Aram Khachaturian

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Khachaturian in 1971
signature written in ink in a flowing script

Aram Il'yich Khachaturian[A] /ˈærəm ˌkɑːəˈtʊəriən/[3] (Russian: Арам Ильич Хачатурян; Armenian: Արամ Խաչատրյան, pronounced [ɑˈɾɑm χɑt͡ʃʰɑt(ə)ɾˈjɑn]; 6 June 1903 – 1 May 1978) was a Soviet Armenian composer and conductor. He is considered one of the leading Soviet composers and the most renowned Armenian composer of the 20th century.[4][5]

Born and raised in the Georgian capital, Tbilisi, Khachaturian moved to Moscow and—without much knowledge of music—enrolled in the Gnessin Musical Institute. He then entered the Moscow Conservatory to study in the class of Nikolai Myaskovsky, among others. His first major work, the Piano Concerto (1936), popularized his name within and outside the Soviet Union. It was followed by the Violin Concerto (1940) and the Cello Concerto (1946). His other significant compositions include the Masquerade Suite (1941), the Anthem of the Armenian SSR (1944), three symphonies (1935, 1943, 1947), and around 25 film scores. Khachaturian is best known for his ballet music—Gayane (1942) and Spartacus (1954). His most popular piece, the "Sabre Dance" from Gayane, has been used extensively in popular culture and has been covered by a number of musicians worldwide.[6]

Khachaturian was initially approved by the Soviet government and held several high posts in the Union of Soviet Composers since the late 1930s, although he joined the Communist Party only in 1943. Along with Sergei Prokofiev and Dmitri Shostakovich, he was officially denounced as a "formalist" and his music dubbed "anti-people" in 1948, but was restored later that year. Since 1950 he taught at the Gnessin Institute and the Moscow Conservatory and turned to conducting. He traveled to Europe and the United States with concerts of his own works. In 1957 Khachaturian became Secretary of Union of Soviet Composers, a position he held until his death.

While following Russian musical traditions, he broadly used Armenian and to lesser extent, Caucasian, Eastern European and Middle Eastern peoples' folk music in his works. Khachaturian remains the only Armenian composer to rise to international significance. He is highly regarded in Armenia, where he is considered a "national treasure".[7]

Biography[edit]

Background and early life (1903–21)[edit]

Aram Khachaturian was born on 6 June (24 May in Old Style)[8] 1903 in the city of Tiflis (present-day Tbilisi, Georgia) into an Armenian family.[9][10] Some sources indicate Kojori, a village near Tbilisi (now in Georgia's Gardabani Municipality), as his birthplace.[11][12] His father, Yeghia (Ilya), was born in Upper Aza village near Ordubad in Nakhichevan (present-day Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Azerbaijan) and moved to Tiflis at the age of 13 and owned a bookbinding shop by the age of 25. His mother, Kumash Sarkisovna, was from Lower Aza, also a village near Ordubad. Khachaturian's parents were engaged before knowing each other, when Kumash was 9 and Yeghia was 19. They had 5 children, one daughter and four sons, of whom Aram was the youngest.[13] Khachaturian received primary education at the Tiflis Commercial School, "a school for aspiring merchants",[14] "where he debated between a career in medicine or engineering".[15]

In the 19th and early 20th centuries and throughout the early Soviet period, Tbilisi (known as Tiflis until 1936) was the largest city and the administrative center of the Caucasus. In Tbilisi, which has historically been multicultural, Khachaturian was exposed to various cultures.[16] The city had a large Armenian population and was a major Armenian cultural center until the Russian Revolution and the following years. In a 1952 article "My Idea of the Folk Element in Music", Khachaturian described the city environment and its influence on his career:

I grew up in an atmosphere rich in folk music: popular festivities, rites, joyous and sad events in the life of the people always accompanied by music, the vivid tunes of Armenian, Azerbaijani and Georgian songs and dances performed by folk bards [ashugs] and musicians — such were the impressions that became deeply engraved on my memory, that determined my musical thinking. They shaped my musical consciousness and lay at the foundations of my artistic personality ... Whatever the changes and improvements that took place in my musical taste in later years, their original substance, formed in early childhood in close communion with the people, has always remained the natural soil nourishing all my work.[17]

