Beside the large expat and dispora communities in Istabul and other larger cities, south and southeastern provinces have a significant Arab community.
Turkish Arabs are mostly Muslims living along the southeastern border with Syria and Iraq in the following provinces: Batman, Bitlis, Gaziantep, Hatay, Mardin, Muş, Siirt, Şırnak, Şanlıurfa, Mersin and Adana. The population in province of Hatay is predominantly Arab. The Arabs in eastern part of the border consist of many Bedouin tribes in addition to other Arabs who settled there before Turkic tribes came to Anatolia from Central Asia in the 11th century. Many of these Arabs have blood ties to Arabs living in Syria, especially in the city of Ar Raqqah. The Arab society in Turkey is well integrated into the Turkish population, yet some speak Arabic in addition to Turkish. The Treaty of Lausanne ceded to Turkey large areas that belonged to Ottoman Syria, especially within Aleppo Vilayet. Hatay Province remains a political issue with Syria.
In the census of 1965, 365,340 Turkish citizens spoke Arabic as first language, which was roughly 1% of the population. 189,134 of these could only speak Arabic. Arabic-speakers were proportionally most numerous in Hatay (26%), Mardin (20%), Siirt (15%) and Şanlıurfa (11%).
The population of Arabs in Turkey varies according to different sources. A Turkish study estimates the Arab population to be between 1.1 and 2.4%. An earlier American estimate from 1995 puts the numbers between 800,000 and 1 million. According to Ethnologue, in 1992 there were 500,000 people with Arabic as their mother language in Turkey. According to a Turkish study based on a large survey in 2006, 0.7% of the total population in Turkey were ethnically Arab.