Arachis

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the legume genus which includes peanuts. For the fictional planet, see Arrakis.
Arachis
Peanut 9417.jpg
Arachis hypogaea leaves and freshly dug pods
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Dalbergieae[1][2]
Genus: Arachis
L.
Species

See text.

Arachis is a genus of about 70 species of annual and perennial flowering plants in the pea family (Fabaceae), native to South America, and was recently assigned to the informal monophyletic Pterocarpus clade of the Dalbergieae.[1][2] At least one species, the peanut (Arachis hypogaea), is a major food crop species of global importance; some of the other species are cultivated for food to a small extent in South America. Other species such as A. pintoi are cultivated worldwide as forage and soil conditioner plants, with the leaves providing high-protein feed for grazing livestock and a nitrogen source in agroforestry and permaculture systems.

Arachis species, including the peanut, are used as food plants by some Lepidoptera species, including flame shoulder, nutmeg and turnip moths.[citation needed]

Species[edit]

Arachis comprises the following sections and species:[3][4]

Section Arachis[edit]

Section Caulorrhizae[edit]

Section Erectoides[edit]

Section Extranervosae[edit]

Section Heteranthae[edit]

Section Procumbentes[edit]

Section Rhizomatosae[edit]

Series Prorhizomatosae[edit]

Series Rhizomatosae[edit]

Section Trierectoides[edit]

Section Triseminatae[edit]


Hybrids[edit]

  • Arachis ×batizogaea Krapov. & A. Fernández

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Lavin M, Pennington RT, Klitgaard BB, Sprent JI, de Lima HC, Gasson PE. (2001). "The dalbergioid legumes (Fabaceae): delimitation of a pantropical monophyletic clade". Am J Bot 88 (3): 503–33. doi:10.2307/2657116. PMID 11250829. 
  2. ^ a b Cardoso D, Pennington RT, de Queiroz LP, Boatwright JS, Van Wyk B-E, Wojciechowskie MF, Lavin M. (2013). "Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes". S Afr J Bot 89: 58–75. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.05.001. 
  3. ^ "ILDIS LegumeWeb entry for Arachis". International Legume Database & Information Service. Cardiff School of Computer Science & Informatics. Last edited on 1 November 2005 (rebuilt on 24 April 2013). Retrieved 5 February 2014. 
  4. ^ USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. "GRIN species records of Arachis". Germplasm Resources Information Network—(GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 5 February 2014.