Arabic language influence on the Spanish language

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Great Mosque of Córdoba in Córdoba, Spain. In the 10th century, it was the second-largest mosque in the world.

Arabic influence on the Spanish language has been significant due to the Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula between 711 and 1492 AD.

History[edit]

The Spanish language, also called Castilian, is a Romance language that evolved from the Roman Vulgar Latin in central areas of the Iberian Peninsula, following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the late fifth century. Loan words from Arabic began to filter (be Latinized) into Castilian as the number of Arabic speakers in the fertile lower reaches of the Ebro valley gradually increased in the 8th and 9th centuries.[clarification needed] This lexical influence reached its greatest level during the Christian Reconquista, when the emerging Kingdom of Castile conquered large territories from Moorish rulers in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries. These territories had large numbers of speakers of Arabic, as well as many who spoke local Romance dialects (Mozarabic language) that were heavily influenced by Arabic. Arabic words and their derivatives were also brought into Castilian by Mozarab Christians who emigrated northwards from Al Andalus in times of sectarian violence, particularly during the times of Almohad and Almoravid rule in the 12th and 13th centuries, however there are around 5000 words linked between those two languages (around 3450 of them are spanish effected by the arabic)

The degree to which the Arabic language percolated through the Iberian Peninsula varied enormously from one area to another and is the subject of academic debate. However, it is generally agreed that Arabic was used among the local elites, Muslim and Christian, and that the prevalent vernacular in many areas was Mozarabic, a continuum of Arabic-influenced local Romance dialects. Only the southern Emirate of Granada in the time of the Nasrid dynasty, which had had a large influx of Arabic speakers as the Reconquista advanced, became totally Arabized, or at least no evidence of a local Romance in the late Middle Ages has been found.

Much of the Arabic influence upon Spanish came indirectly through the various Arabized Romance dialects that were spoken in areas under Moorish rule, known today by scholars as Mozarabic. This resulted in Spanish often having both Arabic and Latin derived words with the same meaning. For example, aceituna and oliva (olive), alacrán and escorpión (scorpion), jaqueca and migraña (migraine), alcancía and hucha (piggy bank).

The influence of the Arabized Mozarabic and of Arabic itself is more noticeable in the Spanish dialects from regions with a longer history of Moorish domination than those where it was shorter-lived. For this reason, the dialects of the southern half of the country, known collectively as castellano meridional or Southern Castilian, seem collectively to show a higher degree of preference for Arabisms. Northern Spanish dialects tend to prefer Romance synonyms to terms of Arabic origin, such as the Romance calendario vs. Arabic almanaque, hucha vs. alcancía, espliego vs. alhucema, etc. However, among the southern dialects, Arabic influence does not strictly coincide with the historical retreat of Moorish rule from the Peninsula. For example, Murcian Spanish, a dialect of the south-east, has been shown to contain a much larger number of unique Arabisms than eastern (or upper) Andalusian, which is the dialect of the region with the longest Moorish history.[citation needed] Because Canarian and all Latin American dialects are mainly derived from Southern Castilian, Spanish words of Arabic origin are all present in most varieties of Modern Spanish.

A number of words were also borrowed from Moroccan Arabic principally as a result of Spain's protectorate over Spanish Morocco in the 19th and 20th centuries, although these are of minor significance.

The Spanish spoken in the Canary Islands has also adopted a small number of words from Hassaniya Arabic, principally from Canarian sailors who fish in proximity to the Saharan coast as well as by those Canarians who returned from Western Sahara after the Green March of 1975.

Lexical influence[edit]

The influence of Arabic on the Spanish language is fundamentally lexical but its other influences are also briefly examined in this article. It is estimated that there are about one thousand Arabic roots,[1][2] and approximately three thousand derived words, for a total of around four thousand words[1][3][4] or 8%[5] of the Spanish dictionary - the second largest lexical influence on Spanish after Latin.[6] See Influences on the Spanish language for more on how the number of Arabisms in Spanish has been estimated. The exact number of words of Arabic origin and their derivatives in Spanish is not known, and many words not included on this list are regionalisms: words which are used in certain parts of Spain and/or Latin America but are generally unknown elsewhere.

The high point of Arabic word use in Spanish was in late medieval times and has declined since then, but hundreds are still used in normal conversation. The vast majority of these words are nouns, with a limited number of verbs (seven, little used at present), few adjectives and adverbs, and a one preposition, hasta ("until"), which may reflect that as wide and very important, this influence did not change the structure of the romance language.[7]

List of words of Arabic origin[edit]

This is an open list of Spanish words acquired directly from Classical and Andalusi Arabic, listed in alphabetical order. This list includes the Spanish meaning of the word as well as the Arabic etymology. No fixed standard of Arabic transliteration is used.

Rationale for inclusion

Due to the large influence of Arabic on Spanish vocabulary, this list is relatively restrictive:

  • This list has been edited to include only words which are considered to appertain to the Spanish language and the Hispanic culture and society. Arabic words which may be understood by Spanish speakers, but remain foreign to the Hispanic civilisation such as Ayatolá, Jihad, or Chiita, are excluded from this list.
  • Only words which have passed directly from Arabic are included. Arabic words which entered the Spanish language through other, non-Iberian, Indo-European languages (such as Ayatolá, Beduino, Sofá, or sorbete) are not included. Included as exceptions to this rule are álcali and álgebra, words of Arabic origin which are thought to have entered Spanish through "Low Latin"[8]—as suggested by their initial stress (the Arabic definite article al- is not normally borrowed as a stressed syllable).
  • Generally, only Spanish root words are listed, derivations not being included. For example, aceite (from az-zeit, oil) is included but not aceitería, aceitero, aceitón or aceitoso. On the other hand, aceituna (olive) is included since it derives not from az-zeit but from az-zeituna in Arabic, even though the root of the Arabic word is the same. Aceituno (olive tree), on the other hand, would not be included, since it shares the same root as aceituna. An exception to this rule may be made when the derived word is much more commonly used than the root word, when the meaning of the derivative has no evident connection with the root word or when it is not clear that one is derived from the other (e.g. horro and ahorrar).
  • Words derived from Mozarabic are not included (Mozarabic being fundamentally a Romance language), unless the Mozarabic word is itself derived from classical or Andalusi Arabic.

The etymology and meaning of most of these words can be verified on the site of the Real Academia de la Lengua Española, although a small minority are only available in other sources or past editions of this dictionary.

Many of these words will be unfamiliar to a number of Spanish speakers because their use is restricted to certain regions or they are no longer in regular use.

A (Ababol to Alguaza)[edit]

