Agelenidae

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Araneomorph funnel weaver Spiders
Female Agelenopsis ("grass spider")
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Superfamily: Agelenoidea
Family: Agelenidae
C. L. Koch, 1837
Genera

See text.

Diversity
41 genera, 500 species

The Agelenidae are a large family of spiders in the suborder Araneomorphae. Well-known examples include the common "grass spiders" of the genus Agelenopsis. Nearly all Agelenidae are harmless to humans, but the bite of the "hobo spider" (Tegenaria agrestis) may be medically significant and there is evidence that it might cause necrotic lesions.[1] The matter however remains subject to debate.[2] The most widely accepted common name for members of the family is "Funnel weaver".[3]

Description[edit]

Tegenaria agrestis the "hobo spider"
Tegenaria duellica female at the mouth of her retreat
Funnel web of an agelenid from Spain.
Immature male Agelena labyrinthica.

The smallest species of the Agelenidae are about 4 mm in bodily length, excluding leg span. Fairly large species are about 20 mm in length. Some exceptionally large species, for example Tegenaria duellica and Tegenaria atrica, may reach 5 cm to 10 cm in total leg span.

Agelenidae have eight eyes in two horizontal rows of four. The cephalothorax narrows somewhat towards the front where the eyes are. The abdomen is more or less oval, usually patterned with two rows of lines and spots. Some species have longitudinal lines on the dorsal surface of the cephalothorax whereas other species do not; for example, the hobo spider does not, which assists in informally distinguishing it from similar-looking species.[4]

Biology[edit]

Most of the Agelenidae are very fast runners, especially on their webs. With speeds clocked at 1.73 ft/s (0.53 m/s), the Giant house spider held the Guinness Book of World Records title for top spider speed until 1987. A recent literature review found peer-reviewed accounts of several agelenid species achieving speeds in this range, though some other taxa have achieved higher speeds.[5][6]

Agelenids build a flat sheet of non-sticky web with a funnel-shaped retreat to one side or occasionally in the middle, depending on the situation and species. Accordingly "funnel weaver" is the most widely accepted common name for members of the family, but they should not be confused with the so-called "funnel-web tarantulas" or "funnel-web spiders" of the families Hexathelidae and Dipluridae, both of which are in the suborder Mygalomorphae.[3] The Hexathelidae in particular include the notorious Sydney funnel-web spider.

The typical hunting mode for most sheet-building Agelenidae is similar to that of most other families of spiders that build sheet web in the open, typically on grass or in scrubland as opposed to under bark, rocks and the like. They await the arrival of prey such as grasshoppers that fall onto the horizontal web. Although the web is not sticky, it is full of entangling filaments that the spider continually lays down when passing over. The filaments catch in the least projections on a prey insect's body or limbs. The web also is springy and, whether perching on the sheet or awaiting prey in its retreat, the spider reacts immediately to vibrations, whether from a courting male, the threatening struggles of dangerous invaders, or the weaker struggles of potential meals. They attack promising prey by rushing out at high speed and dealing a paralysing venomous bite. Once the prey has been disabled the spider generally drags it back into the retreat and begins to feed. This method of attack is consistent with the high speeds at which Agelenidae run. Other sheet web hunters such as some Pisauridae also are very fast runners.

Parasocial species[edit]

The type genus, Agelena, includes some parasocial spiders that live in complex communal webs in Africa. The best known of these is probably Agelena consociata. Social behaviour in these spiders comprises communal web-building, cooperative prey capture and communal rearing of young. There is however no trophallaxis, nor any true eusociality such as occurs in the social Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps); for example the spiders have no castes such as sterile workers or soldiers and all females are reproductive.[7]

Medical significance[edit]

Only one species of Agelenid has become prominent as a putative cause of a significant frequency of necrotic arachnidism; this is the "hobo spider", Tegenaria agrestis.[4] This perception arose when the species accidentally got introduced to the United States in the mid twentieth century and propagated rapidly in several regions. It is a fairly large, rapidly-moving spider and accordingly alarming to many people. In a period in which [8]

Taxonomy[edit]

The family Agelenidae contains nearly 1,200 species in 68 genera worldwide.[9]

Genera in the family Agelenidae[edit]