In 1917, the Bolsheviks rose to power in Russia in the October Revolution. After over two-years of fragile independence, Armenia fell to Soviet rule amid a Turkish invasion from the west in late 1920. Georgia was sovietized by the spring of 1921. Both countries formally became part of the Soviet Union in December 1922.[18] Khachaturian later wrote that "the October Revolution fundamentally changed my whole life and, if I have really grown into a serious artist, then I am indebted only to the people and the Soviet Government. To this people is dedicated my entire conscious life, as is all my creative work."[19]

Education (1922–36)[edit]

Khachaturian in the 1930s

In 1921, the eighteen-year-old Khachaturian moved to Moscow to join his oldest brother, Suren, who had settled in Moscow earlier and was a stage director at the Moscow Art Theatre by the time of his arrival.[14][13] "Influenced by his brother's work in Moscow, Khachaturian fell under the magic spell of the music world."[15] He enrolled at the Gnessin Musical Institute in 1922, simultaneously studying biology at the Moscow University.[15][20] He initially studied the cello under Sergei Bychkov and later under Andrey Borysyak.[10][21] In 1925, Mikhail Gnesin started a composition class at the institute, which Khachaturian joined.[14][22] He also took lessons from Reinhold Glière.[23] In this period, he wrote his first works: the Dance Suite for violin and piano (1926) and Poem in C Sharp minor (1927).[15][20] Beginning with his earliest works, Khachaturian extensively used Armenian folk music in his compositions. "The Khachaturian of this period was in the position of an eager, intelligent child who has just been given the run of a toyshop ... Like many other young musicians with fuller cultural backgrounds, Khachaturian discovered music through contemporary music, and only later developed a love of the classics," writes Gerald Abraham.[15]

In 1929, Khachaturian entered the Moscow Conservatory to study composition under Nikolai Myaskovsky and orchestration under Sergei Vasilenko.[24] In 1933, he married the composer Nina Makarova, a fellow student from Myaskovsky's class.[25] He finished the conservatory in 1934 and went on to complete his graduate work in 1936.[14]

Early career (1936–48)[edit]

The three Soviet "titans": Prokofiev, Shostakovich and Khachaturian in Moscow, 1945[26]

His First Symphony, which Khachaturian composed as a graduation work from the Moscow Conservatory in 1935, "drew the attention of prominent conductors and was soon performed by the best Soviet orchestras."[16] He began an active creative career upon completing his graduate studies at the conservatory in 1936.[20] He wrote his first major work, the Piano Concerto, that year.[15] It proved to be a success, establishing him as a respected composer in the Soviet Union.[10] It was "played and acclaimed far beyond the borders of the Soviet Union,"[27] and "established his name abroad."[16]

His Piano Concerto, along with the two later concertos—the Violin Concerto (1940), for which he won a State Prize (called Stalin Prize then, the highest artistic award in the Soviet Union),[15][16] and the Cello Concerto (1946)—are "often considered a kind of a grand cycle."[10] The Violin Concerto "gained international recognition"[27] and became part of the international repertory.[16] It was first performed by David Oistrakh.[16]

Khachaturian held important posts at the Composers' Union, becoming deputy chairman of the Moscow branch in 1937, then appointed Deputy Chairman of the Organizing Committee (Orgkom) of the Union of Soviet Composers in 1939 until 1948.[20][28] He joined the Communist Party in 1943.[14] "Throughout the early and mid-1940s, Khachaturian used that position to help shape Soviet music: in his memoirs he expressed pride about leading an institution that organized creative work in many musical genres and especially in all Soviet republics."[29]

The years preceding and following World War II proved to be very productive for Khachaturian. In 1939, he composed his first ballet, Happiness. In 1942, during the height of the Second World War, he reworked it into the ballet Gayane.[30] It was first performed by the Kirov Ballet (today known as Mariinsky Ballet) in Perm, where the company had been evacuated from Leningrad. Its great success earned Khachaturian a Soviet State Prize.[20]