Ababol, poppy
  1. ababol: Poppy. In Aragon, Navarre, Albacete and Murcia. From Andalusian Arabic Happapáwr, a fusion of the Arabic word Hab (حب) "seed" and the Latin papāver.
  2. abacero: owner of an abacería, small food shop. From Andalusi Arabic *ṣaḥb azzád (صاحب الزاد) "owner of supplies."
  3. abadí: descendant/lineage of Mohammed ben Abad, founder of the Taifa Kingdom of Seville in the 11th century AD. From Andalusi Arabic 'abbādī (عبّادي).
  4. abalorio: cheap jewellery or jewellery beads. From Andalusi Arabic al ballúri لبلوري (made of) glass From Classical Arabic: billawr. Ultimately from Greek βήρυλλος, "beryl"
  5. abarraz: stavesacre (Delphinium staphisagria), a medicinal plant. From Andalusi Arabic ḥább arrás (حب الرأس) "head seeds."
  6. abasí: pertaining to the Abbasid dynasty, which overthrew the Umayyads in the 8th century.
  7. abelmosco: musk seeds, an aromatic plant. From Andalusi Arabic ḥabb al musk (حب المسك) literally "musk seeds." Classical Arabic: ḥabbu 'l musk.
  8. abencerraje: used in expression: "Zegríes y abencerrajes", which means "partisans of opposite interests". The Abencerrajes (in Arabic aban as-sarráǧ) was an Arabic family of the Kingdom of Granada, rivals of the Zegríes in the 15th century.
  9. abenuz: ebony. From Arabic abanus (أبنوس) of the same meaning.
  10. abismal: screw in head of a spear. From Arabic al-mismar (المسمار) "nail."
  11. abitaque: a cut of wood used in construction of a certain shape and dimension. From Arabic Tabaqa (طبقة) "layer" or "intermediate chamber."
  12. acebibe: raisin. From Arabic zabib (زبيب) of the same meaning.
  13. acebuche: wild olive tree, or wood from such a tree. From Andalusi Arabic azzabbúǧ.
  14. aceche: copper, iron or zinc sulphate. From Hisp-Ar. *azzáj, < az-zāj, < From Classical Arabic الزاج az-zāj.
  15. aceifa: Muslim summer military expedition. From Arabic صيف/Saif "summer".
  16. aceite: oil. From Arabic az-zayt (الزيت) "oil."
  17. aceituna: olive. From Arabic الزيتون (az-zaytun) "olive."
  18. aceituní: precious cloth from the Orient. From Arabic az-zaytuni, a possible adaptation of the Chinese city Tsö-Thung.
  19. acelga: Chard. From Arabic as-silqa of the same meaning.
  20. acémila: beast of burden; tax formerly paid in Spain. From Arabic az-zamilah "beast of burden."
  21. acemite: wheat husk; a type of wheat porridge. From Arabic as-samid (السميد).
  22. acenefa see cenefa.
  23. aceña: watermill. From Arabic as-saniyah "the lifter."
  24. acequia: irrigation canal. From Arabic as-saqiyah (الساقية)"the irrigator."
  25. acerola: fruit of the trees Malpighia emarginata or M. glabra, generally found in the Americas, of the Malpighiaceae family. This should be differentiated from the European Service Tree (Sorbus domestica), family Rosaceae. From Arabic zu 'rūrah (زعرورة). Originally from Syriac za‘rārā.
  26. acetre: bucket or cauldron used to extract water from a well; small cauldron used to spray holy water in Christian liturgy. From Arabic as-saTl (السطل).
  27. aciar: (or acial): instrument used to keep farm-animals still by squeezing their ear or snout. From Arabic az-ziyār.
  28. acíbar: aloe (both the plant and its bitter juice); bitterness, grief, distaste. From Arabic aS-Sabr (الصّبر).
  29. acicalar: to clean or polish (Acicalarse in reflexive form); to make oneself look good by combing, shaving etc. From Arabic aS-Siqal, an instrument used for polishing things.
  30. acicate: spurs or the spikes on spurs; incentive. From Arabic (Muzil) as-siqaT "what takes away weaknesses."
  31. acidaque: Muslim dowry. From Arabic as-Sidaq, dowry in Islamic law.
  32. acimut: azimuth, an astrological concept - the angle with which the meridian forms a vertical circle which passes through a point in the globe. From Arabic assumut plural of samt.
  33. ación: handle on the stirrup. From Arabic suyūr (سيور), plural of sayr (سير) "strap."
  34. acirate: line of soil used to separate different plots of land; path between two lines of trees. From Arabic SirāT (صراط).
  35. acitara or citara: thin wall, normally on a bridge. From Arabic sitārah (ستارة), wall to avoid falls.
  36. achacar: to blame. From Arabic tashakkà (تشكى): to complain or to blame.
  37. adafina: pot used by Hebrews to cook. It is buried in embers on Friday night, where it cooks until Saturday. From Arabic: dafina (دفينة) "buried."
  38. adalid: leader; general of Spanish militia. From Arabic dalil (دليل).
  39. adaraja: each of the gaps made by the bricks in a horizonally unfinished wall. From daraja (درجة).
  40. adarga: leather shield. From Arabic daraqah.
  41. adárgama:(rarely used today) flour. From Arabic darmaka.
  42. adarme: small portion of something; type of measurement. From Arabic dirham (درهم).
  43. adarvar: to shock. From Arabic darb (ضرب) "blow."
  44. adarve: wall of a fortress; protection, defense. From Arabic darb (ضرب)
  45. adaza: sorghum. From Arabic duqsah.
  46. adefera: a small, square wall or floor tile. From Arabic add-ddafeera.
  47. adehala: that which is granted or taken as obligatory with the price in the leasing or sale of a property. From Mozarabic ad ihala and originally from Arabic ihala "offering credit."
  48. adelfa: oleander. From Arabic ad-difla (الدفلى) of the same meaning.
  49. ademán: gesticulation which expresses the will to do something. From Arabic aD-Daman (الضمان), literally meaning legal guarantees. The change of meaning is due to the exaggerated promises and gesticulations which were offered in such a plea.
  50. ademe: wooden structures used to strengthen tunnels in mines. From Arabic di'mah.
  51. aderra: cord used to press grapes or olives in order to obtain their juice. From Andalusi Arabic ad-dirra a noose or cord used to punish those who were guilty of fraud.
  52. adiafa: present or refreshment given to sailors when back from a voyage. From Arabic Diyafa (ضيافة) "present of hospitality."
  53. adivas: a disease provoking throat inflammation in animals. From Arabic aD-Dibbah "wolverine" - which is the old Arabic name for this disease.
  54. adive: a type of canid similar to a fox. From Arabic di'b (ذئب).
  55. adobe: brick made from clay. From Arabic at-tuba (الطوبة from Coptic tôbe) of the same meaning, and from ad-dabba.
  56. adoquín: paving-stone, cobble; block. From Arabic Dukkan bench of rock or wood.
  57. ador: in regions where water for irrigation is restricted and shared out by local authorities, irrigation-time for each farm/field. From Arabic dawr.
  58. aduana: customs house; customs. From Arabic diwan (ديوان).
  59. aduar: semi-permanent rural settlement, normally used for Gypsies, bedouins or Amerindians in South America. From Bedouin Arabic duwwar.
  60. adúcar: type of silk made from the outside of the silk-worm's cocoon. From Andalusi Arabic Haduqa.
  61. adufe:tambourine used by Spanish Muslims. From Arabic Duff (دف).
  62. adul: in Morocco, asessor of the Cadí. From Arabic adl "trustworthy person."
  63. adula: see dula.
  64. adunia: (adverb) lots. From Andalusi Arabic addunya, originally from classical Arabic duniya (الدنيا) "the (whole) world."
  65. adutaque: same meaning as adárgama. From Arabic duqaq (دقاق) "fine flour."
  66. afán: effort; desire; zeal. From afanar.
  67. afanar: to steal; to work with passion. From Arabic fanaaʔ (فناء) "extinction", "annihilation through passion."
  68. aguajaque: the whitish resin of fennel. From Arabic aw-washaq "contaminated with water."
  69. agüela: Renta de los derechos sobre préstamos consignados en documento público. From Arabic Hawalah.
  70. ajabeba: Moorish flute. From Classical Arabic sabbabah.
  71. ajaquefa: Roof. Same origin as Azaquefa.
  72. ajaraca: Ornamental loop in Andalusian and Arabic architecture. From Andalusi Arabic Ash-sharakah "loop".
  73. ajarafe: terrace. From Classical Arabic saraf "commanding height."
  74. ajebe: Alum; Para rubber tree. From Arabic as-Shabb.
  75. ajedrea: plant in the genus Satureja (family Lamiaceae), about three decimeters in height, with many branches and dark, narrow leaves. It is cultivated as an ornamental in gardens. From Arabic assariyya or assiriyya, ultimately from Latin satureia.
    Ajedrez, chess
  76. ajedrez: chess. From Arabic ash shatranj (الشطرنج) which is from Persian Shatranj from the Sanskrit Chaturang (four armed) as was the shape of the original chess board in India
  77. ajenuz: nutmeg flower or Roman Coriander (Nigella sativa). From Andalusi Arabic Shanuz and ultimately Classical Arabic Shuniz.
  78. ajimez: bent; window divided in the center by a vertical divider; salient balcony done of wood and with lattice windows. From Arabic samis.
  79. ajomate: pluricellular alga formed by very thin filaments, without knots, bright and of intense green color. It abounds in fresh waters of Spain. From Classical Arabic gumam.
  80. ajonjolí: sesame; herbaceous, annual plant of the family of the Pedaliaceae, a meter high, straight stem, serrate and almost triangular leaves, white or rosy corolla, and fruit with four delicate, yellowish, oily and edible capsules and many seeds. From Classical Arabic gulgulan "sesame."
  81. ajorca: bangle; type of gold hoop, silver or another metal, used by the women to adorn the wrists, arms or the feet. From Classical Arabic shuruk, ultimately from the word shirāk "strap."
  82. ajorrar: To drag, to tow. See Jorro.
  83. ajuagas: equine animal ulcers. From Classical Arabic shuqaq.
  84. ajuar: a collection of household and personal items (clothes, furniture, jewelry etc...) which women in Spain traditionally prepare from a young age for the day in which they marry and move in with their husband. From Arabic Shawar.
  85. alacena: cupboard. From Classical Arabic ẖizānah (خزانة).
  86. alacet: foundation of a building. From Classical Arabic asas (أساس).
    Alacrán, scorpion
  87. alacrán: scorpion. From Classical Arabic aqrab (عقرب) of same meaning.
  88. aladar: Tuft of hair which falls on either side of the head. From Arabic idar.
  89. aladroque: Anchovy. From Andalusi Arabic Al Hatruk, "big mouthed".
  90. alafa: wage; pay. From Classical Arabic alafah "subsistence allowance."
  91. alafia: grace; pardon; mercy. From Andalusian Arabic al afya ultimately from Classical Arabic afiyah (عافية) "health."
  92. alahílca: tapestry to adorn the walls. Perhaps of alailaca from Andalusian Arabic ilaqa, and this of Classical Arabic ilāqah (علاقة) perhaps meaning "hanger."
  93. alajor: Tax which was paid to owners of land where buildings were built. From Arabic Ashur, period of ten days before Easter when debts were paid and alms were given.
  94. alajú: Andalusian cake made of almonds, nuts, pine nuts, bread, spices and cooked honey. From al Hashu "filling".
  95. alamar: A type of decorative attachment which is buttoned on clothing. From Andalusi Arabic Alam, decoration (in clothes).
  96. alambique: alembic. From Arabic al-anbiq "the cup/container holding water", in turn fr Greek.
  97. alambor: Two meanings in Spanish with two different etymologies. 1)Embankment, from Andalusi Arabic Harabul "rim", from classical Arabic verb Hawwala, "to alter". 2) Type of Orange tree. From Catalan l'ambor, singular of els zambors, derived from Andalusi Arabic Azzambu.
  98. alamín: Village judge who decided on irrigation distribution or official who measured weights. From Arabic al amin.
  99. alamud: Steel bar used to close windows. From Arabic amud.
  100. alaqueca: A type of blood-coloured quartz. From Arabic 'aqiq.
  101. alárabe: Arab. From Andalusi Arabic (maintaining the definite article al arabi.
  102. alarde/alardear: To boast/to show off. From Arabic ,show (Alaard العرض)
  103. alarife: 1)Architect 2) Builder (in mining) 2) Astute or quick witted person (in Argentina and Uruguay). From Arabic al 'arif: The expert.
  104. alarije (uva): A type of grape. From Arabic al'aris.
  105. alaroz: Crossbar which divides a window or a door. From Arabic al'arud: Obstacle placed to block entry.