  • Acutipetala Dankittipakul & Zhang, 2008 — Thailand
  • Agelena Walckenaer, 1805 — Palearctic, Africa
  • Agelenella Lehtinen, 1967 — Yemen, Socotra
  • Agelenopsis Giebel, 1869 — North America
  • Ageleradix Xu & Li, 2007 — China
  • Agelescape Levy, 1996 — Mediterranean
  • Ahua Forster & Wilton, 1973 — New Zealand
  • Allagelena Zhang, Zhu & Song, 2006 — Eurasia
  • Alloclubionoides Paik, 1992 — Eurasia
  • Aterigena Bolzern, Hänggi & Burckhardt, 2010 — China, Mediterranean
  • Azerithonica Guseinov, Marusik & Koponen, 2005 — Azerbaijan
  • Barronopsis Chamberlin & Ivie, 1941 — Cuba, USA, Bahamas
  • Benoitia Lehtinen, 1967 — China, Africa, Cyprus, Israel, Yemen
  • Bifidocoelotes Wang, 2002 — Taiwan, Hong Kong
  • Calilena Chamberlin & Ivie, 1941 — USA, Mexico
  • Coelotes Blackwall, 1841 — Palearctic
  • Coras Simon, 1898 — North America
  • Draconarius Ovtchinnikov, 1999 — Asia
  • Femoracoelotes Wang, 2002 — Taiwan
  • Hadites Keyserling, 1862 — Croatia
  • Himalcoelotes Wang, 2002 — Bhutan, Nepal, China
  • Histopona Thorell, 1869 — Europe
  • Hololena Chamberlin & Gertsch, 1929 — North America
  • Huangyuania Song & Li, 1990 — China
  • Huka Forster & Wilton, 1973 — New Zealand
  • Hypocoelotes Nishikawa, 2009 — Japan
  • Inermocoelotes Ovtchinnikov, 1999 — Europe
  • Iwogumoa Kishida, 1955 — Asia
  • Kidugua Lehtinen, 1967 — Congo
  • Leptocoelotes Wang, 2002 — Taiwan, China
  • Lineacoelotes Xu, Li & Wang, 2008 — China
  • Longicoelotes Wang, 2002 — China, Ryukyu Is.
  • Lycosoides Lucas, 1846 — Mediterranean, Azerbaijan
  • Mahura Forster & Wilton, 1973 — New Zealand
  • Maimuna Lehtinen, 1967 — Eastern Mediterranean
  • Malthonica Simon, 1898 — Mediterranean, Europe to Central Asia, USA to Chile, New Zealand
  • Melpomene O. P-Cambridge, 1898 — USA to Panama
  • Mistaria Lehtinen, 1967 — Central & East Africa, Yemen
  • Neoramia Forster & Wilton, 1973 — New Zealand
  • Neorepukia Forster & Wilton, 1973 — New Zealand
  • Neotegenaria Roth, 1967 — Guyana
  • Neowadotes Alayón, 1995 — Hispaniola
  • Notiocoelotes Wang, Xu & Li, 2008 — Asia
  • Novalena Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942 — USA to El Salvador
  • Olorunia Lehtinen, 1967 — Congo
  • Oramia Forster, 1964 — New Zealand
  • Oramiella Forster & Wilton, 1973 — New Zealand
  • Orepukia Forster & Wilton, 1973 — New Zealand
  • Orumcekia Koçak & Kemal, 2008 — Asia
  • Paramyra Forster & Wilton, 1973 — New Zealand
  • Pireneitega Kishida, 1955 — Palearctic
  • Platocoelotes Wang, 2002 — China, Japan
  • Porotaka Forster & Wilton, 1973 — New Zealand
  • Pseudotegenaria Caporiacco, 1934 — Balkans, Libya
  • Robusticoelotes Wang, 2002 — China
  • Rualena Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942 — USA to Guatemala
  • Spiricoelotes Wang, 2002 — China, Japan, Ryukyu Is.
  • Tamgrinia Lehtinen, 1967 — India, China
  • Tararua Forster & Wilton, 1973 — New Zealand
  • Tegecoelotes Ovtchinnikov, 1999 — Asia
  • Tegenaria Latreille, 1804 — worldwide
  • Textrix Sundevall, 1833 — Europe, Mediterranean, Ethiopia
  • Tikaderia Lehtinen, 1967 — Himalayas
  • Tonsilla Wang & Yin, 1992 — China
  • Tortolena Chamberlin & Ivie, 1941 — USA, Mexico to Costa Rica
  • Tuapoka Forster & Wilton, 1973 — New Zealand
  • Urocoras Ovtchinnikov, 1999 — Europe
  • Wadotes Chamberlin, 1925 — North America

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jerome Goddard (3 December 2012). Physician's Guide to Arthropods of Medical Importance, Sixth Edition. CRC Press. pp. 380–. ISBN 978-1-4398-5085-5. 
  2. ^ Gaver-Wainwright, Melissa M.; Zack, Richard S.; Foradori, Matthew J.; Lavine, Laura Corley. Misdiagnosis of Spider Bites: Bacterial Associates, Mechanical Pathogen Transfer, and Hemolytic Potential of Venom from the Hobo Spider, Tegenaria agrestis (Araneae: Agelenidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 48(2):382-388. 2011 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/ME09224
  3. ^ a b [1] Breene et al., 2003. Common Names of Arachnids, fifth edition
  4. ^ a b Vetter, R. S., and A. L. Antonelli. 2002. How to identify (or misidentify) the hobo spider. Wash. St. Coop. Ext. Pest Leafl. Series No. 116
  5. ^ Spagna, J. C., & Peattie, A. M. (2012). Terrestrial locomotion in arachnids. Journal of insect physiology, 58(5), 599-606.
  6. ^ Gorb, S.N., Barth, F.G., 1994. Locomotor behavior during prey-capture of a fishing spider, Dolomedes plantarius (Araneae: Araneidae): galloping and stopping. The Journal of Arachnology 22, 89–93.
  7. ^ Rainer Foelix (3 December 2010). Biology of Spiders. Oxford University Press, USA. pp. 320–. ISBN 978-0-19-981324-7. 
  8. ^ Vetter, Richard S.; Isbister, Geoffrey K. Do Hobo Spider Bites Cause Dermonecrotic Injuries? [Ann Emerg Med. 2004;44:605-607.]
  9. ^ [2] The World Spider Catalog, Version 13.0 by Norman I. Platnick

Additional Reading[edit]

External links[edit]