Economy of Germany

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Economy of Germany
FrankfurtSkyline2014.jpg
Frankfurt, financial capital of Germany.
Rank 4th (nominal) / 5th (PPP)
Currency Euro (EUR)[1]
calendar year
Trade organisations
EU, WTO (via EU membership) and OECD
Statistics
GDP

$3.747 trillion (2014 nominal)[2]

$3.325 trillion (2014 PPP)
GDP growth
Decrease -0,2% Q2 2014[3]
GDP per capita

$45,925 (nominal 2014 est.)[2]

$40,756 (PPP 2014 est.)
GDP by sector
agriculture: 0.8%, industry: 28%, services: 71.2% (2012 est.)
1.43% (December 2013)[4]
.27 (2006)
Labour force
43.93 million (2012 est.)
Labour force by occupation
agriculture (2,4%), industry (29,7%), services (67,8%) (2005)
Unemployment 6.7% (March 2014)[5]
Average gross salary
€2,977 / $4,076, monthly (2013)
€1,889 / $2,600, monthly (2013)
Main industries
iron and steel, coal, cement, mineral fuels, chemicals, plastics, production machinery, vehicles, trains, machine tools, electronics, food and beverages, shipbuilding, space and aircraft, optical and medical apparatus, pharmaceuticals, textiles, agriculture
20th[6]
External
Exports $1.492 trillion (2012 est.)[7]
Export goods
motor vehicles, machinery, chemicals, computer and electronic products, electrical equipment, pharmaceuticals, metals, transport equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, rubber and plastic products
Main export partners
 France 10.2%,
 United Kingdom 7.0%,
 Netherlands 6.9%,
 United States 6.3%,
 Austria 5.6%,
 Italy 5.4%,
 China 5.1%,
  Switzerland 4.7%, (2012 est.)[8]
Imports $1.276 trillion (2012 est.)[7]
Import goods
machinery, data processing equipment, vehicles, chemicals, oil and gas, metals, electric equipment, pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, agricultural products
Main import partners
 Netherlands 14.0%,
 France 7.5%,
 China 6.7%,
 Belgium 6.4%,
 Italy 5.5%,
 United Kingdom 4.9%,
 Austria 4.4%,
 Russia 4.4%, (2012 est.)[9]
FDI stock
$1.057 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)
$5.624 trillion (30 June 2011)
Public finances
81.0% of GDP (2013)[10]
Revenues $1.511 trillion (2012 est.)
Expenses $1.507 trillion (2012 est.)
Economic aid

donor: $7.5 billion (€5 billion), 0.28% of GDP

Germany is ranked on the CPI [11] 2013 as 12th for the perceived level corruption
Standard & Poor's: AAA[12]
Outlook: Stable[13]
Moody's: Aaa[13]
Outlook: Stable
Fitch: AAA[13]
Outlook: Stable
Foreign reserves
$233.813 billion, €200 billion (April 2011)[14]
Main data source: CIA World Fact Book
All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars.

Germany is the largest national economy in Europe, the fourth-largest by nominal GDP in the world, and fifth by GDP (PPP). Since the age of industrialisation and beyond, the country has been a driver, innovator, and beneficiary of an ever more globalised economy. Germany's economic policy is based on the concept of the social market economy. The country is a founding member of the European Union and the Eurozone.[15][16] Germany is the third largest exporter in the world with $1.516 trillion exported in 2012.[17][dated info] Exports account for more than one-third of national output.[18][dated info] [19] In 2013, Germany recorded the highest trade surplus in the world worth $270 billion,[20] making it the biggest capital exporter globally.[21]

Germany is the largest producer of lignite in the world. Germany is also rich in timber, iron ore, potash, salt, uranium, nickel, copper and natural gas. Energy in Germany is sourced predominantly by fossil fuels, followed by nuclear power, and by renewable energy like biomass (wood and biofuels), wind, hydro and solar.

The service sector contributes around 70% of the total GDP, industry 29.1%, and agriculture 0.9%. Most of the country's products are in engineering, especially in automobiles, machinery, metals, and chemical goods.[22] Germany is the leading producer of wind turbines and solar power technology in the world.[23] Combination of service-oriented manufacturing,[24] R&D spending, links between industry and academia, international cooperation and the Mittelstand contribute to the overall competitiveness of the economy of Germany.[25][26]

Germany is the world's top location for trade fairs.[27] Around two thirds of the world's leading trade fairs take place in Germany.[28] The largest annual international trade fairs and congresses are held in several German cities such as Hanover, Munich, Frankfurt and Berlin.

Of the world's 500 largest stock market listed companies measured by revenue, the Fortune Global 500, 37 are headquartered in Germany. In 2012 the ten largest were Volkswagen, Allianz, E.ON, Daimler, Siemens, Metro, Deutsche Telekom, Munich Re, BASF, and BMW.[29] Other large German companies include: Robert Bosch, ThyssenKrupp, Continental AG, MAN and Trumpf (diversified industrials); KUKA (robotics); Bayer and Merck (pharmaceuticals); Adidas and Puma (clothing and footwear); Commerzbank and Deutsche Bank (banking and finance); Deutsche Bahn (rail transport); Aldi, Lidl, and Edeka (retail); SAP (computer software); Infineon (semiconductors); Henkel and Miele (household and personal consumer products); Deutsche Post (logistics); Bertelsmann (mass media); and Hugo Boss (luxury goods). Well-known global brands are Mercedes Benz, BMW, Adidas, Audi, Porsche, Volkswagen, Bayer, BASF, Bosch, Siemens, Lufthansa, SAP and Nivea.[30]

History[edit]

Since the age of industrialisation, the country has been a driver, innovator, and beneficiary of an ever more globalized economy. Germany is a founding member of the EU, the G8 and the G20 and was the world's largest exporter from 2003 to 2008. In 2011, it remains the second largest exporter[17] and third largest importer.[31] It generates a trade surplus of $270 billion,[20] making it the biggest capital exporter globally.