He composed the Second Symphony (1943) on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the October Revolution, and in 1944 arranged a suite from his incidental music to Masquerade, originally composed in 1941 for a production of Mikhail Lermontov's play: the result was "a symphonic suite in the tradition of lavish classical Russian music".[15] Both the ballet Gayane and the Second Symphony were "successful and were warmly praised by Shostakovich."[10] In 1944, Khachaturian composed the symbolic Anthem of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic.[31]

Denunciation, restoration and later life (1948–78)[edit]

Khachaturian in 1964

In mid-December 1947, the Department for Agitation and Propaganda (better known as Agitprop) submitted Andrei Zhdanov, the secretary of the Communist Party's Central Committee, a document on the "shortcomings" of in the development of Soviet music. On 10–13 January 1948, a conference was held at the Kremlin in attendance of seventy musician, composers, conductors and others who were confronted by Zhdanov:

We will consider that if these comrades Shostakovich, Prokofiev, Myaskovsky, Khachaturian, Kabalevsky and Shebalin namely who are the principal and leading figures of the formalist direction in music. And that direction is fundamentally incorrect.[32]

Thus, Khachaturian and other leading composers were denounced by the Communist Party as followers for alleged formalism[10] (i.e. "[a type of] music that was considered too advanced or difficult for the masses to enjoy")[27] and their music was dubbed "anti-people".[33] It was the Symphonic Poem (1947), later titled the Third Symphony, that officially earned Khachaturian the wrath of the Party.[32][34] Ironically, he wrote the work as a tribute for the 30th anniversary of the October Revolution.[35] He stated: "I wanted to write the kind of composition in which the public would feel my unwritten program without an announcement. I wanted this work to express the Soviet people's joy and pride in their great and mighty country."[36]

Musicologist Blair Johnston believes that Khachaturian's "music contained few, if any, of the objectionable traits found in the music of some of his more adventuresome colleagues. In retrospect, it was most likely Khachaturian's administrative role in the Union [of Soviet Composers], perceived by the government as a bastion of politically incorrect music, and not his music as such, which earned him a place on the black list of 1948."[37] In March 1948,[19] Khachaturian "made a very full and humble apology for his artistic 'errors' following the Zhdanov decree; his musical style, however, underwent no changes."[37] He was sent to Armenia as a punishment,[10] and continued to be censured.[19] By December 1948,[19] he was "restored to favor later that year when he was praised for his film biography of Lenin"—Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (ru).[15]

In 1950, Khachaturian began conducting[37] and started teaching composition at his alma maters—the Gnessin Institute, and later at the Moscow Conservatory.[10][38] He was named Doctor of Arts in 1963.[39] Some of his notable students include Aziz El-Shawan,[40] Andrei Eshpai,[31] Anatol Vieru,[31] Edgar Hovhannisyan,[12] Mikael Tariverdiev,[31] Mark Minkov,[41] Alexey Rybnikov,[42] Tolib Shakhidi,[43] Georgs Pelēcis,[44] Rostislav Boiko (ru)[12] and Nodar Gabunia (ru).[12]

In 1950, he began working on his third and last ballet, Spartacus (1950–54), which later proved to be his last internationally acclaimed work.[10] He was named People's Artist of the Soviet Union in 1954.[15] In the same year, "he bravely denounced state interference in art, but was immediately forced to recant."[45] He revised Spartacus in 1968.[10]

Khachaturian's grave at the Komitas Pantheon in Yerevan

"Following the success of Spartacus towards the end of the fifties, his remaining years were devoted less to composition, and more to conducting, teaching, bureaucracy and travel."[17] He served as the president of the Soviet Association of Friendship and Cultural Cooperation with Latin American States since 1958.[20][8] "He frequently appeared in world forums in the role of champion of an apologist for the Soviet idea of creative orthodoxy."[15] Khachaturian toured with concerts of his own works in around 30 countries, including in all the Eastern Bloc states,[31] Italy (1950), Britain (1955, 1977), Latin America (1957) and the United States (1960, 1968).[17][27] "In January of 1968 he made a culturally significant trip to Washington, D.C., conducting the National Symphony Orchestra in a program of his own works."[37]

