Arak, Iran

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For the administrative subdivision, see Arak County. For the alcoholic drink, see Arak (drink).
Arak
اراک
city
Arak montage (1).jpg
Official seal of Arak
Seal
Location of Arak
Arak is located in Iran
Arak
Arak
Coordinates: 34°05′30″N 49°41′21″E / 34.09167°N 49.68917°E / 34.09167; 49.68917Coordinates: 34°05′30″N 49°41′21″E / 34.09167°N 49.68917°E / 34.09167; 49.68917
Country  Iran
Province Markazi
County Central
Government
 • Mayor Mohammad Ibrahim Abbasi
Elevation 1,718 m (5,636 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 526,182[1][2]
Time zone IRST (UTC+3:30)
 • Summer (DST) IRDT (UTC+4:30)
Website http://arak.ir/

Arak About this sound pronunciation  (Persian: اراک - Arāk‎), also knowns as Sultan Abad (Persian: سلطان آباد - Soltān Ābād‎),[3] is a city in and the capital of Markazi Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 526,182, in 160,761 families.[1][2]

History[edit]

National Garden (central square) in 1969.

Arak is a village built on the ruins of a small town called Daskerah, which was destroyed during the Mongol invasion of Persia.

Modern Arak is a relatively new village on fertile lands, reestablished in 1795 with primary construct ending in 1852. The new city was founded and financed during the Qajar era by an Iranian Georgian Yusef Khan e Gorji, a pro-Iranian Georgian warlord given refuge by Agha Mohammad Khan (Persian: محمد خان قاجار) (1742–1797) following a territorial dispute with his cousins who were supported by Imperial Russian Empress Catherine the Great.

In the period between 1795 and 1797, Yusef Khan e Gorji, renamed Yusef Khan e Sepahdar by the Shah, settled his army in the fertile though poorly-controlled territory that would become modern Arak. Hostile tribes in this region had operated autonomously from Qajar rule. With the Persian Shah's approval, Yusef Khan diverted the main river to drive out the hostiles and built the Sultan Abad fortress, or Baladeh, a war fortress to act as a buffer and serve as the foundation of what would become modern Arak.

Yusef Khan's organized military force was established in this region aptly named (or more accurately, re-named) "Persian Iraq" (Iraq e ajam) from ancient times meaning 'smooth land'. According to historians, Yusef Khan built Arak from his own personal income and with the aid of affluents.

Valiasr Square

The town would remain a military base and fortress until 1892. The Sultan Abad fortress had a thick wall surrounded by great moats, 7 meters deep. Eight towers were constructed around the town and the governmental building was established in its northern part.

In 1891, deputy governor, Etemad ol Saltane Mirza Hassan, repaired all of the shops, gardens and all government buildings in Sultan Abad's greater town and with the owners of industries from other towns, settled in Arak. Large portions of the town were annexed as personal property to the pre-existing army commanders though these were ultimately turned over to the state from 1918–1922.

The evolution of the modern town name is from Sultan Abad fortress, to Sultan Abad, to Iraq e Ajam (Iraq of Persians), and finally to its current name, Arak, in 1938.

The city officially became a metropolis (Kalânşahr/کلانشهر) after the merger with Karahrud and Senjan occurred on April 6, 2013.[2][4]

Location[edit]

The city is surrounded by mountains in the south, west, and east. Arak is located in adjacency two important cities: Qom and Isfahan. Its average altitude is 1750m above sea level and is 260 km from the capital, Tehran.

Climate[edit]

Arak has a continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dsa) that is, in general, relatively cold and dry. Its weather is warm and dry in summer, windy and cool in autumn, cold and snowy in winter, and mild in spring. The maximum temperature may raise up to 35 degrees Celsius in summer and may fall to below -25 degrees Celsius in winter. The average rainfall is around 350mm and the annual relative humidity is 46%.

Climate data for Arak
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.0
(62.6)
21.0
(69.8)
25.2
(77.4)
29.0
(84.2)
35.0
(95)
41.0
(105.8)
44.0
(111.2)
41.0
(105.8)
38.0
(100.4)
31.0
(87.8)
24.0
(75.2)
20.0
(68)
44
(111.2)
Average high °C (°F) 4.2
(39.6)
6.8
(44.2)
13.5
(56.3)
19.6
(67.3)
25.6
(78.1)
32.6
(90.7)
35.8
(96.4)
34.9
(94.8)
30.8
(87.4)
23.1
(73.6)
14.8
(58.6)
7.6
(45.7)
20.78
(69.39)
Daily mean °C (°F) −1.3
(29.7)
1.0
(33.8)
7.3
(45.1)
13.1
(55.6)
18.4
(65.1)
24.4
(75.9)
27.5
(81.5)
26.3
(79.3)
21.9
(71.4)
15.2
(59.4)
8.0
(46.4)
2.0
(35.6)
13.65
(56.57)
Average low °C (°F) −5.7
(21.7)
−3.8
(25.2)
2.0
(35.6)
7.0
(44.6)
11.0
(51.8)
15.3
(59.5)
18.8
(65.8)
17.5
(63.5)
13.0
(55.4)
7.8
(46)
2.6
(36.7)
−2.2
(28)
6.94
(44.48)
Record low °C (°F) −28
(−18)
−30.5
(−22.9)
−13
(9)
−4.0
(24.8)
0.0
(32)
4.0
(39.2)
12.0
(53.6)
10.0
(50)
2.0
(35.6)
−4.0
(24.8)
−7
(19)
−23
(−9)
−30.5
(−22.9)
Precipitation mm (inches) 54.7
(2.154)
47.6
(1.874)
53.1
(2.091)
53.4
(2.102)
31.9
(1.256)
1.5
(0.059)
0.6
(0.024)
1.1
(0.043)
0.7
(0.028)
18.5
(0.728)
31.6
(1.244)
51.0
(2.008)
345.7
(13.611)
Avg. rainy days 10.8 9.8 11.4 9.4 7.1 1.1 0.9 0.6 0.6 4.3 6.1 8.9 71
Avg. snowy days 7.6 6.4 3.2 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.7 4.6 23.1
 % humidity 72 67 55 46 40 28 27 27 27 40 56 67 46
Mean monthly sunshine hours 150.8 160.6 196.0 222.1 287.5 350.4 338.3 329.4 305.1 262.3 188.5 160.8 2,951.8
Source: NOAA (1961-1990) [5]

