Arbëresh language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Arbëresh
Arbërisht(e)
Pronunciation [ˌæɾbəˈɾiʃt]
Native to Italy
Region Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Molise, Sicily
Native speakers
100,000  (2007)[1]
Latin
Language codes
ISO 639-3 aae
Linguasphere 55-AAA-aha to 55-AAA-ahe
Glottolog arbe1236[2]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Arbëreshë (also known as Arbërisht, Arbërishtja or T'arbrisht) is an ethnolect spoken by the Arbëreshë, the Albanian ethnic and language group in Italy.

Classification[edit]

Arbëresh derives from the Tosk dialect spoken in southern Albania and ultimately from the Arvanitika dialect of the Albanian language. Arberesh is spoken in Southern Italy in the regions of Abruzzi, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Molise, Puglia and Sicily. All dialects are closely related to each other but are not entirely mutually intelligible.

The Arbëresh language retains many archaisms of medieval Albanian from the pre-Ottoman invasion of Albania in the 15th century. It also retains some Greek elements, including vocabulary and pronunciation, most of which it shares with his relative Arvanitika. It has also preserved some conservative features that were lost in mainstream Albanian Tosk. For example, it has preserved certain syllable-initial consonant clusters which have been simplified in Standard Albanian (cf. Arbërisht gluhë /ˈɡluxə/ ('language/tongue'), vs. Standard Albanian gjuhë /ˈɟuhə/). Arberesh closely resembles the dialect of Albanian spok en in the south-central region of Albania, by the Albanian speaking population.

Arbërisht was commonly called 'Albanese' (Albanian in the Italian language) in Italy until the 1990s. Until recently, Arbërisht speakers had only very imprecise notions about how related or unrelated their language was to Albanian. Until the 1980s Arbërisht was exclusively a spoken language, except for its written form used in the Italo-Albanian Byzantin Church, and Arbëreshë people had no practical affiliation with the Standard Albanian language used in Albania, as they did not use this form in writing or in media. When a large number of immigrants from Albania began to enter Italy in the 1990s and came into contact with local Arbëreshë communities, the differences and similarities were for the first time made known. There are mixed feelings towards the "new Albanians".[3]

Since the 1980s, some efforts have been organized to preserve the cultural and linguistic heritage of the language.

Arbërisht has been under a slow decline in recent decades, but is currently experiencing a revival in many villages in Italy. Figures such as Zef Skirò Di Maxho have done much work on school books and other language learning tools in the language, producing two books 'Udha e Mbarë' and 'Udhëtimi', both used in schools in the village of Piana degli Albanesi, Sicily.

Albanian dialects

False friends[edit]

While the relation between Arbëresh and standard Albanian is close, the two are not 100% mutually intelligible and there are many false friends, for example:

Arbëresh Meaning Albanian Meaning
shërbenj to work shërbej to serve
punonj to work in the fields punoj to work
u nëng/ngë jam I am not unë nuk jam I am not
kopíl young man kopil bastard
brekë trousers brekë underpants
brumë pasta brumë dough
zienj to cook ziej to boil
fund end / buttocks fund end / buttocks

Dialects[edit]

Vaccarizzo Albanian[edit]

Vaccarizzo Albanian is a variety of the Arbëresh language. Spoken in the villages of Vaccarizzo Albanese and San Giorgio Albanese in Calabria by approximately 3,000 people. Vaccarizzo Albanian has retained many archaic features of both Gheg and Tosk dialects.

Distinctive features[edit]

Some features of Arbërisht distinguish it considerably from standard Albanian. In some cases these are retentions of older pronunciations.

Phonology[edit]

Vowels[edit]

Ë

The letter "Ë" is pronounced as either a schwa [ə] or as a near-close near-back vowel [ʊ̜]. So the word "Arbëresh" is pronounced either [ɑɾbəˈɾɛʃ] or [ɑɾbʊ̜ˈɾɛʃ] depending on the dialect.

Y to I

Arbërisht lacks the close front rounded vowel [y] of Albanian, which is replaced by the close front unrounded vowel [i]. For example "ty" ('you') becomes "ti", "hyni" ('enter') becomes "hini".

Consonants[edit]

GJ

The letter "GJ" is pronounced as a palatalized voiced velar plosive [ɡʲ] rather than a voiced palatal plosive [ɟ] as in Albanian. Therefore, the word "gjith" ('all') is pronounced [ɡʲiθ] rather than [ɟiθ].