As a conductor, Khachaturian made several commercial recordings, including a 1953 recording of his second symphony with the National Philharmonic Orchestra, a 1963 stereo recording of the symphony with the Vienna Philharmonic, and EMI recordings of suites from Gayane and Masquerade and his violin concerto in 1954 (with David Oistrakh as soloist) with the Philharmonia Orchestra. He later made stereo recordings of the violin concerto (again with Oistrakh), the second symphony in 1977 on the Russian Disc label, and music from Gayane. Some of his recordings have been reissued on CD.[46]

Khachaturian went on to serve again as Secretary of the Composers Union, starting in 1957.[8][20] He was also a deputy in the fifth Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union (1958–62).[47] In the last two decades of his life, Khachaturian wrote three concert rhapsodies—for violin (1961-2), cello (1963) and piano (1965)[35]—and "solo sonatas for unaccompanied cello, violin, and viola (1970s), considered his second and third instrumental trilogies."[10] "His later works were often criticized as repetitive and eclectic."[15]

Khachaturian died in Moscow on 1 May 1978, just short of his 75th birthday.[35] He was buried at the Komitas Pantheon in Yerevan on 6 May, next to other distinguished Armenians.[31] He was survived by his son, Karen, and daughter, Nune,[13] and his nephew, Karen Khachaturian, also a composer.[10]

Works[edit]

Khachaturian's 1999 statue near the Yerevan Opera Theater.

Khachaturian's works span a broad range of musical types, including ballets, symphonies, concertos, and numerous film scores.

Khachaturian's works include concertos for violin (sometimes heard in a composer-sanctioned arrangement for flute), cello and piano as well as concerto-rhapsodies for the same instruments. These three concertos were written for the members of a renowned Soviet piano trio that performed together from 1941 until 1963: David Oistrakh, violin; Sviatoslav Knushevitsky, cello; Lev Oborin, piano. The piano concerto originally included an early part for the flexatone, and was his first work to gain him recognition in the West. Khachaturians's three symphonies are varied works, with the third containing parts for fifteen additional trumpets and organ. The composer's largest-scaled works are the ballets Spartacus and Gayane, both of which contain Khachaturian's most well-known music, with Gayane featuring in its final act what is easily his most famous music, the "Sabre Dance".[48]

He also wrote several solo piano works, including the Toccata in E-flat minor, and two albums of music for children (Opp. 62 and 100). Children's Album, Book 1, first published in 1947, contains a smooth and melodic Andantino originally composed in 1926; this piece is commonly known as Ivan Sings, which stems from eight of ten pieces originally being collected as Adventures of Ivan. Children's Album, Book 2, first published in 1964, includes a fugue composed in 1928, and a fast-paced programmatic piece entitled Two Funny Aunties Argued which is sometimes translated as Two Ladies Gossiping. He also composed some film music, and incidental music for plays such as the 1941 production of Mikhail Lermontov's Masquerade, the "Waltz" from which has been performed and recorded frequently.[49]

The cinematic quality of his music for Spartacus was clearly seen when the "Adagio of Spartacus and Phrygia" was used as the theme for a popular BBC drama series, The Onedin Line, during the 1970s.[50] Since then, it has become one of the most popular of all classical pieces for UK audiences. Joel Coen's The Hudsucker Proxy also prominently featured music from Spartacus and Gayane (the "Sabre Dance" included). Gayane's "Adagio" was used in Stanley Kubrick's film 2001: A Space Odyssey among other films. He was also the composer for the state anthem of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, whose tune is one of the five current choices to become the next state anthem of Armenia. The climax of Spartacus was also used in Caligula[51] and Ice Age: The Meltdown.

Influence[edit]

Although he was born in what is now Georgia and lived most of his life in Russia, Aram Khachaturian has been an iconic figure for generations of Armenian composers. Most of his works are saturated with centuries-old motifs of Armenian culture.[52] His works paved the way for new styles and daring explorations, although his own style was closely controlled by the regime. Khachaturian encouraged young composers to experiment with new sounds and find their own voices. His colorful orchestration technique, admired by Shostakovich and others in the past, is still noted for its freshness and vitality by modern composers. Khachaturian's influence can be traced in nearly all trends of Armenian classical traditions, whether in symphonic or chamber music. Composers who were particularly influenced by Aram Khachaturian include Alexander Arutiunian, Arno Babajanian, Tigran Mansurian, Edgar Hovhannisyan, Edward Manukyan, and Loris Tjeknavorian.