  106. alaroza: Fiancée or newly wed wife. From Arabic Andalusi Arabic al arusa.
  107. alatar: Drug, spice or perfume dealer. From Arabic al attar.
  108. alatrón: Nitrate foam. From Arabic nattrun.
  109. alazán/alazano: Reddish cinnamon coloured. (Used commonly to describe horses). From Arabic al ashab.
  110. alazor: safflower. From Arabic al usfur.
  111. albacara: Wall around a fortress (within which cattle were normally kept. From Arabic bab al-baqqara The cattle door. baqara (بقرة) means "cow" in Arabic.
  112. albacea: executor (of a will). From Andalusi Arabic Sahb al Wassiya (صاحب الوصية); "the owner of the will".
  113. albacora: Albacore. From Arabic al-bakura "premature" or al-bakrah "young camel."
  114. albadena: Type of tunic or silk dress. From Arabic badan: Type of shirt which covers the torso.
  115. albahaca: Basil. From Arabic habaqah.
  116. albahío: Pale yellowish colour (used commonly for cattle). From Arabic bahi: Shining.
  117. albalá: Official document. From Arabic al bara'ah.
  118. albaida: Anthyllis cystoides (Flowering plant). From Arabic al baida: "The white one".
  119. albanega:1) Net used for hair. 2) Rabbit trap. From Arabic al baniqa.
  120. albañal: Sewer. From Andalusi Arabic al ballá: "Swallower".
  121. albañil: Construction worker. From Andalusi Arabic al banni. Originally from classical Arabic banna.
  122. albaquía: The remainder. From Arabic al-baqi (الباقي) of the same meaning.
  123. albarán: Invoice. From Arabic al-bara'ah.
  124. albarazo: Vitiligo. From Andalusi Arabic Al-Barash.
  125. albarda: Pack-saddle. From Arabic al-barda'ah.
  126. albardán: Clown or fool. From Andalusi Arabic albardán: "insolent". Originally from Classical Arabic bardan: "Idiot (Cold headed)".
  127. albardín: Plant endemic to the Spanish steppes, similar in nature and use to Esparto. From Arabic "al-bardi": "papyrus".
  128. albaricoque: Apricot. From Arabic al-barqouq (البرقوق) "plum" or "early-ripe."
  129. albarrada: 1) Same meaning as alcarraza (Clay vase). 2) Stone Wall. From Arabic al-barradah: "the cooler".
  130. albarrán: 1) Farm boy 2) Shepherd 3)Person with no fixed residence. From Andalusi Arabic al-barrani: "Outsider".
  131. albatoza: Small, covered boat. From Arabic al-gattosha: grebe (Due to the Arabic custom of giving names of birds to vessels.
  132. albayalde: Cerrusite. From Arabic al-bayad.
  133. albéitar: Vet. From Arabic al-baytar.
  134. albenda: Decorated white linen. From Arabic al-band.
  135. alberca: Water deposit for irrigation. In Mexico and Honduras it is also the term of choice for swimming pool. From Arabic al-birka.
  136. albérchigo: Apricot tree. From Andalusi Arabic albershiq.
  137. albihar: Mayweed.[disambiguation needed] From Arabic Al-Bahar.
  138. albitana: 1)Fence to protect plants in gardening. 2) Prolongation of the keel or stern post of a ship. From Arabic al-bitana.
  139. alboaire: The craft of decorating churches and domes with "azulejos". From Andalusi Arabic al buhaira: Lagoon.
  140. albogue: Single-reed clarinet used in Spain. From Arabic al-bûq (البوق): The horn or the trumpet.
  141. alboheza: Malva, from Andalusi Arabic Hubayza.
  142. albohol: Morning glory, from Andalusi Arabic al hubuul: "rope".
  143. albollón: Drainage or sewage. From Mozarabic Ballaón and ultimately from Classical Arabic balla'ah.
  144. albóndiga: Meatball; ball. From Arabic al-bunduqa (البندقة) "the ball."
  145. albórbola: Joy, celebratory noise. From Arabic walwalah.
  146. alborga: Matweed sandal. From Arabic albúlḡa
  147. albornía: A type of large vase. From Arabic barniya.
  148. albornoz: Bath-robe. From al-burnos (البرنس); "bathrobe".
  149. alboronía: A type of Andalusian vegetable stew. From Arabic al buranniya "Buran's (stew)." Buran was the wife of Caliph Ma'moun.
  150. alboroque: 1) A present or prize given in exchange of a service. 2) The kind treatment and lavish attention offered and received in anticipation of a commercial transaction. From Andalusi Arabic al-borok, possibly ultimately from Classical Arabic arbun.
  151. alboroto: Riot, joy. Comes from arabism alborozo (joy), from andalusí-arab al-burúz derived from Classical Arabic al-burūz, "military parade previous to a campaign".
  152. alborozo :Extreme chaos or happiness. From Andalusi Arabic Al buruz: Military parade prior to an expedition.
  153. albotín: Turpentine Tree. From Arabic butm of the same meaning.
  154. albricias: 1) Term used to congratulate someone. 2) Present or gift provided to a bringer of good news. From Arabic Bushra.
  155. albudeca: A bad watermelon. From Andalusi Arabic al batiHa.
  156. albufera: Lagoon. From Arabic al buhaira.
  157. albur: This term has a wide range of meanings: 1) Flathead mullet (Spain and Cuba), 2) a card combination in a card game known as Banca, 3) a chance occurrence on which an enterprise hedges its bets, 4) an expression which has a double or hidden meaning (Mexico and Dominican Republic) 4)an amourous affair (Nicaragua), 5) a lie, slander or rumour (Puerto Rico and Honduras). From Arabic al-boori.
  158. alcabala: 1) A tax on commercial transactions. 2) Police checkpoint outside cities and on main roads (Colombia and Venezuela). From Andalusi Arabic al qabala.
  159. alcabor: Hollow interior of a chimeney or oven. From Arabic al qabw.
  160. alcabtea: A type of linen. From Arabic al qubtiya, meaning "egyptian" or "coptic".
  161. alcacel or alcacer: 1) Green Barley 2) A Barley field. From Arabic al qasil.
  162. alcachofa: Artichoke. From al-ẖarshoof of the same meaning.
  163. alcaduz: Water pipe. From Arabic Qâdûs (قادوس) meaning "water-wheel scoop"
  164. alcafar: Limbs of a cuadruped (normally a horse). From Arabic al kafal.
  165. alcahaz: Birdcage. From Arabic qafaṣ (قفص) of the same meaning
  166. alcahuete: Accomplice, a person who helps another in a love affair, specially an illicit one; gossipy person. Alcahuete comes from hispanic arabic alqawwad (the messenger), and this from Classical Arabic qawwad. This "messenger" carried messages to a married woman's lover. By extension it became commonly known as any person who sets up a love affair, generally illicit.
  167. alcaicería: In Granada and other towns of the former Nasarid Kingdom, an establishment where silk farmers presented their produce under the rights reserved to the Muslim rulers. From Andalusi Arabic Al-Qaysariya, originally from the Latin Cesarea.
  168. alcaide: Alcaide is a term which historically referred to various positions of government authority. In modern Spanish it most commonly refers to a prison warden. From Arabic al qa'id, "military commander".
  169. alcalde: Mayor. From Arabic al-qadi (the judge). Qadi comes from the verb qada (to judge).
  170. álcali: alkali. From Arabic qalawi (قلوي) of the same meaning.
  171. alcaller: Clay artisan or his helper. From Andalusi Arabic al qallal.
  172. alcamiz: An obsolete term referring to a list of soldiers. Its etymology is an erroneous transmision of at-taymiz, "Military inspection" in Andalusi Arabic and "Distinction" in Classical Arabic.
  173. alcamonías: Seeds used in spice mixes such as anisseed or cumin. It is also a now obsolete expression referring to the act of hiding things. From Arabic kammuniya, a cumin-based concoction.
  174. alcana: Henna or Henna tree. From Arabic, Hinna.
  175. alcaná: Commercial street or neighbourhood. From Arabic qanaah: Drains or water pipes.
  176. alcancía: Clay money box, penny or piggy bank. From Andalusi Arabic alkanzíyya, derived from classical Arabic kanz: treasure.
  177. alcándara: Hook used to hang clothes or fowl. From Arabic Kandarah.
  178. alcandía: Sorghum. From Andalusi Arabic qatniyya.
  179. alcandora: A type of shirt. From Arabic qandura.
  180. alcanería: A now obsolete rural term for a type of artichoke. From Andalusi Arabic al-qannariya, an Arabic rendering of the Latin cannaria.
  181. alcanfor: Camphor. From Andalusi Arabic Al-Kafur.
  182. alcántara/alcantarilla: drain; From Arabic al-qantarah meaning bridge.
  183. alcaparra: caper. From Andalusian Arabic al-kaparra. Via Latin and Greek.
  184. alcaraván
  185. alcaravea
  186. alcarceña
  187. alcarraza
  188. alcarria:
  189. alcatanes
  190. alcatara (or alquitara)
  191. alcatifa
  192. alcatraz: Cormorant. From Arabic القطرس al-qaṭrās, meaning sea eagle.
  193. alcaucil, artichoke. From Spanish Arabic: alqabsíl[a], that comes from mozarab diminutive kapićéḻa, and this from Spanish Latin: capĭtia, head. (Standard latin, Caput-itis)
  194. alcavela
  195. alcazaba: palace. From Arabic al-qasbah, (قصبة), "the quarter".
  196. alcázar: citadel; palace. From Arabic al-qasr (القصر) "the citadel."
  197. alcazuz (or orozuz)
  198. alcoba: alcove. From Arabic al-qubba "the vault" or "the arch."
  199. alcohela
  200. alcohol: from Arabic al-kuhul (الكحول) fine powder of antimony sulfide used as eye makeup.
  201. alcoholar
  202. alcolla
  203. alcor
  204. alcora
  205. alcorcí
  206. alcorque
  207. alcorza
  208. alcotán
  209. alcotana
  210. alcrebite
  211. alcuacil
  212. alcubilla
  213. alcuña
  214. alcuza
  215. alcuzcuz
  216. alchub
  217. aldaba
  218. aldea/aldeano: Village/Villager.
  219. aldiza
  220. alefriz
  221. aleja
  222. alejija
  223. alema
  224. alerce
  225. aletría
  226. aleve/alevoso/alevosía
  227. aleya
  228. alfaba
  229. alfábega
  230. alfadía
  231. alfaguara: Geyser. From Arabic fawwâra (فوارة): spout, fountain, jet d'eau
  232. alfahar/alfaharería
  233. alfaida
  234. alfajeme
  235. alfajor: Sweet almond shortbread. From Spanish Arabic fašúr, and this from Persian afšor (juice).
  236. alfalfa: alfalfa. From Arabic al-fafaa literally "the best kind of fodder"
  237. alfaneque (two meanings, a type of bird, from Arabic al-fanak and a tent from Berber afarag)
  238. alfanje: A type of sword. From The Arabic al-janyar "dagger"
  239. alfaque
  240. alfaqueque
  241. alfaquí
  242. alfaquín
  243. alfaraz
  244. alfarda (two meanings from al-farda and from al-fardda)
  245. alfarero: potter
  246. alfardón
  247. alfareme
  248. alfarje
  249. alfarrazar
  250. alfaya
  251. alfayate
  252. alfazaque
  253. alféizar: Window ledge. From Arabic al-Hayzar "the one which takes possession".
  254. alfeñique
  255. alferecía
  256. alferez
  257. alferraz
  258. alferza
  259. alficoz
  260. alfil: bishop, in chess. From Arabic al-feel (الفيل) "the elephant."
  261. alfilel/alfiler
  262. alfinge
  263. alfitete
  264. alfiz
  265. alfolí
  266. alfombra (two meanings from al-jumra and al-humra)
  267. alfóncijo: pistachio. From Arabic al-fustuq.
  268. alfóndega
  269. alforfón
  270. alforja: saddlebag. From Arabic al-khurj ( الخرج ) "saddle-bag", portmanteau
  271. alforre
  272. alforrocho
  273. alforza
  274. alfóstigo
  275. alfoz: Neighborhood, district. From Arabic hauz (حوز) meaning "Precinct" or "City limits"
  276. algaba
  277. algadara
  278. algaida
  279. algalaba
  280. algalia
  281. algalife
  282. algar
  283. algara
  284. algarada
  285. algarabía: incomprehensible talk; gabble; gibberish. From Arabic al-'arabiya: "Arabic".
  286. algarivo
  287. algarazo: Short rainstorm. From Arabic al 'ard: "cloud".
  288. algarrada
  289. algarrobo: carob. From Arabic al-kharouba "the carob."
  290. algavaro
  291. algazafán
  292. algazara
  293. algazul
  294. álgebra: algebra. From the name of al-Khwarizmi' book Hisab al-jabr w’al-muqabala "The Calculus of Subtraction and Equality."
  295. algecireño
  296. algodón, "cotton", from Arabic "al-qúţun (قطن)", meaning "the cotton"
  297. algorfa
  298. algoritmo, algorithm, that comes from the name of Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, محمد بن موسى الخوارزمي, famous mathematician.
  299. algorza:
  300. alguacil, "Sheriff", from Arabic "al-wazîr (الوزير)", meaning "Minister"
  301. alguaquida: fuel for a fire. From Arabic waqîda (وقيدة) meaning "Fuel"
  302. alguaza: Window or door hinge.From Arabic wasl "juncture".

