Arab Higher Committee
The Arab Higher Committee (Arabic: اللجنة العليا العربية) or the Higher National Committee was the central political organ of the Arab community of Mandate Palestine. It was established on 25 April 1936, on the initiative of Hajj Amin al-Husayni, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, and comprised the leaders of Palestinian Arab clans and political parties under the mufti's chairmanship. The Committee was outlawed by the British Mandatory administration in September 1937.
A committee of the same name was reconstituted by the Arab League in 1945, but went to abeyance after it proved ineffective during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. It was banned by Jordan in 1948, and sidestepped by Egypt and the Arab League with the formation of the All-Palestine Government in 1948.
Formation - 1936-37
The Higher Arab Committee was formed on 25 April 1936, after the call for a general strike of Arab workers and businesses which marked the start of the 1936-39 Arab revolt. The members of the Committee were:
- Amin al-Husayni, president - member of the al-Husayni clan, the former Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, president of the Supreme Muslim Council
- Raghib al-Nashashibi - member of the Nashashibi clan, which was considered to be political rivals of the al-Husayni clan, and to hold moderate views when compared to the more militant views of the al-Husayni, member of the National Defence Party
- Jamal al-Husayni - related to Amin al-Husayni and chairman of the Palestine Arab Party, member of the Supreme Muslim Council
- Yaqub al-Ghusayn - member and representative of the Youth Congress Party, member of the Supreme Muslim Council, deported
- Abd al-Latif Salah - founder of the National Bloc
- Husayin al-Khalidi - founder and representative of the Reform Party, deported
- Awni Abd al-Hadi - the leader of the Istiqlal (Independence) Party, who was appointed General Secretary
- Ahmed Hilmi Pasha - treasurer, deported
On 15 May 1936, the Committee called for an end to Jewish immigration, the nonpayment of taxes, and endorsed the general strike of Arab workers and businesses, which had begun in April. The strike was called off in October 1936 and the violence abated for about a year while the Peel Commission deliberated and in July 1937 recommended partition of Palestine into Jewish and Arab states. The Arab leadership in Palestine rejected the plan, arguing that the Arabs had been promised independence and granting rights to the Jews was a betrayal. The Arabs emphatically rejected the principle of awarding any territory to the Jews. After rejection of an Arab Higher Committee petition to hold an Arab conference in Jerusalem, hundreds of delegates from across the Arab world convened at the Bloudan Conference in Syria on 8 September 1937 and rejected both the partition and establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine. After the rejection of the Peel proposals, the revolt resumed.
On 26 September 1937, the Acting British District Commissioner of Galilee, Lewis Yelland Andrews, was assassinated in Nazareth. The next day Britain outlawed the Arab Higher Committee, and began to arrest its members. On 1 October 1937, the National Bloc, the Reform Party and the Istiqlal Party were dissolved. The Raghib al-Nashashibi sponsored National Defence Party had withdrawn from the AHC soon after its formation and was not subject to the ban. Yaqub al-Ghusayn, Al-Khalidi and Ahmed Hilmi Pasha were arrested and then deported. Jamal al-Husayni escaped to Syria, as did Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni. Amin al-Husayni managed to escape arrest, but was removed from the presidency of the Supreme Muslim Council. The Committee was banned by the Mandate administration and three members (and two other Palestinian leaders) were deported to the Seychelles and the others moved into voluntary exile in neighbouring countries. Awni Abd al-Hadi, who was out of the country at the time, was not allowed to return.
War period - 1938-45
When the Committee was banned in September 1937 and the administration commenced to round up its members, Amin al-Husayni managed to escape arrest and went into exile in Beirut. Jamal al-Husayni escaped to Syria. Three other members were deported to the Seychelles, and other members moved into voluntary exile in neighbouring countries. Al-Hadi, who was out of the country at the time, was not allowed to return. Membership of the outlawed Committee had dwindled to Jamal al-Husayni (acting chairperson), Husayn al-Khalidi (secretary), Ahmed Hilmi Pasha and Emil Ghuri. For all practical purposes, the Committee ceased to exist.