Transportation[edit]

Air[edit]

Boeing 707 on the new runway Arak international airport June 9, 2013

The city is served by the Arak International Airport, which is located north of the city. Arak International Airport opened in 1938 and is one of the oldest airports in Iran.

Rail[edit]

Since 1935, there is an railway connection between Arak form part of the Iranian Railways. Destinations served direct from bandare Emam To Bandaere Turkman in caspian sea.

Public transportation[edit]

Buses provide the bulk of local public transport.

Sites and structures[edit]

Grigory Church, opened in 1914
Char Fasl Bath
Khomeini's Seminary

Parks and gardens[edit]

  • Nezam Lashgar (Esmaeili) Garden
  • Amir Kabir Park
  • Jangali Park
  • Kelale Mountain Park
  • Arak Zoo

Museums[edit]

  • Char Fasl (Four-Season) Bath
  • Sultan Abad Museum
  • Museum of Artifacts (Hassan Pour Museum)
  • Museum of Famous People of Arak
  • Museum of Artifacts
  • Grand Museum of Arak (under construction)

Sports Complexes[edit]

  • Amir Kabir Entertainment and Sports Complex
  • Tufan Entertainment and Sports Complex (the biggest one in Iran)
  • Shahin Horse riding Complex

Other[edit]

  • Doab Bridge (built over Sharra River)
  • Opera House of Arak (under construction)
  • Traditional bazaar
  • Sara ye Mehr, in the traditional bazaar
  • Mowstofi Mansion
  • Gerdou Valley (famous for its walnut trees and ranges)

Universities[edit]

IAU College campus

Industries[edit]

Wagon Pars Co.

Arak is one of the main industrial cities of Iran, possessing many plants for heavy industries especially for the metal and machinery industries, including:

Demography[edit]

Persian people are the only native inhabitants of Arak. Also, in the Safavid era, Armenians had settled in the Arak area,[7] but their numbers have declined due to migration to Tehran.

Agriculture and handicrafts[edit]

The main agricultural products are grain, barley, and fruits which are grape, apple, walnut and almond. Arak also exports hand-knotted carpets which are generally referred to as Sarouk rugs. Saruq is a small village outside of Arak, and its name is used when exporting carpets so consumers do not get confused with rug from Iraq.

Notable people from Arak[edit]

Statesmen and politicians:

  • Ghaem Magham Farahani (1779–1835), Prime Minister, was born in Arak, in a Northern region named Farahan.
  • Amir Kabir (1807 - January 11, 1852), Prime Minister, was born in Arak, in a northern region known as Hezaveh.
  • Morteza Gholi Bayat (1890–1958), Prime Minister (1944–45), was born in Arak.
  • Mohammad Mosaddegh(1882–1967), Prime Minister (May 1951-July 1952; August 1952-53), was born in Tehran; his father was from Ashtiyan, north eastern region of Arak.
  • Ata'ollah Mohajerani, He was one of Khatami's cabinet ministers during the power of reformists.

Artists and literary figures:

  • Parvin E'tesami (1907–1941), the Iranian Poet, was born in Tabriz in 1907; her father was from Ashtiyan, north eastern region of Arak.
  • Behjat Sadr (1924–2009), Iran's first eminent female Painter.
  • Kader Abdolah, the Dutch Writer Laureate.
  • Jahangir Razmi, the 1980 Pulitzer Prize Winner Photographer.

Sportsman:

Media/Television:

  • Reza Badiyi, well known for directing episodes of many popular (and quite distinct) American television series, including Get Smart, Mission: Impossible, Hawaii Five-O, The Incredible Hulk, Mannix, The Six Million Dollar Man, Starsky and Hutch, The Rockford Files and Police Squad, The Mary Tyler Moore Show, Falcon Crest, Cagney and Lacey, Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman, Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, Buffy the Vampire Slayer (the episode "Out of Mind, Out of Sight"), Nikita, Sliders and Baywatch, amongst others.
  • Mehran Modiri, well known entertainer, TV presenter, actor, movie director and comedian.
  • Niki Karimi, famous Iranian Actress.
  • Shaghayegh Farahani, famous Iranian Actress.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1390 (2011)" (Excel). Islamic Republic of Iran. Archived from the original on 2013-11-12. 
  2. ^ a b c http://rc.majlis.ir/fa/law/show/840807 تصویب نامه در خصوص تقسیمات کشوری در استان مرکزی شماره۴۰۷۶/ت۴۸۶۸۶ک
  3. ^ Arak, Iran can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3053519" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
  4. ^ http://rajanews.com/detail.asp?id=154355 تبدیل یک شهر دیگر به کلان شهر-سه شنبه، 25 تير -رجانیوز1392 15:57
  5. ^ "Arak Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 28, 2012. 
  6. ^ 34°22′12″N 49°14′42″E / 34.370°N 49.245°E / 34.370; 49.245
  7. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20080501183516/http://www.arir.org/eng/armiranians.htm

External links[edit]