayni.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Peel Commission Report Cmd. 5479, 1937, p. 96.
  2. ^ a b c d e f UN special committee, Palestine under the Mandate, 3 September 1947
  3. ^ Norris, Jacob (2008). Repression and Rebellion: Britain's Response to the Arab Revolt in Palestine of 1936–-39. The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 36(1):25–45.
  4. ^ Swedenburg, Ted (1988) "The Role of the Palestinian Peasantry in the Great Revolt 1936–1939". in Islam, Politics, and Social Movements, edited by Edmund Burke III and Ira Lapidus. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-06868-8 pp 189-194 & Marvin E. Gettleman, Stuart Schaar (2003) The Middle East and Islamic world reader, Grove Press, ISBN 0-8021-3936-1 pp 177-181
  5. ^ Pappé Ilan (2004) A History of Modern Palestine: One Land, Two Peoples, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-55632-5
  6. ^ British Policy in Palestine, 1937-8: From the Peel to the Woodhead Report, Bulletin of International News, Vol 15, No. 23 (Nov. 19, 1938), pp.3-7
  7. ^ Mattar, Phillip (2005), Encyclopedia of the Palestinians, Infobase Publishing, p. 104, ISBN 0-8160-5764-8 
  8. ^ Sayigh, 2000, p. 8.
  9. ^ a b A Survey of Palestine - prepared in December 1945 and January 1946 for the information of the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry. Reprinted 1991 by The Institute of Palestine Studies, Washington. Volume II. ISBN 0-88728-214-8. p.949
  10. ^ Levenberg, 1993, p.8
  11. ^ Abcarius, M.F. (nd) Palestine. Through the Fog of Propaganda. Hutchinson. P.197.
  12. ^ David Tal (2004) "Israel-Arab War, 1948 -1949/ Armistices" Routledge ISBN 0-7146-5275-X p. 7
  13. ^ Abcarius, M.F. (nd) Palestine. Through the Fog of Propaganda. Hutchinson. p.204.
  14. ^ Marlowe, John (1946) Rebellion in Palestine. The Cresset Press, London. pp.209-215
  15. ^ Pappe, Ilan (2002) 'The Rise and Fall of a Palestinian Dynasty. The Husaynis 1700-1948. AL Saqi edition 2010. ISBN 978-0-86356-460-4. pp.309,321
  16. ^ Cohen, Aharon (1970) Israel and the Arab World. W.H. Allen. ISBN 0-491-00003-0. p.312
  17. ^ Politics and government in the Middle East and North Africa By Tareq Y. Ismael, Jacqueline S. Ismael, Kamel Abu Jaber, p 303
  18. ^ Text of decree in Haim Levenberg, Military Preparations of the Arab Community in Palestine 1945-1948, Frank Cass London, 1993, p. 7.
  19. ^ Khalaf, 1991, pp. 121-122
  20. ^ Western imperialism in the Middle East 1914-1958 By David Kenneth Fieldhouse, 173
  21. ^ Khalaf, 1991, p. 129-130
  22. ^ Tom Segev One Palestine, Complete: Jews and Arabs Under the British Mandate. Trans. Haim Watzman. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2001. ISBN 0-316-64859-0 p.510

Bibliography[edit]

  • Khalaf, Issa (1991). Politics in Palestine: Arab Factionalism and Social Disintegration, 1939-1948. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-0707-1
  • Levenberg, Haim (1993). Military Preparations of the Arab Community in Palestine: 1945-1948. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-7146-3439-5
  • David Tal (2004) "Israel-Arab War, 1948 -1949/ Armistices" Routledge ISBN 0-7146-5275-X
  • Sayigh, Yezid (2000). Armed Struggle and the Search for State: The Palestinian National Movement, 1949-1993. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-829643-6
  • Segev, Tom. One Palestine, Complete: Jews and Arabs Under the British Mandate. Trans. Haim Watzman. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2001. ISBN 0-316-64859-0