A (Alhadida to Azumbre)[edit]

  1. alhadida: Old Spanish term for Hadith.
  2. alhaite: jewel. From Arabic al hayt "string".
  3. alhaja: jewel. From Arabic al-hagah "the valuable thing."
  4. alhamar: Red matress or bed cover. From Arabic hanbal: fur bedcover. also from Arabic Alhamar/Al-Ahmar (the red)
  5. alhamel: (Andalusian Spanish) Beast of burden or human porter. From Arabic hammal.
  6. alhamí: Stone bench normally covered with azulejos. Refers to the Grenadine town of Alhama.
  7. alhandal: Colocynth. From Arabic Alhandhal.
  8. alhanía: 1) Bedroom 2) cupboard 3) A type of small mattress. From Andalusi Arabic al haniyya: Alcove.
  9. alhaquín: Weaver. From Arabic plural Al Hayikeen. Weavers.
  10. alharaca: Violent reaction to a small issue. From Arabic haraka.
  11. alhavara: Flour. From Arabic huwara.
  12. alhelí: Aegean Wallflower. From Arabic hiri.
  13. alheña: Spanish word for Henna and the plant from which it is derived.
  14. alholva:Fenugreek. From Arabic hulbah-
  15. alhorí: Same meaning and etymology as more commonly used term Alfolí.
  16. alhorre: 1) Feaces of newly born child. From Arabic hur: feaces. 2)Skin rash common in babies. Commonly used in expression yo te curaré el alhorre when threatening to beat a child. From Arabic Shakatu el hurr, skin infection.
  17. alhorría: (or ahorría): Expression used for when a slave is freed. From Arabic al-hurriya: Freedom.
  18. alhucema: Lavender. From Arabic: huzama.
  19. alhuceña: Woodruff. From Arabic uhshina.
  20. aliara: Drinking horn. From Andalusian Arabic al fiyara.
  21. alicante: Vernacular name of two different types of posionous snakes present in Spain and Northern Mexico respectively. From Arabic al aqrab: scorpion.
  22. alicatar: To till. From Arabic qat "to cut".
  23. alicate: Pliers. From Arabic laqaat: "tongs.
  24. alidada: Alidade. From Andalusian Arabic: al'idada.
  25. alifa: (Used in Andalusian and Mexican Spanish) Sugar cane which is two years old. From Arabic halifa: "successor".
  26. alifafe: 1)Light indisposition. 2) Type of tumor which develops on the legs of horses from excessive work. From Arabic: ifash: Sowing bag.
  27. alifara
  28. alijar
  29. alimara
  30. alioj
  31. alirón
  32. alizace
  33. alizar
  34. aljaba
  35. aljabibe
  36. aljama
  37. aljamía/aljamiado: Medieval Romance Spanish or Mozarabic written in Arabic script.
  38. aljaraz
  39. aljarfa
  40. aljébana
  41. aljerife
  42. aljez
  43. aljibe
  44. aljófar/aljofarar
  45. aljofifa
  46. aljor (or aljez)
  47. aljuba
  48. aljuma
  49. añagaza
  50. almacabra
  51. almacén: deposit, dry goods store. From Arabic al-majzan of makhzan (المخزن) "the storage" or "the depot."
  52. almacería
  53. almáciga
  54. almadén
  55. almádena
  56. almadía
  57. almadraba: Tuna fishing in Andalusia and particularly in Cadiz province. From Andalusi Arabic Al-madraba, "place where one beats something or fights", in reference to the fishing technique.
  58. almadraque
  59. almagazén
  60. almagra
  61. almahala
  62. almaizar
  63. almaja
  64. almajaneque
  65. almajar
  66. almajara
  67. almalafa
  68. almanaque: almanac (see etymology section in the article for further discussion). From Arabic al-manakh (المناخ) "the climate." Or possibly from Greek almenichiakon "calendar."
  69. almacebe
  70. almarada
  71. almarbate
  72. almarcha
  73. almarjo
  74. almarrá
  75. almarraja or almarraza
  76. almártaga (two meanings, from al-marta'a and al martak)
  77. almástica
  78. almatroque
  79. almazara: olive press. From Arabic "al-ma3Sara" (المعصرة), "juicer".
  80. almazarrón
  81. almea (two meanings, from almay'a and 'alima)
  82. almejía
  83. almenara (two meanings, from al-manara and al-minhara)
  84. almez
  85. almíbar
  86. almicantarat
  87. almijar
  88. almijara
  89. almijarra
  90. almimbar
  91. alminar
  92. almiraj/almiraje/almiral
  93. almirez
  94. almirón: Dandelion. From Andalusian Arabic: al Mirun.
  95. almizate
  96. almizcle/almizque
  97. almocadén
  98. almocafre
  99. almocárabe
  100. almoceda
  101. almocrebe
  102. almocrí
  103. almodón
  104. almófar
  105. almofariz
  106. almofía
  107. almofrej/almofrez
  108. almogama
  109. almogávar
  110. almohada: Pillow, from Arabic al-makhada with the same meaning.
  111. almohade
  112. almoharrefa
  113. almohaza
  114. almojábana
  115. almojama (see mojama)
  116. almojarife
  117. almojaya
  118. almona
  119. almoneda
  120. almoraduj/almoradux
  121. almorávide:
  122. almorí
  123. almoronía: See alboronía.
  124. almotacén
  125. almotalafe
  126. almotazaf/almotazán
  127. almozala/almozalla
  128. almud
  129. almuédano
  130. almuerzo
  131. almunia
  132. alpargata
  133. alpechín
  134. alpiste
  135. alquería: farmhouse. From Arabic al-qaria "the village."
  136. aloque
  137. aloquín
  138. alpargata
  139. alquequenje
  140. alquería
  141. alquermes
  142. alquerque (Two meanings from al-qirq and al-qariq)
  143. alquez
  144. alquezar
  145. alquibla
  146. alquicel
  147. alquilar: Rent.
  148. alquimia
  149. alquinal
  150. alquitira
  151. alquitrán
  152. alrota
  153. altabaca
  154. altamía
  155. altramuz
  156. alubia: pea bean
  157. aludel
  158. aluquete/luquete
  159. alloza
  160. amán
  161. ámbar
  162. ámel
  163. amín
  164. amirí
  165. anacalo
  166. anacora
  167. anafaga
  168. anafalla/anafaya
  169. anafe
  170. anaquel
  171. andorra
  172. andrajo
  173. anea
  174. anejir
  175. anorza
  176. anúteba
  177. añacal
  178. añacea/añacear
  179. añafea
  180. añafil
  181. añagaza
  182. añascar
  183. añazme
  184. añicos
  185. añil (ultimately from Sanskrit nilah "dark blue")
  186. arabí
  187. arancel
  188. arbellón/arbollón
  189. archí
  190. argadillo
  191. argamandel
  192. argamula
  193. argán
  194. argel
  195. argolla
  196. arguello/arguellarse
  197. arije
  198. arimez
  199. arjorán
  200. arnadí
  201. arrabá
  202. arrabal
  203. arracada
  204. arráez
  205. arrayán
  206. arrecife
  207. arrejaque/arrejacar
  208. arrelde
  209. arrequife
  210. arrequive
  211. arriate
  212. arricés
  213. arroba
  214. arrobda
  215. arrocabe
  216. arrope
  217. arroz: Rice.
  218. áscar/áscari
  219. asequi
  220. asesino: assassin. From Arabic hashshshin "someone who is addicted to hashish (marijuana)." Was originally used to refer to the followers of the Persian Hassan-i-Sabah (حسن صباح), the Hashshashin.
  221. atabaca
  222. atabal
  223. atabe
  224. atacar : to tie, to button up. From Andalusi Arabic tákka, originally from classical Arabic tikkah, ribbon used to fasten clothes.
  225. atacir
  226. atafarra/ataharre
  227. atafea
  228. atahona
  229. atahorma
  230. ataifor
  231. ataire
  232. atalaya
  233. atalvina
  234. atambor
  235. atanor
  236. atanquía
  237. ataracea
  238. atarazana
  239. atarfe
  240. atarjea
  241. atarraga
  242. atarraya
  243. ataúd: Coffin.
  244. ataujía
  245. ataurique
  246. atifle
  247. atijara
  248. atíncar
  249. atoba
  250. atocha
  251. atracae
  252. atoque
  253. atríaca/atriaca
  254. atún: Tuna.
  255. atutía
  256. auge: Surge/rise.
  257. aulaga
  258. avería
  259. ayatolá
  260. azabache
  261. azabara
  262. azacán
  263. azacaya
  264. azache
  265. azafate/azafata
  266. azafrán: saffron. From Arabic za'firan of the same meaning. Perhaps from safra "yellow."
  267. azahar: White flower, especially from the orange tree. From Spanish Arabic azzahár, and this from Classic Arabic zahr, flowers
  268. azalá
  269. azamboa
  270. azándar
  271. azaque: from Arabic zakāt (Arabic: زكاة [zæˈkæː], "that which purifies"[1]). See article zakat.
  272. azaquefa: Covered portico or patio. From Andalusi Arabic assaqifa, portico.
  273. azar: luck; chance. From Arabic az-zahr "the dice." or North African Arabic az-zhar "luck".
  274. azarbe
  275. azarcón
  276. azarja
  277. azarnefe
  278. azarote
  279. azófar
  280. azofra/azofrar
  281. azogue (two meanings: from az-za'uq and from as-suq)
  282. azolvar
  283. azorafa
  284. azote: Smacking, beating, scourge. From Arabic Sawt.
  285. azotea: Flat roof or terrace. From Andalusi Arabic assutáyha, diminutive of sath, terrace in classical Arabic.
  286. azoya
  287. azúcar: sugar. From Arabic (سكر) sukkar of the same meaning.
  288. azucarí
  289. azucena
  290. azuche
  291. azud
  292. azufaifa/azufaifo
  293. azul: Blue. Derived from Arabic Azraq (ازرق).
  294. azulaque (or zulaque)
  295. azulejo
  296. azúmbar
  297. azumbre: Measurement for liquids equivalent to around two litres. From Del Andalusi Arabic aTTúmn, and this from classical Arabic: Tum[u]n, "an eighth".