As a conductor, Khachaturian made several commercial recordings, including a 1953 recording of his second symphony with the National Philharmonic Orchestra, a 1963 stereo recording of the symphony with the Vienna Philharmonic, and EMI recordings of suites from Gayane and Masquerade and his violin concerto in 1954 (with David Oistrakh as soloist) with the Philharmonia Orchestra. He later made stereo recordings of the violin concerto (again with Oistrakh), the second symphony in 1977 on the Russian Disc label, and music from Gayane. Some of his recordings have been reissued on CD.

Khachaturian's notable students were Aziz El-Shawan, Andrei Eshpai, Vyacheslav Grokhovsky, Mark Minkov, Georgs Pelēcis, Alexey Rybnikov, Tolib Shakhidi, Mikael Tariverdiev, Enrique Ubieta, and Anatol Vieru.

Legacy[edit]

Khachaturian depicted on Soviet (1983), Russian (2003) and Armenian (2003) postage stamps

Recognition[edit]

Khachaturian is generally considered one of the leading composers of the Soviet Union.[4] Alongside Dmitri Shostakovich and Sergei Prokofiev, he is usually cited as one of the three greatest composers of the Soviet era.[53] They are sometimes collectively referred to as the three "titans" of Soviet music.[54] "Whether or not history will support the verdict, Khachaturian in his lifetime ranked as the third most celebrated Soviet composer after Shostakovich and Prokofiev," wrote the music critic Ronald Crichton in 1978.[55] According to the Los Angeles Philharmonic, "his works do not enjoy the international reputation that those of" Shostakovich and Prokofiev.[56] With the two other mentioned composers and Dmitry Kabalevsky, Khachaturian "was one of the few Soviet composers to have become known to the wider international public."[57]

The classical music broadcaster Norman Gilliland and Russiapedia online encyclopedia (RT television network) describe him as a "major" composer of the 20th century,[58][59] while Josef Woodard, writing for the Los Angeles Times, suggests that he has "long [been] considered a lighter-weight participant among 20th century composers."[60] In a 2003 interview, conductor Marin Alsop expressed the opinion that Khachaturian is "a very underperformed composer and I think somewhat underrated as well." She said, "His music, of course, has a little bit of the edginess of the 20th century sound, the dissonances coming in. But at the same time it marries this beautiful neo-romanticism and lush orchestration and the over-the-top approach, so I think he can be quite relevant these days."[61]

According to The Guardian's Tim Ashley

Khachaturian's popularity has dipped of late [in the West], probably because we think of him, post-glasnost, as one of Soviet music's "yes-men". Such a view is simplistic, given that he had a major brush with the authorities in 1948. But it's also easy to see how he acquired his awkward reputation when you hear his Violin Concerto, dating from 1940. It's an immensely attractive work, full of his trademark Armenian folk flourishes, and the swaying, hypnotic Andante is notably beautiful. But the unforced optimism of the outer movements now seems unthinking when we realise it was composed at a time when Stalin was giving Prokofiev and Shostakovich hell."[62]

Khachaturian was the most renowned Armenian composer of the 20th century.[5] He has been described as "by far the most important Armenian composer",[63] the "Armenian Tchaikovsky",[64] and "considered by some to be the central figure in 20th-century Armenian culture".[65] He remains the only Armenian composer to rise to international significance.[66] Khachaturian is highly regarded in Armenia[67] and considered a "national treasure".[7] He had a great influence on the development of the Armenian music in the 20th century. "Naturally, he immediately became an example for young national composers and a hero in Armenia," suggests Maya Pritsker of The New York Times.[68] Khachaturian's influence can be traced in nearly all trends of Armenian classical music traditions (symphonic and chamber), including on Arno Babajanian, a significant Armenian composer of the late Soviet period.[69] Khachaturian is credited for bringing Armenian music recognized worldwide.[8] The Armenian writer Hamo Sahyan said about Khachaturian, "he was the denial of our smallness, the sacrament of our small-numbered people to be compared with large [nations] ... [he] became the certificate of our civilization ..."[70]

