Arabinose

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Arabinose
DL-Arabinose.svg
Identifiers
CAS number 147-81-9 YesY, 10323-20-3 (D) YesY, 5328-37-0 (L) YesY
PubChem 5460291
ChemSpider 59687 YesY
EC-number 205-699-8
ChEBI CHEBI:46983 YesY
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Image 2
Properties[1]
Molecular formula C5H10O5
Molar mass 150.13 g mol−1
Appearance Colorless crystals as prisms or needles
Density 1.585 g/cm3 (20 ºC)
Melting point 164 to 165 °C (327 to 329 °F; 437 to 438 K)
Solubility in water Soluble
Hazards
NFPA 704
Flammability code 1: Must be pre-heated before ignition can occur. Flash point over 93 °C (200 °F). E.g., canola oil Health code 1: Exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury. E.g., turpentine Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Related compounds
Related aldopentoses Ribose
Xylose
Lyxose
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references

Arabinose is an aldopentose – a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde (CHO) functional group.

For biosynthetic reasons, most saccharides are almost always more abundant in nature as the "D"-form, or structurally analogous to D-glyceraldehyde.[note 1] However, L-arabinose is in fact more common than D-arabinose in nature and is found in nature as a component of biopolymers such as hemicellulose and pectin. The L-arabinose operon is a very important operon in molecular biology and bioengineering.

A classic method for the organic synthesis of arabinose from glucose is the Wohl degradation.[2]

D-Arabinose
Alpha-D-Arabinofuranose.svg
α-D-Arabinofuranose
Beta-D-Arabinofuranose.svg
β-D-Arabinofuranose
Alpha-D-Arabinopyranose.svg
α-D-Arabinopyranose
Beta-D-Arabinopyranose.svg
β-D-Arabinopyranose

Etymology[edit]

Arabinose gets its name from gum arabic, from which it was first isolated.[3]

Use[edit]

Arabinose is used as a culture medium for certain bacteria.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ For sugars, the D/L nomenclature does not refer to the molecule's optical rotation properties but to its structural analogy to glyceraldehyde.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Weast, Robert C., ed. (1981). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (62nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. C-110. ISBN 0-8493-0462-8. 
  2. ^ Braun, Géza (1940), "D-Arabinose", Org. Synth. 20: 14 ; Coll. Vol. 3: 101 
  3. ^ Merriam Webster Dictionary