B[edit]

  1. babismo: Babism. From Arabic باب "door."
  2. babucha: Slippers. From Arabic Baboush, derived from Persian "Papoosh" literally meaning "foot covering". The transition from Persian "p" to Arabic "b" occurs due to lack of the letter p in the Arabic alphabet. "Pa-" in Persian means foot and "poosh" means covering. Persian "pa" or foot shares the same root with other Indo-European languages, i.e. Latin pede[m], French "pied", Spanish "pie" and "pata",etc.
  3. badal: Cut of meat from the back and ribs of cattle, close to the neck. From Andalusi Arabic bad'a "Calf muscle" derived from classical Arabic bad'ah "piece".
  4. badán: Trunk of an animal. From Arabic badan.
  5. badana: 1) Sheepskin, 2) hat lining 3) Lazy person. From Arabic bitana, "lining".
  6. badea: 1) Watermelon or Melon of bad quality. 2) Insipid cucumber 3) Weak person 4) Unimportant thing. From Arabic battiha: "bad melon".
  7. badén: Dip in land, road, sidewalk or ford. From Arabic batin: Sunken (land).
  8. bagarino: Free or hired sailor, as opposed to a press-ganged or enslaven one. Same origin as baharí.
  9. bagre: a freshwater fish that has no scales and has a chin. From Arabic baghir or baghar.
  10. baharí: Bird of prey. From Arabic bahri: "from the sea".
  11. baja: pasha, Turkish officer or governor of high rank. From Arabic basha ultimately from Turkish pasha of the same meaning.
  12. baladí: 1) Unimportant thing or matter. 2) Something of the land our country. From Arabic baladiy "From the country".
  13. balaj/balaje: Purple ruby. From Arabic Balahshi: From Balahshan (region in central Asia where these stones are found).
  14. balate
  15. balda (and baldío)
  16. baldar
  17. balde: 1)Free. 2) without cause or 3) in vain. from Arabic batil "false" or "useless."
  18. bancal
  19. baño
  20. baraka
  21. barbacana
  22. barcino
  23. bardaje
  24. bardoma/bardomera
  25. barragán
  26. barrio/barriada: Area, district or neighbourhood in a town. From Arabic barri "outside".
  27. bata (either from Arabic batt of French ouate)
  28. batán
  29. batea
  30. baurac
  31. bayal
  32. belez
  33. bellota: acorn, the fruit or seed of the oak tree. From Arabic balluta of the same meaning.
  34. ben
  35. benimerín
  36. benjui
  37. berberí
  38. berberís
  39. bereber
  40. berenjena/berenjenal
  41. bezaar/bezoar
  42. biznaga
  43. bocací
  44. bodoque/bodocal
  45. bófeta
  46. bórax
  47. borní
  48. boronía
  49. botor
  50. bujía
  51. bulbul
  52. burche
  53. buz
  54. buzaque

C[edit]

  1. cabila: tribe of Berbers or Bedouins. From Arabic qabila "tribe."
  2. cachera
  3. cadí
  4. cadira
  5. café: coffee. From qahwa (قهوة) of the same meaning.
  6. cáfila
  7. cafiz (or cahiz)
  8. cafre
  9. caftán
  10. cáid (same origin as alcaide)
  11. caimacán
  12. cala
  13. calabaza: Pumpkin or squash. From Arabic qerabat (قربات), plural of qerbah(قربة), meaning wineskin.
  14. calafate/calafatear
  15. calahorra
  16. calí (same root as álcali)
  17. cálibo/calibre
  18. cambuj
  19. camocán
  20. canana-cartridge belt
  21. cáncana/cancanilla
  22. cáncano
  23. cande (in azúcar cande)
  24. canfor
  25. caraba
  26. cárabe
  27. cárabo: owl; dog. Taken from qaraab and kalb "dog", respectively.
  28. caracoa
  29. caramida
  30. caramuzal
  31. caravana
  32. caravasar
  33. carcajada/carcajear
  34. carcax
  35. carmen/carme: From Spanish Arabic kárm, and this from Classic Arabic karm, vine.
  36. carmesí: crimson. From quirmizi
  37. carmín
  38. carraca
  39. carrafa
  40. cártama/cártamo
  41. catán
  42. catifa
  43. cazurro
  44. cebiche
  45. cebtí
  46. ceca
  47. cedoaria
  48. cegatero
  49. cegrí
  50. ceje
  51. celemí/celemín/celeminero
  52. cenacho
  53. cendolilla
  54. cenefa
  55. ceneque
  56. cení
  57. cenia
  58. cenit
  59. cequí
  60. cerbatana
  61. cero: zero. From sifr of the same meaning.
  62. cetís
  63. ceutí
  64. chafariz
  65. chafarote
  66. chaleco
  67. charrán
  68. chifla
  69. chilaba (from Moroccan Arabic)
  70. chiquero
  71. chirivía
  72. chisme
  73. chivo
  74. choz
  75. chupa
  76. chuzo
  77. cianí
  78. cibica
  79. cica
  80. cicalar
  81. cicatear
  82. cicatero (cicatero has a different root to cicatear)
  83. ciclán
  84. ciclar
  85. ciclatón
  86. cid
  87. cifaque
  88. cifra/cifrar
  89. címbara
  90. cimboga
  91. cimitarra
  92. circón
  93. citara
  94. civeta/civeto
  95. coba/cobista
  96. cofa
  97. coima
  98. coime
  99. colcótar
  100. cora
  101. Corán: from qur'aan (قرآن), the Muslim holy book.
  102. corbacho
  103. corma
  104. cotonía
  105. cubeba
  106. cúrcuma
  107. curdo
  108. cuscuta

D, E[edit]