Khachaturian's bust in the street named after him in Yerevan's Arabkir district (2013)

Posthumous honors and tribute[edit]

The philharmonic hall of the Yerevan Opera Theater is officially called the Aram Khachaturian Grand Concert Hall since 1978.[31] The House-Museum of Aram Khachaturian was opened in Yerevan in 1982,[71][72] and is under the directorship of Armine Grigoryan.[73] The museum not only houses many personal and professional objects left by the composer in his will but it also houses a concert hall where famous musicians from Armenia, including the Khachaturian Trio, and from around the world come to play.

Music schools are named after Khachaturian in Tbilisi,[74] Moscow (established in 1967, named after him in 1996),[75] Yerevan[47] and smaller Armenian cities (Kapan,[76] Charentsavan)[77] and Martuni in Nagorno-Karabakh.[78] Streets in Yerevan,[79] Tbilisi,[80] Moscow (ru), Astana (Kazakhstan)[81] and Simferopol (Crimea, Ukraine)[82] are named after Khachaturian. On 31 July 1999, a 3.5-meter high statue of Khachaturian by Yuri Petrosyan was opened in front of the Khachaturian Hall of the Yerevan Opera Theater in attendance of President Robert Kocharyan, Speaker Karen Demirchyan and leading poetess Silva Kaputikyan.[83] A statue of Khachaturian by Georgiy Frangulyan was unveiled in Moscow on 31 October 2006. Notable attendees included Armenian President Kocharyan, Moscow Mayor Yury Luzhkov and Russia's First Lady Lyudmila Putina.[84] On 30 April 2013, a bust of Khachaturian erected by sculptor Gevorg Gevorgyan was opened in the street named after him in Yerevan's Arabkir district by Yerevan Mayor Taron Margaryan on his 110th anniversary.[85]

Khachaturian appeared on the 50-dram banknote (1998–2004)[86]

In 1998, the Central Bank of Armenia issued 50-dram banknotes depicting Khachaturian's portrait and the Yerevan Opera Theater on the obverse and an episode from the ballet Gayane and Mount Ararat on the reverse. It remained in use until 2004 when it was replaced by a coin.[86] He is the only composer to be depicted on the Armenian currency.

In 1983, the Yerevan Studio produced a TV documentary film on Khachaturian.[87] In 2003, an 83-minute-long documentary about Khachaturian with unique footage was directed by Peter Rosen and narrated by Eric Bogosian.[88] The film won the Best Documentary at the 2003 Hollywood Film Festival.[89] In 2004, TV Kultura, Russia's government-owned art channel, made a documentary on Khachaturian entitled Century of Aram Khachaturian (Век Арама Хачатуряна).[90]

In 1993 the festival of symphonic music Aram Khachaturian-93 was held in Yerevan.[47] The Aram Khachaturian International Competition (Արամ Խաչատրյանի անվան միջազգային մրցույթ) is held annually in Yerevan since 2003.[91]

In 2009, Aeroflot named one of its Airbus A319-112 planes after Khachaturian.[92]

In 2012, Armenia submitted and recommended a collection of note manuscripts and film music by Khachaturian for inclusion in the UNESCO Memory of the World Register.[93]

Honors and awards[edit]

Soviet Union[94][39]

Other states[39]

  • Order of the Science of Art of the United Arab Republic (1961, "for outstanding musical achievements")
  • Medal of Pope John XXIII (1963)
  • Medal of the Iranian Shah (1965)
  • Honored Art Worker of People's Republic of Poland (1972, "for contribution to the Polish culture")
  • Ordre national du Merite Commandeur ribbon.svg Order of the French Republic "For Musical Merits" and title of Commander (1974)