GL

In some words, Albanian "GJ", Arbëresh has preserved the consonant cluster "GL"; e.g. "glet" not "gjet" ('s/he looks like...').

H

The letter "H" is pronounced as a voiceless velar fricative [x] (a sound also found in Greek: "χαρά" [xaˈra], 'joy'). As such, the Albanian word "ha" ('eat') is pronounced [xɑ], not [hɑ] as in Albanian.

HJ

Arbëresh has a palatalized voiceless velar fricative, [xʲ]. Therefore, the word "hjedh" ('throw') is pronounced [xʲɛθ]. The letter combination HJ is present in a few Albanian words (without a voiceless velar fricative), but is not treated as a separate letter of the alphabet as it is in Arbëresh.

LL

The letter "LL" is pronounced as a voiced velar fricative [ɣ] (also found in Greek: "γάλα" [ˈɣala], 'milk'). As such, the Albanian word "llah" ('to eat until stuffed') is pronounced [ɣɑx], not [ɫɑh] as in Albanian.

Q

The letter "Q" is pronounced as a palatalized voiceless velar plosive [kʲ] rather than a voiceless palatal plosive [c] as in Albanian. Therefore, the word "qiell" ('heaven') is pronounced [kʲiɛx] rather than [ciɛɫ] and the word "shqip" ('eagle') is pronounced [ʃkʲɪp].

KL

Arbërisht has preserved the consonant cluster "KL" e.g. "klumësht" not "qumësht" ('milk') or "klisha" instead of "kisha" ('church').

Pronunciation of final consonants[edit]

In contrast with standard Albanian Arbëresh has retained an archaic sysytem of pronouncing consonants in their final positions. The consonants that change when in final position or before another consonant are: b, d, dh, g, gj, ll, v, x, xh, z, zh.

B

devoices to P: e.g. 'thelb' (clove) - 'thelp.'

D

devoices to T: e.g. 'vend' (place) - 'vent.'

DH

devoices to TH: e.g. 'zgledh' (read) - 'zgleth.'

G

devoices to K: e.g. 'lig' (bad) - 'lik.'

GJ

devoices to Q: 'zogj' (chicks) - 'zoq.'

J

devoices to HJ: 'vaj' (oil) - 'vahj.'

LL

devoices to H: 'uthull' (vinegar) - 'uthuh.'

X

devoices to C: 'ndanx' (near) - 'ndanc.'

Z

devoices to S: 'loz' (dance) - 'los.'

ZH

devoices to SH: 'gozhda' (pin) - 'goshda.'

Pronunciation of G[edit]

The letter G is usually pronounced as a voiced velar fricative [ɣ] as in the pronunciation of the Arbëresh letter 'll', this sound is often represented by the letters 'GH' in the Arbëresh orthography.

For example:

Ghajdhur/Gajdhur (donkey)

is pronounced (ɣajður)

Grish (invite)

is pronounced (ɣriʃ)

Morphology[edit]

In Arbëresh the first person present indicative (e.g. "I work") is marked by the word ending in "NJ", whereas in Albanian this is normally marked by "J". So, 'I live' is "rrónj" in Arbëresh and "rroj" in Albanian.

Stress[edit]

Stress in Arbëresh is usually on the penultimate syllable, as in Italian.

Non-Albanian vocabulary[edit]

Many Arbëresh words appear to be cognate with their corresponding Greek words that have either been lost in standard Albanian or are a result of Greek influence on the Arbëresh language via the Byzantine church or their proximity to Greek-speaking populations in their original villages in Albania.

Examples:

  • haristís [xaɾiˈstis] ('thank') shared with Greek "εὐχαριστῶ" [e̞fˌxariˈsto̞] ('thank you'). Arvanitika uses fharistisem
  • parkalés [paɾkaˈlɛs] ('I plead', 'please') shared with Greek "παρακαλώ" [paˌrakaˈlo̞] ('please').
  • hórë [xɔˈɾə] ('village') shared with Greek "χωρα" (Chora: land, main village).
  • amáhj [aˈmaxʲ] ('war') shared with Greek "μάχη" [maˈxi] ('battle')."