  1. dado: die (cube or stamp). From Classical Arabic a'dad "numbers."
  2. daga - dagger
  3. dahír
  4. daifa
  5. dante
  6. darga (or adarga)-shield
  7. dársena-dock/basin
  8. daza
  9. derviche
  10. descafilar
  11. destartalado
  12. dey
  13. dirham
  14. diván-divan/couch
  15. droga-drug
  16. druso
  17. dula/dular
  18. edrisí
  19. ejarbe
  20. elche
  21. elemí
  22. embelecar/embeleco
  23. emir (or amir)
  24. encaramar
  25. enchufar/enchufe: 1) To plug in/plug; 2) To connect, 3) to offer an unmerited job or a post through personal connections. From Andalusi Arabic Juf derived from Classical Arabic Jawf: stomach; internal cavity.
  26. engarzar-to set/thread
  27. enjalma
  28. enjarje
  29. enjeco
  30. escabeche: Pickle or marinade. From Arabic as-sukbaj. Originally from Persian Sekba.
  31. escafilar (see descafilar)
  32. escaque/escaquear
  33. espinaca-spinach
  34. exarico

F, G[edit]

  1. faca
  2. falagar
  3. falca
  4. falleba
  5. faltriquera-pocket
  6. falúa/faluca
  7. fanega/hanega
  8. fanfarrón
  9. faranga (or haragán), lazy, idler, loafer
  10. farda
  11. fardacho
  12. farfán
  13. fárfara
  14. farnaca
  15. farota
  16. farruco: Insolent or "cocky". From Andalusian Arabic Farrouj: Cock.
  17. felús
  18. fetua
  19. fez
  20. fideo
  21. filelí
  22. foceifiza
  23. fondolí
  24. fondac/fonda
  25. foz
  26. fulano, "any one" without naming, X of people. Arabic: Fulan.
  27. fustal
  28. fustete
  29. gabán
  30. gabela
  31. gacel/gacela
  32. gafetí
  33. galacho
  34. galanga
  35. galbana
  36. gálibo
  37. galima
  38. gandula/gandula
  39. gañan
  40. garbi: Sirocco wind.
  41. garama
  42. garbino
  43. gardacho
  44. garfa
  45. gárgol
  46. garra
  47. garrafa
  48. garrama
  49. garroba
  50. gazpacho
  51. gilí
  52. gomer
  53. granadí
  54. grisgrís
  55. guadamací
  56. guájara
  57. guájete
  58. guala
  59. guarismo
  60. guifa
  61. guilla
  62. gumía
  63. gurapas

H, I[edit]

  1. habiz: Donation of real estate under certain conditions to muslim religious institutions. From Classical Arabic: ḥabīs: amortized.
  2. habús: Same meaning as "Habiz" is Morroco. From Arabic ḥubūs: Property belonging to the deceased used for charity.
  3. hachís: Hashish. From Classical Arabic Hashish": Grass.
  4. hacino: Miser or From Andalusian Arabic ḥazīn".
  5. hadruba: Hump (on someone's back): From Andalusian Arabic ḥadúbba.
  6. hafiz: Guard or Minder. From Andalusian Arabic ḥāfiẓ.
  7. hálara: (Same meaning and etymology as "Fárfara") 1) Interior lining of egg. 2) Coldsfoot. Form Andalusian Arabic: falḡalála.
  8. hamudí: Descendants of Ali Ben Hamud, founders of the Málaga and Algericas Taifas during the 11th century.
  9. haragán: 1) Someone who refuses to work. 2) In Cuba and Venezuela, a type of mop. From Andalusian Arabic: khra kan: "Was shit".
  10. harambel: See "arambel".
  11. harbar
  12. harén
  13. harma
  14. harón
  15. Hasaní
  16. hasta: "Until". From Arabic hatta (same meaning). Influenced by Latin phrase 'ad ista'[9]
  17. hataca
  18. hazaña
  19. he: Adverb used in following manner: "he aquí/ahí/allí": Here it is/there it is. From Arabic haa.[9]
  20. hégira
  21. hobacho/hobacha
  22. holgazán: Lazy person. From Arabic Kaslan. Influenced by Holgar.
  23. holgar
  24. hoque/oque
  25. horro/horra
  26. imam, imán
  27. imela
  28. islam

J, K[edit]

  1. jabalí : Wild Boar. From Arabic jebeli: From the mountains. Perhaps originally from Khanzeer Jebelí: Mountain Pig.
  2. jabalón
  3. jábega
  4. jabeca
  5. jabeque
  6. jabí : A type of apple and type of grape. From Andalusi Arabic sha‘bí, a type of apple.
  7. jácara
  8. jácena
  9. jacerino
  10. jadraque
  11. jaez
  12. jaguarzo
  13. jaharí
  14. jaharral
  15. jaharrar
  16. jaima
  17. jaique
  18. jalear
  19. jalma (or enjalma)
  20. jaloque
  21. jamacuco
  22. jametería
  23. jámila
  24. japuta
  25. jaque
  26. jaqueca: Migraine. From Arabic Shaqiqa, with same meaning.
  27. jáquima
  28. jara
  29. jarabe: Syrup. Usually in the context of cough syrup or linctus.
  30. jaraíz
  31. jarcha
  32. jareta
  33. jaricar
  34. jarifo/jarifa
  35. jarquía
  36. jarra: Pitcher or other pot with handle(s). From ǧarrah, same as english jar.
  37. jatib
  38. jazarino/jazarina
  39. jazmín: jasmine. From Arabic yasmin then from Persian word the same word
  40. jebe
  41. jeliz
  42. jemesía
  43. jeque: From Arabic shaikh or sheikh, older
  44. jerife: From Arabic sharif, noble, respected.
  45. jeta: Snout, face, cheek (in both literal and figurative sense). From Arabic khatm: "snout".
  46. jifa
  47. jinete
  48. jirafa: giraffe. From ziraffa of the same meaning.
  49. jirel
  50. jofaina: a wide and shallow basin for domestic use. From ǧufaynah.
  51. jofor
  52. jorfe
  53. joroba
  54. jorro
  55. juba/aljuba/jubón
  56. julepe
  57. jurdía
  58. jurel
  59. kermes

L, M[edit]

  1. laca: resinous substance tapped from the Lacquer Tree. From Arabic lak, taken from Persian lak, ultimately from Sanskrit laksha literally meaning "one hundred thousand" referring to the large number of insects that gather and sap out all the resin from the trees.
  2. lacre
  3. lapislázuli: lapis lazuli, a deep blue mineral. From Arabic lazaward (لازورد) from Persian lagvard or lazward, ultimately from Sanskrit rajavarta literally meaning "ringlet of the king."
  4. latón: brass. From Arabic latun from Turkish altın "gold."
  5. laúd: lute. From Arabic al 'ud (العود) "the lute."
  6. lebeche: Southeasterly wind on the Mediterranean coast of Spain. From Andalusi Arabic Labash.
  7. lebení: a Moorish beverage prepared from soured milk. From Arabic labani (لباني) "dairy."
  8. leila: from Arabic layla (ليلة) "night."
  9. lelilí: Shouts and noise made by moors when going into combat or when celebrating parties. From la illaha ila allah( لا إله إلا الله): There is no god but Allah; Ya leilí (ياليلي) : Night of mine; ya 'ayouni (يا عيوني) : My eyes.
  10. lima: lime. From Arabic limah of the same meaning.
  11. limón: lemon. From laymoon (ليمون), derived from the Chinese word limung.
  12. loco: crazy. From Arabic lawqa "fool."
  13. macabro
  14. macsura
  15. madraza
  16. magacén
  17. magarza/magarzuela
  18. maglaca
  19. maharon/maharona
  20. maharrana/marrana/marrano
  21. mahozmedín
  22. maimón
  23. majareta
  24. majzén
  25. mamarracho
  26. mameluco
  27. mamola
  28. mandeísmo
  29. mandil
  30. maquila
  31. marabú
  32. maravedí
  33. marcasita
  34. marchamo
  35. márfega
  36. marfil
  37. marfuz/a
  38. margomar
  39. marjal
  40. marlota
  41. marojo
  42. maroma
  43. marrano pig; cf. Arabic muharram "forbidden".
  44. marras
  45. márraga
  46. masamuda: (adj) Individual from the Berber Masmuda tribe, from which originate the Almohades, a movement which ruled Spain and North Africa in the 12th century. From Arabic: Masamuda.
  47. matafalúa
  48. mártaga
  49. máscara
  50. matarife
  51. mate
  52. matraca
  53. matula
  54. mauraca
  55. mazapán
  56. mazarí
  57. mazarrón
  58. mazmodina
  59. mazmorra: Dungeon. From Arabic matmura "silo".
  60. mazorca: corn cob; roll of wool or cotton. From Andalusi Arabic: Masurqa, derived from classical Arabic Masura (ماسورة) : a tube used as a bobbin (sewing) .
  61. meca: Place which is attractive because of a particular activity. From Arabic Mekkah(مكة).
  62. mechinal
  63. mejala
  64. mejunje
  65. mendrugo
  66. mengano/mengana: Expression of similar meaning as fulano or zutano, used always after the former but after the latter, meaning "whoever". From Arabic man kan meaning "whoever".
  67. mequetrefe: Nosy or useless person. From Andalusi Arabi qatras meaning person of boastful demeanor.
  68. mercal
  69. metical
  70. mezquino
  71. mía: A military term, formerly designating a regular native unit composed of 100 men in the Spanish protectorate of northern Morocco; by analogy, any colonial army. From Arabic Mi'ah: one hundred(مئة).
  72. mihrab:
  73. miramamolín
  74. moaxaja
  75. mogataz
  76. mogate
  77. moharra
  78. moharracho
  79. mohatra
  80. mohedal
  81. mohino
  82. mojama (originally almojama): Delicacy of phoenician origin from the region of Cadiz. It consists of filleted salt-cured tuna. From the Arabic al mushama: "momified or waxed".
  83. mojí
  84. momia
  85. mona
  86. monfí
  87. morabito
  88. moraga
  89. morapio
  90. mozárabe
  91. mudéjar
  92. muftí
  93. mujalata
  94. mulato: Likely from Muwallad, as with the Muladi. Walad (ولد ) means, "descendant, offspring, scion; child; son; boy; young animal, young one". According to DRAE, from mulo (mule), in the sense of hybrid.
  95. mulquía
  96. muslim / muslime: (Adjective) Muslim.[10] A rare alternative to musulmán. From Arabic Muslim (مسلم).