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Transliterated as Aram Ilʹich Khachaturi͡an by the Library of Congress.[1] The standard transliteration of his last name from Armenian is Khachatryan, which has been used by many Armenian sources since Armenia's independence from the Soviet Union in 1991.[2] It was transformed into Khachaturian in Russian (and thereafter adopted by English-language sources) as it derives from the given name Khachatur.
Citations
  1. ^ "Khachaturi͡an, Aram Ilʹich, 1903–1978". Library of Congress Name Authority File. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  2. ^ "Aram Khachatryan 110-Anniversary Celebrations Committee Holds Meeting". Government of the Republic of Armenia. 27 March 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  3. ^ "Khachaturian". Collins English Dictionary (Complete & Unabridged 10th ed.). 2009. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  4. ^ a b Huang, Hao (1999). Music in the 20th century: Volume 2. M. E. Sharpe. p. 341. ISBN 978-0-7656-8012-9. "Aram Khachaturian was a leading Soviet composer ..." 
  5. ^ a b Ricci, James (10 August 2006). "Bustling Outpost of Armenian Culture". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 6 February 2014. "... Aram Khachaturian, the most famous Armenian composer of the 20th century." 
  6. ^ Huizenga, NPR 2003
  7. ^ a b Frolova-Walker 1998, p. 371.
  8. ^ a b c d Geodakyan 1979, p. 18.
  9. ^ Promeet, Dutta (18 November 2013). "Aram Khachaturian". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 13 March 2014. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Harvard Biographical Dictionary of Music 1996, p. 445
  11. ^ Cramer, Alfred W., ed. (2009). Musicians and Composers of the 20th Century-Volume 3. Salem Press. p. 766. ISBN 978-1-58765-515-9. "The Life Aram Ilich Khachaturian was born on June 6, 1903, in Kodjori, a suburb of Tbilisi." 
  12. ^ a b c d Geodakyan 1981
  13. ^ a b c "Family tree". Virtual Museum of Aram Khachaturian. Archived from the original on 11 February 2014. 
  14. ^ a b c d e Tomoff 2006, p. 34.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Encyclopedia of World Biography 2004
  16. ^ a b c d e f Pritsker 2003
  17. ^ a b c Orga 1997
  18. ^ Minahan, James (2004). The Former Soviet Union's Diverse Peoples: A Reference Sourcebook. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 160. ISBN 978-1-57607-823-5. 
  19. ^ a b c d Current Biography Yearbook 1949
  20. ^ a b c d e f g "Биография Арама Хачатуряна [Aram Khachaturian's biography]" (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 6 June 2013. Archived from the original on 13 March 2014. 
  21. ^ Shneerson 1959, p. 24.
  22. ^ Shneerson 1959, p. 25.
  23. ^ Yuzefovich 1985, pp. 30-31.
  24. ^ Shneerson 1959, p. 29.
  25. ^ Complete Classical Music Guide 2012, p. 301
  26. ^ Volkov, Solomon (2004). Testimony: The Memoirs of Dmitri Shostakovich. Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 86. ISBN 978-1-61774-771-7. 
  27. ^ a b c d Encyclopedia of Music in the 20th Century 2013
  28. ^ Schwarz, Boris (1980). "Khachaturian, Aram". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (London: Oxford University Press). 
  29. ^ Tomoff 2006, pp. 34-35.
  30. ^ Yuzefovich 1985, p. 127.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g Geodakyan 1979, p. 19.
  32. ^ a b Fay, Laurel E. (2005). Shostakovich: A Life. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 155–157, 160. ISBN 978-0-19-518251-4. 
  33. ^ Mazullo, Mark (2010). Shostakovich's Preludes and Fugues: Contexts, Style, Performance. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-300-14943-2. 
  34. ^ Greene's Biographical Encyclopedia of Composers 1985
  35. ^ a b c The Musical Times 1978
  36. ^ Yuzefovich 1985, p. 191.
  37. ^ a b c d Johnston, AllMusic 2005
  38. ^ "Aram Ilich Khachaturian". Merriam Webster's Biographical Dictionary (Springfield, Massachusetts: Merriam-Webster). 1995. 
  39. ^ a b c "Titles, prizes, awards". Virtual Museum of Aram Khachaturian. Archived from the original on 23 February 2014. 
  40. ^ "Aziz El-Shawan". OVGuide. Retrieved 1 February 2014. 
  41. ^ "Музыку Люблю Даже Больше, Чем Себя". Novaya Gazeta (in Russian). 17 March 2003. Retrieved 1 February 2014. 
  42. ^ Vasyanin, Andrey (16 July 2010). "Авось, все будет хорошо". Rossiyskaya Gazeta (in Russian). Retrieved 1 February 2014. 
  43. ^ "Европейскую классическую музыку лучше всех теперь пишут сыны Востока". pravda.ru (in Russian). 10 May 2006. Retrieved 1 February 2014. 
  44. ^ "Арам Ильич Хачатурян и его ученики [Aram Ilyich Khachaturian and his students]" (in Russian). Moscow Conservatory. 16 June 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2014. 
  45. ^ Lebrecht 1996, p. 431.
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  58. ^ Gilliland, Norman (2009). Scores to settle: stories of the struggle to create great music (1st ed.). Madison, Wisconsin: NEMO Productions. ISBN 978-0-9715093-3-7. "He would go on to become a teacher there on his way to becoming a major composer of the twentieth century." 
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  84. ^ "В Москве открыт памятник композитору Араму Хачатуряну [Statue of Aram Khachaturian unveiled in Moscow]" (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 31 October 2006. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
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  92. ^ "Пресс-релиз Аэрофлота о введении в эксплуатацию А319 "А. Хачатурян" [Press-release of Aeroflot about putting into operation the A319 "A. Khachaturian"] (in Russian). Aeroflot. 19 June 2009. Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
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Bibliography[edit]