However, the Palestinian revolt continued. With the indications of a new European war on the horizon, and in an endeavor to resolve the inter-communal issues in Palestine, the British government proposed in late 1938 a conference in London of the two Palestinian communities. Some Arab leaders welcomed the proposed London Conference but indicated that the British would need to deal with the disbanded Arab Higher Committee and with Amin al-Husayni. On 23 November 1938, the Colonial Secretary, Malcolm MacDonald, repeated his refusal to allow Amin al-Husayni to be a delegate, but was willing to allow the five Palestinian leaders held in the Seychelles to take part in the conference. The deportees were released on 19 December and allowed to travel to Cairo and then, with Jamal Husseini, to Beirut where a new Arab Higher Committee (or Higher National Committee) was established. Amin al-Husayni was not a member of the Arab delegation but the delegation was clearly acting under his direction. The London Conference commenced on 7 February 1939, but the Arab delegation refused to sit in the same room with the Jewish delegation present, and the conference broke up in March with no success. The British government presented its 1939 White Paper which was also rejected by both sides. The White Paper had, in effect, repudiated the Balfour Declaration.
The deportees were not allowed to return to Palestine until 1941. Amin Al-Husayni spent the war years in occupied Europe, actively collaborating with the Nazi leadership. Amin and Jamal al-Husayni were involved in the 1941 pro-Nazi Rashidi revolt in Iraq. Amin again evaded capture by Britain but Jamal was captured in 1941 and interned in Southern Rhodesia, where he was held until November 1945 when he was allowed to move to Cairo. Husayn al-Khalidi returned to Palestine in 1943. Jamal al-Husayni returned to British Palestine in February 1946 as an official of the new Arab Higher Committee, by then recognised by the Mandate administration. Amin Al-Husayni never returned to British Palestine.
Reconstituted Committee - 1945-1948
In November 1945, the Arab League reconstituted the Arab Higher Committee comprising twelve members as the supreme executive body of Palestinian Arabs in the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine. The committee was dominated by the Palestine Arab Party and was immediately recognised by Arab League countries. The Mandate government recognised the new Committee two months later. In February 1946, Jamal al-Husayni returned to Palestine and immediately set about reorganising and enlarging the Committee, becoming its acting president. The Istiqlal Party and other nationalist groups objected to these moves, and formed a rival Arab Higher Front.
As of April 1946, the members of the reconstituted Committee were:
- Jamal al-Husayni
- Tewfiq al-Husayni
- Yusif Sahyun
- Kamil al-Dajani
- Emile al-Ghury
- Rafiq al-Tamimi and
- Anwar al-Khatib (all members of or affiliated with the Palestine Arab Party)
- Izzat Tannus (an independent Christian medical doctor)
- Antone Attallah (a member of the Greek Orthodox community)
- Ahmad al-Shukayri (a lawyer from Acre and an Arab nationalist)
- Sami Taha - head of Palestine Arab Workers Society
- Yusif Haykal (the mayor of Jaffa, who was politically independent)
In May 1946, the Arab League ordered the dissolution of the AHC and AHR and formed a five-member Arab Higher Executive, under Amin al-Husayni's chairmanship, and based in Cairo. The new AHE consisted of:
- Amin al-Husayni, as chairman
- Jamal al-Husayni, as vice-chairman
- Husayin al-Khalidi
- Emile al-Ghury
- Abd al-Baqi
In January 1947, it was renamed the "Arab Higher Committee", with Amin al-Husayni as its chairman and Jamal al-Husayni as vice-chairman, and expanded to include the four remaining core members plus Hasan Abu Sa'ud, Izhak Darwish al-Husayni, Izzat Darwaza, Rafiq al-Tamimi and Mu'in al-Madi. This restructuring of the AHC to include additional supporters of Amin al-Husayni was seen as a bid to increase his political power.
Following the vote in the United Nations on 29 November 1947 in favour of the Partition Plan for Palestine, the Arab Higher Committee declared a three-day strike and public protest to begin on 2 December 1947, in protest at the vote. The call led to the 1947 Jerusalem riots between 2-5 December 1947, resulting in many deaths and property damage.
Anwar Nusseibeh, a Palestinian nationalist who believed that the best way to advance Palestinian interest was to operate within whichever regime was in power, criticized the Arab Higher Committee's performance during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War as being unaware and ineffective at best and ambivalent at worst to the needs of the Palestinian Arab population. In a personal note, Nusseibeh wrote, "Obviously they thought of the Palestine adventure in terms of an easy walkover for the Arabs, and the only point that seemed to worry them was credit for the expected victory. ... [They] were determined that the Palestine Arabs should at all costs be excluded."
The Committee became politically irrelevant after the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, and banned from the Jordanian occupied West Bank. Instead, the Arab League - led by Egypt - decided to set up the All-Palestine Government in Gaza on 8 September 1948 under the nominal leadership of al-Husayni.
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