N, O, P, Q[edit]

  1. nabí: Prophet among arabs. From Arabic nabiy.
  2. nacar: Innermost of the three layers of a seashell. From Catalan nacre, derived from Andalusi Arabic naqra, small drum.
  3. nácara: Type of small metallic drum used historically by the Spanish cavalry. Same etymology as nacar.
  4. nadir: Nadir, the point on the celestial sphere opposite the zenith directly below the observer. From nadheer.
  5. nádir: In Morocco, administrator of a religious foundation.
  6. nagüela: Small hut for human habitation. From Andalusi Arabic nawalla: hut.
  7. naife: High quality diamond. From Andalusi Arabic nayif. Originally from classical Arabic na'if: excellent.
  8. naipe: Playing card. From Catalan naíp. Originally from Arabic ma'ib.
  9. naranja: Orange. from Arabic nāranja, fr Persian nārang, fr Sanskrit nāranga, fr a Dravidian language akin to Tamil naŗu "fragrant".
  10. narguile
  11. natrón
  12. nazarí: Related to the Nasrid kingdom or dynasty of Granada.
  13. nenúfar: Water-lily. From Arabic naylufar from Persian nilofer, niloofar, niloufar.
  14. nesga:
  15. noria: Watermill, Ferris wheel. From Arabic na'urah.
  16. nuca: Nape of the neck. From Arabic nuḫā' نخاع ، منخع, via Medieval Latin nucha.
  17. ojalá: "I hope"; "I wish that...". From law šhaʾ allāh "God willing." [11]
  18. ¡ole! (or olé): The most famous expression of approval, support or encouragement, possibly comes from wa-llah و الله, by Allah!
  19. omeya: adj. Related to the Umayyad.
  20. orozuz
  21. ox: Expression to scare away wild and domesticated birds. From Andalusi Arabic Oosh.
  22. papagayo
  23. quermes
  24. quilate/quirate: Carat or Karat. From Andalusi Arabic Qirat.
  25. quilma
  26. quina
  27. quintal: weight unit of about 46 kg. In its current use under the metric system, it represents 100 kg. From Andalusi Arabic Qintar, through Syriac and ultimately Latin.

R, S, T[edit]

  1. rabadán
  2. rabal
  3. rabazuz
  4. rabel
  5. rábida
  6. rafal
  7. rafe
  8. ragua
  9. rahez
  10. ramadán
  11. rambla
  12. rauda
  13. rauta
  14. real: Military encampment; plot where a fair is organized; (in Murcia region) small plot or garden. From Arabic rahl: camping.
  15. rebato
  16. rebite
  17. recamar
  18. recua
  19. redoma
  20. rehala
  21. rehalí
  22. rehén: Hostage or captive. From Arabic رهينة, captive, ransom.
  23. rejalgar: realgar. From Andalusi Arabic reheg al-ghar: "powder of the cave"
  24. requive
  25. resma
  26. retama
  27. rincón: Corner. From Andalusi Arabic rukan, derived from classical Arabic Rukn.
  28. robda
  29. robo (or arroba)
  30. roda
  31. romí/rumí
  32. ronzal
  33. roque
  34. sajelar
  35. salema
  36. sandía: Watermelon. From Arabic Sindiya "from Sindh (province of Pakistan)".
  37. sarasa: Homosexual or effeminate man. From "Zaraza".
  38. sarraceno
  39. sebestén
  40. secácul
  41. serafín
  42. siroco
  43. sofí
  44. sófora
  45. soldán
  46. soltaní
  47. sufí
  48. sura
  49. tabal (or atabal)
  50. tabaque
  51. tabefe
  52. tabica
  53. tabique
  54. taca
  55. tafurea
  56. tagarino/tagarina
  57. tagarnina
  58. taha
  59. tahalí
  60. tahona
  61. tahúr
  62. taifa: Refers to an independent Muslim-ruled principality, an emirate or petty kingdom, of which a number formed in the Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031. Used in numerous expressions. Can also mean 1) a faction 2) a group of people of ill judgement. 3) un reino de Taifas (a kingdom of Taifas) can also refer to a chaotic or disorderly state of affairs. From classical Arabic Ta'ifah: faction.
  63. tajea
  64. talco
  65. talega
  66. talvina
  67. támara
  68. tamarindo
  69. tambor
  70. tara
  71. taracea
  72. taraje
  73. tarasí
  74. tarbea
  75. tarea: Task. From Arabic ṭaríḥaand root(طرح), "to throw".
  76. tareco
  77. tarida
  78. tarifa
  79. tarima
  80. tarquín
  81. tarraya
  82. taza: cup. From Tasa.
  83. tértil
  84. tíbar
  85. tochibí
  86. tomín
  87. toronja
  88. toronjil
  89. trafalmejas
  90. truchimán/na
  91. trujamán/na
  92. tuera
  93. tumbaga
  94. Tunecí
  95. turbit
  96. turquí (in Azul Turquí)
  97. tutía (or atutía)

V, X, Y, Z[edit]

  1. vacarí: from Arabic baqari (بقري) "bovine."
  2. valencí: Uva Valencia. A type of grape from Murcia region in South East Spain.
  3. velmez: from Arabic malbas (ملبس) "clothing."
  4. verdín: Spontaneous growth of grass or sprouting. From Arabic bardi (Same etymology as albardín). Influenced by Spanish word "Verde".
  5. visir: vizier. From Arabic wazir (وزير) "minister."
  6. yébel: from Arabic jabal; "mountain"
  7. zabalmedina: in the Middle Ages, judge with civil and criminal jurisdiction in a city. From Arabic Sahib al Medina "Chief of the City."
  8. zabarcera: women who sells fruits and other food. Same origin as abacero
  9. zabazala: imam who leads Islamic prayer. From Arabic SaHb aS-Salah "Leader of prayer."
  10. zabazoque: same meaning as almotacén. From Arabic SáHb as súq "Leader of the Market."
  11. zábila: aloe vera (used mainly in Latin America) From Andalusi Arabic sabíra, originally from classical Arabic Sibar.
  12. zabra: type of vessel used in the Bay of Biscay in the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Modern Age. From Arabic zauraq.
  13. zacatín: in some villages, a square where clothes are sold. From saqqatin, plural of saqqat: seller of clothes.
  14. zafar: a number of meanings in Spain and Latin American countries: To free, to untie, to ignore, to unknit among others. From Arabic azaHa: to take away.
  15. zafarí: Granada zafarí: a type of pomegranate. Higo zafarí: a type of fig. From Arabic Safr.
  16. zafariche: Structure used for placing clay urns. Same etymology as jaraíz (see above).
  17. zafio: Uncouth. From Andalusi Arabic Fellah safi: "Mere peasant".
  18. zafrán: See Azafran.
  19. zaga: Backside of something. Cargo on the back of a truck. From Arabic Saqah: Rear, rearguard.
  20. zagal: boy. From Andalusian Arabic zaḡál, traditional Arabic zuḡlūl. Same meaning.
  21. zagaya (or azagaya)
  22. zagua
  23. zaguán: hall. From Andalusian Arabic istawán, traditional Arabic usṭuwān(ah).
  24. zagüía
  25. zaharrón
  26. zahén
  27. zahón
  28. zahora: (Mainly used in Spanish region of La Mancha): Large meal accompanied by dancing or partying. From Arabic Islamic term suhoor.
  29. zahorí
  30. zaida
  31. zaino
  32. zala
  33. zalamelé
  34. zalea/zalear
  35. zalema/zalama
  36. zalmedina: Same meaning and origin as zabalmedina.
  37. zalona
  38. zamacuco
  39. zambra: Traditional festivity of the Moriscos in Spain which is maintained by the Gypsy community of Sacromonte, Granada. From Andalusi Arabic Zamra, originally from classical Arabic Zamr.
  40. zanahoria: carrot, presumably from Andalusi Arabic safunariyya, Classical Arabic: isfanariyya.
  41. zaque: Leather recipient for wine or extracting water from a well. Drunken person. From Andalusi Arabic zaqq. Originally from classical Arabic ziqq.
  42. zaquizamí
  43. zaragüelles
  44. zaranda/zarandillo/zarandaja
  45. zarandear: To shake vigorously / push around / toss about. From Zaranda.
  46. zaratán: Breast cancer. From the Arabic saratan: crab.
  47. zarazán:
  48. zarco
  49. zarracatín
  50. zarzahán
  51. zatara
  52. zéjel
  53. zoco (or azogue): market. From Arabic souk of the same meaning.
  54. zofra
  55. zorzal: Thrush, intelligent person. From Andalusi Arabic Zurzal, originally from classical Arabic zurzur.
  56. zubia: Place where a large amount of water flows. From Arabic Zubya.
  57. zulaque
  58. zulla
  59. zumaque: sumac. From Arabic simaq of the same meaning.
  60. zumo: fruit juice. From Arabic zum.
  61. zuna: Sunnah, from Arabic Sunnah
  62. zurriaga or zurriago: Refers to a type of whip and to a lark. From Andalusi Arabic surriyaqa

Words with a coincidental similarity to Arabic[edit]

  • el. The Spanish definite articles el / la / lo / los / las, like most definite articles in the Romance languages, derive from the Latin demonstratives ille / illa / illud. The similarity to the Arabic article al is a mere coincidence.
  • usted. The formal second-person pronoun usted is derived from a shortening of the old form of address Vuestra merced, as seen in dialectal Spanish vosted, Catalan vostè, etc. Usted is the remaining form from a number of variants used in Renaissance Spanish, such as Usté, Uced, Vuesa Merced, Vuesarced, Vusted, Su Merced, Vuesasted or Voaced.[12] The possibility of a link with the Arabic word ustādh ('mister'/'professor'/'doctor') seems very remote.