Books[edit]

  • Bakst, James (1977). "Khachaturyan". A History of Russian-Soviet Music (Reprint ed.). Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-8371-9422-9. 
  • Chebotaryan, Gayane (1969). Полифония в творчестве Арама Хачатуряна [Polyphony in Aram Khachaturian's Works] (in Russian). Yerevan: Hayastan Publishing. OCLC 9225122. 
  • Fay, Laurel E. (1990). Aram Khachaturian: a complete catalogue. New York: G. Schirmer Inc. OCLC 23711723. 
  • Geodakyan, Gevorg (1972). Арам Хачатурян [Aram Khachaturian] (in Russian). Yerevan: Armenian SSR Academy of Sciences Press. 
  • Karagiulian, E. (1961). Симфоническое творчество А. Хачатуряна [Symphonic Oeuvre of A. Khachaturian] (in Russian). Yerevan: Armgosizdat. OCLC 25716788. 
  • Kharajanian, R. (1973). Фортепианное творчество Арама Хачатуряна [Aram Khachaturian's piano music] (in Russian). Yerevan: Hayastan Publishing. 
  • Khubov, Georgii (1939). Арам Хачатурян. Эскиз характеристики [Aram Khachaturian. Sketches of characteristics] (in Russian). Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe muzykal'noe izdatel'stvo. OCLC 29138604. 
  • Khubov, Georgii (1967). Арам Хачатурян:монография [Aram Khachaturian: monography] (in Russian) (2nd ed.). Moscow: Muzyka. OCLC 4940007. 
  • Robinson, Harlow (2013). "The Caucasian Connection: National Identity in the Ballets of Aram Khachaturian". In Kanet, Roger E.. Identities, Nations and Politics After Communism. Routledge. pp. 23–32. ISBN 978-1-317-96866-5. 
  • Rybakova, S. (1975). Арам Ильич Хачатурян: Сборник статей [Aram Khachaturian: Collection of articles] (in Russian). Moscow: Sovetsky Kompozitor. 
  • Shneerson, Grigory (1959). Aram Khachaturyan. Xenia Danko (translator). Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House. 
  • Tigranov, Georgiĭ (1978). Арам Ильич Хачатурян: очерк жизни и творчества [Aram Khachaturian: Outline of Life and Work] (in Russian). Leningrad: Muzyka. OCLC 8495433. 
  • Tigranov, Georgiĭ (1987). Арам Ильич Хачатурян [Aram Ilʹich Khachaturi︠a︡n] (in Russian). Moscow: Muzyka. OCLC 17793679. 
  • Yuzefovich, Victor (1985). Aram Khachaturyan. Nicholas Kournokoff and Vladimir Bobrov (translators). New York: Sphinx Press. ISBN 0-8236-8658-2. 

Dictionary and encyclopedia articles[edit]

Journal and newspaper articles[edit]

External links[edit]