Alongside the Greek component in Arbëresh, there is a considerable vocabulary derived from Sicilian and other southern italian dialacts. Many of these words have retained their original meanings where Sicilian has given way to Italian in everyday speech amongst the non-Arbëresh Sicilian people.

Examples:

  • rritrenjët ('toilets'), this derives from an apparently French word introduced to Sicilian via the Normans and is retained in Arbëresh and not in modern Sicilian.
  • rritëratë ('photograph'), this derives from the Sicilian word for picture and is more common in Arbëresh than in modern Sicilian.
  • ghranët ('money'), this derives from the Sicilian word 'granni', meaning 'money' in Sicilian but not in Italian. It is still used in some contexts by modern Sicilian speakers as well as in all situations in Arbëresh. The original Arbëresh word for money was 'haromë' of unknown origin and no longer used.
  • qaca ('square'), this comes from the Sicilian word 'Chiazza' which is used in all Arbëresh dialects as well as Sicilian. The Albanian word 'Sheshi' which means 'square' in standard Albanian means of 'plateau' in Arbëresh.

Grammar of Non-Albanian verbs[edit]

Alongside the Sicilian vocabulary element in Arbëresh, the language also includes grammatical rules for the inclusion of Sicilian-derived verbs in Arbëresh.

Examples:

  • pincar ('think'), originally mendonj-mbanj mend; derived from the Sicilian 'pinzari'. Which conjugates in the present tense as follows:
  • U pincar = I think
  • Ti pincar = You think
  • Ai/Ajo pincar = He/She thinks
  • Na pincarjëm = We think
  • Ata/Ato pincarjën = They think
  • Ju pincarni = You (pl) think

In the past tense this conjugates as follows:

  • U pincarta = I thought
  • Ti pincarte = You thought
  • Ai/Ajo pincarti = He/She thought
  • Na pircartëm = We thought
  • Ata/Ato pincartën = They thought
  • Ju pincartët = You (pl.) thought

Comparison with other forms of Albanian[edit]

There are many instances in which Arberisht differs greatly from Standard Albanian, for instance:

Arbërisht Shqip Meaning
Vjen më rarë or vjen më thënë do të thotë or do me thënë It means
Bëjëm të shkonj or mënd e më shkosh më le të kaloj Let me pass
Shkòmë musturën më jep piperin Pass me the pepper
Zotërote ë një "zot"? Zotëri, jeni prift? Sir, are you a priest?
E ghrish zotërisë satë pë' një pasijatë ju ftoj për një shëtitje I invite you for a stroll
Zglith mirë lexoni mirë Read well
Moti/Qëroi isht burinë i lig moti është shumë keq The weather is very bad
Rri Sëndastinë jetoj në Sëndastinë I live in Santa Cristina
Ka bëjëm të ngrënit do ta gatuajmë ushqimin We will prepare the food
U kam jecur njera qacës unë kam ecur deri sheshit I have walked to the square
Ghajdhuri isht ghrishur ndë horën gomari është ftuar në katund The donkey is invited into the village
Nani jam e vete ngulem/flë tani unë do të fle I'm going to sleep now
Lyp ndjesë se zgarrarta/gabova shumë më fal se gabova shumë I'm sorry that I've made so many errors
Ajo isht time shoqe ajo është gruaja ime She is my wife
Flit t'arbrisht fol shqip Speak Albanian!
Im shoq isht e ngulet im shok është duke fjetur My husband is sleeping
Më pëlqen rritëratën tënë më pëlqen fotografia jonë I like our photograph
Mortatë or motrëmëmë hallë or tezë Aunt
Lalë or vovi xhaxha or Lalë (dialect) Uncle or Older brother
Lalëbukuri Uncle by marriage
Vova motra e madhe Older sister
Tata babai or Tata (dialect) Father
Mëmë nëna or mamaja Mother
Edhe edhe Also
Vëllai or Lluai vëllai brother
Ndrëngonj Kuptoj understand
Sprasmja Fundi end
Fundi/Bythi Bythi buttocks
Jotëm përherë/gjithëmonë të thëshjë të mos hash nga tajuri çë ngë ka klënë pastruam! Nëna jote gjithmonë thonte se mos ha nga pjata që nuk është pastruar Your mother always said don't eat from plates that haven't been cleaned!
The Lord's Prayer Arbëresh by Sicily (first row)

Compared with Standard Tosk Albanian (second row),
and Gheg Albanian (third row).