Other influences[edit]

  1. The suffix í. Arabic has a very common type of adjective, known as the nisba or relationship adjective, which is formed by adding the suffix -ī (masc.) or ية -iyya (fem.) to a noun. This has given Spanish the suffix -í (both masc. and fem.), creating adjectives from nouns which indicate relationship or belonging. Examples are Marbellí, Ceutí, Maghrebí, Zaragocí, Andalusí or Alfonsí.
  2. Expressions. A number of expressions such as "¡Ole!" (sometimes spelled "olé" ), possibly from wa'llah, or ojalá, from law sha'a Allah, have been borrowed directly from Arabic. Furthermore, many expressions in Spanish might have been calqued from their Arabic equivalent. Examples would be si Dios quiere, que Dios guarde or bendito sea Dios.

Toponyms (place names) in Iberia of Arabic origin[edit]

There are hundreds if not thousands of place names derived from Arabic in the Iberian peninsula including provinces and regions, cities, towns, villages and even neighborhoods and streets. They also include geographical features such as mountains, mountain ranges, valleys and rivers. Toponyms derived from Arabic are common in all of Spain (including much of the North of the country) except for those regions which never came under Muslim rule or where it was particularly short-lived. These regions include Galicia and the Northern coast (Asturias, Cantabria and the Basque country) as well as northern Catalonia and Aragon. Regions where place names of Arabic origin are particularly common are the Eastern Coast (Valencia and Murcia) and the region of Andalusia. In Portugal, the frequency of Arabic toponyms increases as one travels south in the country.

Those toponyms which maintained their pre-Islamic name during the Muslim period were generally Arabized, and the mark of either the old Arabic pronunciation or the popular pronunciation from which it derived is noticeable in their modern names: e.g. Hispalis - Ishbiliya - Sevilla.

Major towns, cities and regions[edit]

  • Albarracín City of Aragón. Derived from Al Banū Razin, name of the Berber family of the town.
  • Alcalá de Henares City in the Community of Madrid. Derived from al-qal'a (القلعة), meaning citadel or fortress.
  • Axarquía Eastern region of Málaga province, From Arabic Ash-sharquía(الشرقية): The eastern/oriental (region).
  • Andalucía Most populated and 2nd largest autonomous community in Spain. Derived from الأندلس, Al Andalus, the Arabic name for Muslim Iberia.
  • Albacete city and province of Castilla-La Mancha. Derived from Arabic Al Basit (البسيط) (the plain).
  • Algarve Region of southern Portugal. From Arabic al gharb(الغرب), the west.
  • Algeciras City and port in Cadiz province. Derived from Al Jazeera Al Khadra (الجزيرة الخضراء) meaning the green island.
  • Almería City and province of Andalucía. From Al Meraya, the watchtower.
  • Alpujarras (originally Alpuxarras) Region extending South of Granada into Almería. From Arabic Al-Busherat: The grasslands.
  • Calatayud City of Aragón. Derived from Qal'at Ayyūb (Arabic قلعة أيوب) meaning "(Ayyūb) Job´s Fortress".
  • Gibraltar British overseas territory and name given to surrounding area in Southern Spain (Campo de Gibraltar). From Arabic Jbel Tariq, "Mountain of Tariq", or Gibr Tariq meaning "Rock of Tariq".
  • Guadalajara City and province of Castilla la Mancha. From Wādī al-Ḥijārah (Arabic وادي الحجارة), River or canyon of Stones.
  • Jaén City and province of Andalusia From Arabic Jayyan, crossroads of caravans.
  • Medina Sidonia: Town and municipality in Cadiz province, from madina, city.
  • Tarifa town in Cadiz province, Andalusia. Originally Jazeera Tarif (جزيرة طريف): the island of Tarif. Derived form the first name of the Berber conqueror Tarif ibn Malik.
  • La Sagra, an arid region between Toledo and Madrid. Name derived from arabic Sahra صحراء "desert".
  • Ubeda, a town in Jaén province, Andalusia. From the Arabic Ubadat el Arab.
  • Sanlúcar de Barrameda, a city in the northwest of Cádiz province, Andalusia. "Sanlúcar" may have derived from the Arabic shaluqa (شلوقة), the Arabic name for the Levant wind called sirocco or jaloque; "Barrameda" was derived from bar-am-ma'ida, an Arabic phrase for "water well of the plateau".

Geographical features[edit]

Given names and surnames[edit]

Given names

Almudena (from the Virgin of Almudena, patroness of Madrid, Spain) and Fátima (derived from Our Lady of Fátima) are very common Spanish names rooted in the country´s Roman Catholic tradition, but both of which share Arabic etymologies originating in place names of religious significance. Guadalupe, a name present throughout the Spanish-speaking world, but particularly in Mexico, also shares this feature.

A number of given names of Arabic origin have been popular throughout the Spanish-speaking world for some time, such as Omar or Soraya (probably popularized after the late Soraya Esfandiary-Bakhtiari).[citation needed] More recently, some other names have become popular, particularly in the Caribbean area, such as Zahira.

Surnames

Surnames of indirect Arabic origin, such as Medina, Almunia, Guadarrama or Alcaide are very common, often referring to toponyms or professions, but they don't have Arabic origin properly speaking. No Arabic surnames remain as a result of Muslim descendence, except for recent immigrants. The reason for it is that, throughout Spanish history, it was common practice for ethnic and religious minorities to change their surnames to escape persecution by the Catholic Church. Furthermore, Spanish Muslims were compelled to adopt Christian surnames by a series of royal decrees in the 16th century. 16th century Morisco leader Muhammad Ibn Ummaya, for example, was born to the Christian name Fernando de Córdoba y Valor.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Dworkin, Steven N. (2012). A History of the Spanish Lexicon: A Linguistic Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 83. ISBN 0199541140. 
  2. ^ Martínez Egido, José Joaquín (2007). Constitución del léxico español. p. 15. 
  3. ^ Versteegh, Kees (2003). The Arabic language (Repr. ed.). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. p. 228. ISBN 0748614362. 
  4. ^ Lapesa, Raphael (1960). Historia de la lengua española. Madrid. p. 97. 
  5. ^ Quintana, Lucía; Mora, Juan Pablo (2002). "Enseñanza del acervo léxico árabe de la lengua española". ASELE. Actas XIII: 705. : "El léxico español de procedencia árabe es muy abundante: se ha señalado que constituye, aproximadamente, un 8% del vocabulario total"
  6. ^ Macpherson, I. R. (1980). Spanish phonology.. Manchester: Manchester University Press. p. 93. ISBN 0719007887. 
  7. ^ La extraordinaria riqueza de nuestros arabismos
  8. ^ Corominas, Joan (1973). Breve diccionario etimológico de la lengua castellana (Madrid: Gredos)
  9. ^ a b The Diccionario de la Lengua Española of the Real Academia Española
  10. ^ DRAE: 'muslime'
  11. ^ http://buscon.rae.es/draeI/SrvltConsulta?TIPO_BUS=3&LEMA=ojalá DRAE entry
  12. ^ Victoria B. TORRES: 'VUESTRA MERCED Y SUS ALOMORFOS EN EL TEATRO DE CALDERÓN' (In Spanish)

Suggestions for further research[edit]

In the English language, search the online catalogs of United States university libraries using the Library of Congress (LC) subject heading, "Spanish language foreign elements".

When searching Spanish language Web sites, use the subject term, "arabismos".

Selected reference works and other academic literature[edit]

These works have not necessarily been consulted in the preparation of this article.

  • Cabo Pan, José Luis. El legado del arabe. Mosaico 8:7-10. Revista para la Promoción y Apoyo a la Enseñanza del Español. Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia del Reino de España, Consejería de Educación y Ciencia en Bélgica, Países Bajos y Luxemburgo. [Article with convenient, short word lists, grouped by theme. In PDF. Refer to Mosaico's portal page. ]
  • Corominas, Joan. 1980-1991. Diccionario crítico etimológico castellano e hispánico. Madrid: Gredos. The first edition, with the title Diccionario crítico etimológico de la lengua castellana (1954–1957) includes an appendix that groups words according to language of origin.
  • Corriente, Federico. 2003. Diccionario de arabismos y voces afines en iberorromance. (2nd expanded ed.; 1st ed. 1999) Madrid: Gredos. 607 p.
  • Maíllo Salgado, Felipe. 1991/1998. Los arabismos del castellano en la Baja Edad Media : consideraciones históricas y filológicas. Salamanca: Universidad de Salamanca. 554 p. [2nd ed., corrected and enlarged; 1st ed. 1983]
  • Ibid. 1996. Vocabulario de historia árabe e islámica. Madrid: Akal. 330 p.
  • Marcos Marín, Francisco 1998 Romance andalusí y mozárabe: dos términos no sinónimos. Estudios de Lingüística y Filología Españolas. Homenaje a Germán Colón. Madrid: Gredos, 335-341.
  • Ibid. 1998 Toledo: su nombre árabe y sus consecuencias lingüísticas hispánicas. Revista del Instituto Egipcio de Estudios Islámicos en Madrid, XXX, 1998, 93-108.
  • Sola-Solé, Josep María. 1983. Sobre árabes, judíos y marranos y su impacto en la lengua y literatura españolas. Barcelona: Puvill. 279 p.
  • Spaulding, Robert K. 1942/1971. How Spanish Grew. Berkeley: University of California Press. Chapter 5: "Arabic Spain", pp. 53–62.
  • Toro Lillo, Elena. La invasión árabe. Los árabes y el elemento árabe en español. In the Cervantes Virtual Library. Includes a brief list of historical sound changes. Useful bibliography.

Selected resource pages of universities and research institutes[edit]

External links[edit]