Áti jinë çë je qiell, shejtëruarkloftë embri jít.
Ati ynë që je qiell, u shënjtëroftë emri yt.
Ati ynë që je qiell, shejtnue kjoftë emni yt.
Our father who art in heaven hallowed be thy name
járthshit rregjëria jóte; ubëftë vullimi jít,
arthtë mbretëria jote; u bëftë dëshira jote,
ardhtë mbretnia jote; u baftë vullnesa jote,
thy kingdom come thy will be done
si në qiell, ashtú dhé;
si në qiell, edhe mbi dhe.
si në qiell ashtu dhe.
on earth as it is in heaven
bukën tënë të përditshme ena neve sòt;
bukën tonë të përditëshme jepna neve sot;
bukën tonë të përditshme epna ne sot;
give us this day our daily bread
ndjena dëtyrët tóna,
edhe falna fajet tona,
e ndiejna ne fajet e mëkatet tona,
and forgive us our trespasses
si na ja ndjejëm dëtyruamëvet tanë;
sikundër edhe ne ua falim fajtorëvet tanë;
si i ndiejmë na fajtorët tanë;
as we forgive those who trespass against us
e mos na le bien ngarje, lirona nga i ligu;
edhe mos na shtjerë ngasje, po shpëtona nga i ligu;
e mos na len me ra keq, por largona prej gjith së keq;
and lead us not into temptation but deliver us from evil
se jótja isht rregjëria, fuqia e lëvdia për jétë jetëvet.
sepse jotja është mbretëria e fuqia e lavdia jetët jetëvet.
sepse joteja âsht rregjinija e fuqia e lafti jetët jetëvet.
for thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever and ever.

Grammar comparison[edit]

There are many elements of Arberesh grammar that differ considerably from Albanian, for example:

Arbërisht Shqip Meaning
ka shkosh do kalosh You will pass (Arbërisht uses the common Balkan participle 'ka' whereas Shqip uses 'do' which translates as 'want' which is also a feature of the Balkan sprachsbund)
flini alluras/anangasu folni/flisni shpejt Speak soon (pl.)
flëni flini Sleep! (pl.)
bëjëm të shkonj, mënd'e më shkosh më le të kaloj Let me pass (Shqip uses 'allow me to pass' whereas Arbërisht uses 'we do to pass' and 'able to pass')
u vajta shkova I went (Arbërisht conjugates from the Tosk word 'të vete' whereas 'shkova' means 'I passed' in Arbërisht)
ke gjegjur ke dëgjuar You have heard
zoti zën fill parkalesiën prifti fillon lutën The priest starts the prayers
ish stisur u ndërtua It was built
jam e flas, je e flet, ai ë e flet, ajo ë e flet, jem'e flasjëm, jan'e flasjën, jin'e flini po flas, ti po flet, ai po flet, ajo po flet, po flasim, po flasin, po flisni I am talking, you are talking, he is talking, she is talking, we are talking, they are talking, you (pl) are talking (the present continuous is marked with the structure 'I am, You are, He is, She is, We are, They are etc. Whereas Shqip uses 'po' which literally means 'yes'
te ku ë Mëria? ku është Maria? Where is Maria? (the locative marker 'te' which literally means 'to' is added before 'ku' {where}. A similar phenomena occurs in Welsh English and West Country English i.e. 'Where to you going?' or 'Where's he to?')
Mëria rri alarta Maria është lartë Maria is upstairs
Si ë Zotërote? Si jeni ju, Zotëri? How are you sir? (the polite or formal is marked by use of 'Zotërote' with 'ju' being reserved for the plural only)

Name[edit]

The name Arbërishte is derived from the ethnonym "Albanoi", which in turn comes from the toponym "Arbëria" (Greek: Άρβανα), which in the Middle Ages referred to a region in what is today Albania (Babiniotis 1998). Its native equivalents (Arbërorë, Arbëreshë and others) formerly were the self-designation of Albanians in general. Both "Arbëria" and "Albania/Albanian" go further back to name forms attested since antiquity.

Within the Arbëresh communit the language is often referred to as "Tarbrisht" or "Gjegje." It is not known why the term "gjegje" is used, however, this does mean "listen" in Arbërisht.

Arbëresh names[edit]

Every Arbëresh person is given a legal Italian name and also a name in Arbërisht. Quite often the Arbëresh name is merely a translation of the Italian name. Arbëresh surnames are also used amongst villagers but do not carry any legal weight; the Arbëresh surname is called an "ofiqe" in Arbërisht. Some Arberesh 'ofiqe' are 'Butijuni', 'Pafundi' (literally 'without anus', probably with the meaning of 'without end, infinite'), 'Skarpari' (shoemaker from Italian word 'scarpa'), 'Mut', 'Picanarët', 'Balolërat', 'Kashetërat', 'Lopa', 'Bikubiu' etc.

Examples of Italian names and their Arbëresh equivalents:

Italian Arbëresh
Giuseppe Zef
Marco Marku
Luca Lekë
Gabriele Bjelli
Francesco Nxhiku
Nicola Kolla
Angela Ëngjëlliqe
Alessandro Lishëndri
Mario Marjucë
Maria Marieja
Gaetano Tani
Eleuterio Lëfteri
Antonio Ndon
Gaspare Ghaspani
Domenica Mima
Lorenzo Lloreu
Giovanni Jani, Xhuan
Demetrio Mitri
Spiridione Dhoni
Rosalia Sallja
Tommaso Masinë
Cosimo Gësmëni
Saverio Shaverë
Andrea Ndrica

Writing system[edit]

The language is not usually written outside of the church and a few highly educated families, but officials are now using the standard Albanian alphabet, which is used on street signs in the villages as well as taught in schools.

Language samples[edit]

Pronouns[edit]

  Personal pronouns Possessive pronouns
1Sg. u I jim mine
2Sg. ti you jytë yours
3Sg.m. aji he i/e tíj his
3Sg.f. ajo she i/e saj hers
1Pl. na we jynë ours
2Pl. ju you juaj yours
3Pl.m. ata they (m.) atyre theirs (m.)
3Pl.f. ato they (f.) atyre theirs (f.)

Verbs[edit]

Arbëresh verbs often differ, somewhat drastically, from their Standard Albanian counterparts.

Personal moods
Mood Tense Number and person English
equivalent
(only sg. 1st)
Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Indicative Pluperfect kisha burë kishe burë kishë burë kishëm burë kishni burë kishin burë I had done
Imperfect ish'e buja (she buja) ish'e buje (she buje) ish'e bun (she bun) ishm'e bujëm ishn'e buni ishn'e bujën I was doing
Perfect bura bure burë burëm burën burën I did
Present perfect ka burë ka burë ka burë ka burë ka burë ka burë I have done
Present bunj bun bun bujëm buni bujën I do, I am doing
Future ka bunj ka bun ka bun ka bujëm ka buni ka bujën I will do
Imperative Present buje! buni! do! (2nd person only)
Verbals
Type Form English
Infinitive të bunj to do
Gerund jam e bunj doing
  The verb HAVE The verb BE
  Pres. Imperf. Subj.Impf. Subj.Perf. Pres. Imperf. Subj.Impf. Subj.Perf.
1Sg. kam keshë të kem të keshë jam jeshë të jem të jeshë
2Sg. ke keshe të kesh të keshe je jeshe të jesh të jëshe
3Sg. ka kish të ket të kish ishtë, është ish të jet të ish
1Pl. kemi keshëm të kemi te keshëm jemi jeshëm të jeshëm të jeshëm
2Pl. kini keshëtë të kini te keshëtë jini jeshëtë të jeshëtë të jeshëtë
3Pl, kanë kishnë të kenë të kishnë janë ishnë të jenë të ishnë

Some common phrases[edit]

Falem Hello.
Çë bën? Si rri? What are you doing? How are you?
Jam shumë mirë I am very well
Zotrote e haristis, jini mirë? Thank you, and are you well?
O, jam edhe mirë? Yes, I'm fine too.
Zotrote flini arbërisht? Do you speak Arbërisht?
Ka vjen? Where are you from?
Jam gjymsë arbëresh I'm half Arbëresh
Mëma jime isht lëtire My mother is Italian
Ju parkales Please
Gëzonem të ju njoh Pleased to meet you
Mirë menatë Good morning
Shihemi See you soon
Gjegjemi alluras We'll speak soon
Si thërritet? What's your name?
Mua më thonë Marieja My name is Maria
Ëj/o Yes (Piana degli Albanesi)
Ara/ëj Yes (Santa Cristina Gela)
Ora/ëj Yes (Contessa Entellina)
Jo No

Sample text[edit]

Shërbesa e Kurorës - The Italo-Albanian Marriage Ceremony

Zoti : Gjergji, do ti të marsh për grua Linën çë ë ke këtú te ana, si urdhuron Klisha Shejte, e të qëndrosh lidhur me atë në të mirën si edhé në të ligën gjithë ditët e gjellës tënde?

Priest: Do you George want to take as your legitimate wife Lina who is present here according to the instructions of the Holy Church and to be faithful through the good and the bad all of your life?

Dhëndërri: O, e dua!

Groom: Yes, I do want that!

Zoti: Bekuar kloft Perëndia jínë nga herë, naní e për gjithëmonë e për jetë të jetëvet.

Priest: blessed be our God for all time, now and always in the centuries of centuries.

Populli: Amín.

People: Amín.

Zoti: Në paqe parkalesjëm t'ën Zonë.

Priest: In peace we pray to the Lord.

Populli: Lipisí, o i Madh'yn'Zot.

People: Our Great God, we beseech you.

Bekimi të unazavet

Zoti: Me këtë unazë shërbëtori i Perëndis, Gjergji, lidhet me shërbëtorën e Perëndis, Lina, në embër të Atit, të Birit e të Shpirtit Shejt.

Priest: The servant of God, George, is tied to the servant of God, Lina, in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.

Zoti jep krinjët e këndon Msalmin 127: Të limë atá çë i trëmben t'ynë Zoti e çë jecjën te udhët e Tij.

the priest delivers the candles and intones Psalm 127 Make happy those who fear the Lord and may they walk in His ways.

Lëvdi tij, o i madh'yn'Zot, lëvdi tij. Dhóksa si, o Theós imón, dhóksa si Glory to you, our God, glory to you.

Se ti ka hashë bukën e shërbëtyrës s'duarvet tote. Lumë ti e fatbardhë ka jeshë. Jotë shoqe ka jet si dhri me pemë te muret e shpis tënde. Bijët tatë si degë ullinjësh rrethë triesës tënde. Shi kështú ka jet bekuar njeriu çë ka trëmbësirën e Perëndisë.

That you will eat the bread of the work of your hands. You will be happy and enjoy all that is good. See your wife as a fertile vine in the intimacy of your home. That your daughters will be like olive branches around your table. That those who fear the Lord will be blessed.

Swadesh list[edit]

No. English Arberesh
Arbërisht, T'arbërisht
1 I u
2 you (singular) ti
3 he aj, ajo
4 we na, ne
5 you (plural) ju
6 they ata, ato
7 this ky, kjo
8 that aj, ajo
9 here këtu
10 there atì, atje
11 who kush
12 what çë
13 where ku
14 when kur
15 how si
16 not nëngë
17 all gjithë
18 many shumë, burinë
19 some ca
20 few
21 other jetër
22 one një
23 two di
24 three tri, tre
25 four kartë
26 five pesë
27 big i math, e madhe
28 long i, e glatë
29 wide i, e trash
30 thick
31 heavy i rënt, e rëndë
32 small i, e vogël
33 short i, e shkurtur
34 narrow
35 thin i hoh, e hollë
36 woman grua
37 man (adult male) burrë
38 man (human being) njeri
39 child fëmijë
40 wife shoqja
41 husband shoqi
42 mother mëma
43 father tata
44 animal animall
45 fish pishk
46 bird zok
47 dog kjen
48 louse
49 snake
50 worm
51 tree
52 forest
53 stick
54 fruit
55 seed
56 leaf
57 root
58 bark (of a tree)
59 flower lule
60 grass
61 rope
62 skin
63 meat mish
64 blood gjak
65 bone asht
66 fat (noun)
67 egg ves
68 horn
69 tail
70 feather
71 hair kripë
72 head krie
73 ear vesh
74 eye si
75 nose
76 mouth
77 tooth
78 tongue (organ) gluhë
79 fingernail
80 foot këmp
81 leg këmp
82 knee gluri
83 hand dorë
84 wing krah
85 belly bark
86 guts
87 neck
88 back kurrdhuc
89 breast
90 heart zëmbër
91 liver
92 to drink pi
93 to eat ha
94 to bite
95 to suck
96 to spit
97 to vomit
98 to blow
99 to breathe marr frim
100 to laugh kjesh
101 to see shoh
102 to hear gjegjem
103 to know di
104 to think pincar
105 to smell
106 to fear
107 to sleep flë
108 to live rronj
109 to die vdes
110 to kill vras
111 to fight
112 to hunt
113 to hit
114 to cut
115 to split
116 to stab
117 to scratch
118 to dig
119 to swim
120 to fly
121 to walk jec
122 to come vinj
123 to lie (as in a bed) ngulem
124 to sit ujem
125 to stand
126 to turn (intransitive)
127 to fall bie
128 to give jap
129 to hold
130 to squeeze
131 to rub
132 to wash lah
133 to wipe
134 to pull
135 to push
136 to throw
137 to tie
138 to sew
139 to count
140 to say them
141 to sing këndonj
142 to play los
143 to float
144 to flow
145 to freeze
146 to swell
147 sun dieh
148 moon hënxë
149 star izë
150 water ujë
151 rain shi
152 river lum
153 lake ghaghu
154 sea dejt
155 salt krip
156 stone gur
157 sand
158 dust
159 earth dhe
160 cloud
161 fog
162 sky kjieh
163 wind erë
164 snow sborë
165 ice akuh
166 smoke
167 fire zjarr
168 ash
169 to burn djek
170 road dhrom
171 mountain mal
172 red kukj
173 green virdhi
174 yellow
175 white i barth, e bardhe
176 black i zi, e zezë
177 night natë
178 day ditë
179 year vit
180 warm vap
181 cold titim
182 full plot
183 new i ri, e re
184 old i, e vjetrë
185 good i,e mirë
186 bad i, e lik
187 rotten
188 dirty
189 straight dreqtë
190 round
191 sharp (as a knife)
192 dull (as a knife)
193 smooth
194 wet lagët
195 dry
196 correct dreqtë, gjushtu
197 near dancë
198 far gharghu
199 right drejtë
200 left shtrëmbra
201 at te
202 in
203 with me
204 and e
205 if
206 because përçë
207 name embër

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Arbëresh at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Arbëresh". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ New Albanian Immigrants in the Old Albanian Diaspora: Piana Degli Albanesi. Eda Derhemi

References[edit]

  • Babiniotis, Georgios (1985): Συνοπτική Ιστορία της ελληνικής γλώσσας με εισαγωγή στην ιστορικοσυγκριτική γλωσσολογία. ["A concise history of the Greek language, with an introduction to historical-comparative linguistics] Athens: Ellinika Grammata.
  • Babiniotis, Georgios (1998), Λεξικό της Νέας Ελληνικής Γλώσσας ["Dictionary of Modern Greek"]. Athens: Kentro Lexikologias.
  • Breu, Walter (1990): "Sprachliche Minderheiten in Italien und Griechenland." ["Linguistic minorities in Italy and Greece"]. In: B. Spillner (ed.), Interkulturelle Kommunikation. Frankfurt: Lang. 169-170.
  • GHM (=Greek Helsinki Monitor) (1995): "Report: The Arvanites". Online report
  • Hammarström, Harald (2005): Review of Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 15th Edition. LINGUIST List 16.2637 (5 Sept 2005). Online article

Vol. II. Livadia: Exandas, 1999 PDF.

  • Η Καινή Διαθήκη στα Αρβανίτικα: Διάτα ε Ρε ['The New Testament in Arvanitika']. Athens: Ekdoseis Gerou. No date.
  • Kloss, Heinz (1967): "Abstand-languages and Ausbau-languages". Anthropological linguistics 9.
  • Salminen, Tapani (1993–1999): Unesco Red Book on Endangered Languages: Europe. [1].
  • Strauss, Dietrich (1978): "Scots is not alone: Further comparative considerations". Actes du 2e Colloque de Language et de Litterature Ecossaises, Strasbourg 1978. 80-97.
  • Thomason, Sarah G. (2001): Language contact: An introduction. Washington: Georgetown University Press. Online chapter
  • Trudgill, Peter (2004): "Glocalisation [sic] and the Ausbau sociolinguistics of modern Europe". In: A. Duszak, U. Okulska (eds.), Speaking from the margin: Global English from a European perspective. Frankfurt: Peter Lang. Online article