Germany is the only country among the top five arms exporters that is not a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council.[32]

Age of industrialisation[edit]

Train factory of August Borsig in 1847.

Before 1850 Germany lagged behind the leaders in industrial development, Britain, France and Belgium. By 1850 the German states were catching up, and by 1900 Germany was a world leader in industrialization, along with Britain and the United States. In 1800, Germany's social structure was poorly suited to entrepreneurship or economic development.

The reaction to Napoleon's conquests of German countries during the era of the French Revolution (1790s to 1815), produced important institutional reforms, including the abolition of feudal restrictions on the sale of large landed estates, the reduction of the power of the guilds in the cities, and the introduction of a new, more efficient commercial law. Nevertheless, traditionalism remained strong in most of Germany.

Until midcentury, the guilds, the landed aristocracy, the churches, and the government bureaucracies had so many rules and restrictions that entrepreneurship was held in low esteem, and given little opportunity to develop. From the 1830s and 1840s, Prussia, Saxony, and other states reorganized agriculture, introducing sugar beets, turnips, and potatoes, yielding a higher level of food production that enabled a surplus rural population to move to industrial areas.

The beginnings of the industrial revolution in Germany came in the textile industry, and was facilitated by eliminating tariff barriers through the Zollverein (customs union), starting in 1834. The takeoff stage of economic development came with the railroad revolution in the 1840s, which opened up new markets for local products, created a pool of middle managers, increased the demand for engineers, architects and skilled machinists and stimulated investments in coal and iron.[33] The political decisions about the economy of Prussia (and after 1871 all Germany) were largely controlled by a coalition of "rye and iron", that is the Junker landowners of the east and the heavy industry of the west.[34]

Third Reich[edit]

Gross national product and GNP deflator, year on year change in %, 1926 to 1939,in Germany. Source: From data of Statistisches Bundesamt publication Via google to Pdf-file of German publication.

The Nazis rose to power while unemployment was very high,[35] but achieved full employment later thanks to massive public works programs such as the Reichsbahn, Reichspost and the Reichsautobahn projects.[36] In 1935 rearmament in contravention of the Treaty of Versailles added to the economy.[37]

(Millions) Unemployed Employed
August 1932 5.2 12.8
August 1933 4.1 14.1
August 1934 2.4 15.9
August 1935 1.7 17.1

Weimar and Nazi Germany By Stephen J. Lee[38]

The post 1931 financial crisis economic policies of expansionary fiscal policies (as Germany was off the gold standard) was advised by their non-Nazi Minister of Economics, Hjalmar Schacht,[35] who in 1933 became the president of the central bank. Hjalmar Schacht later abdicated from the post in 1938 and was replaced by Hermann Göring.

The trading policies of the Third Reich aimed at self sufficiency but with a lack of raw materials Germany would have to maintain trade links but on bilateral preferences, foreign-exchange controls, import quotas and export subsidies under what was called the “New Plan”(Neuer Plan) of 19 September 1934.[39] The "New Plan" was based on trade with less developed countries who would trade raw materials for German industrial goods saving currency.[40] Southern Europe was preferable to Western Europe and North America as there could be no trade blockades.[41] This policy became known as the Grosswirtschaftsraum (“greater economic area”) policy.

Eventually, the Nazi party developed strong relationships with big business[42] and abolished trade unions in 1933 in order to form the National Labour Service (RAD), German Labour Front (DAF) to set working hours, Beauty of Labour (SDA) which set working conditions and Strength through Joy (KDF) to ensure sports clubs for workers.[43]

West Germany[edit]

The Volkswagen Beetle was an icon of West German reconstruction.

Beginning with the replacement of the Reichsmark with the Deutsche Mark as legal tender, a lasting period of low inflation and rapid industrial growth was overseen by the government led by German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer and his minister of economics, Ludwig Erhard, raising West Germany from total wartime devastation to one of the most developed nations in modern Europe.

Contrary to popular belief, the Marshall Plan, which was extended to also include Western Germany after it was realized that the suppression of the Western German economy was holding back the recovery of the rest of Europe,[44] was not the main force behind the Wirtschaftswunder.[45][46] The amount of monetary aid (which was in the form of loans) received by Germany through the Marshall Plan (about $1.65 billion in total) was far overshadowed by the amount the Germans had to pay back as war reparations and by the charges the Allies made on the Germans for the ongoing cost of occupation (about $2.4 billion per year).[45]

In 1953 it was decided that Germany was to repay $1.1 billion of the aid it had received. The last repayment was made in June 1971.[46] It is arguable, however, that recovery would have been possible without the initial economic boost as well as the modernization of infrastructure provided by the economic recovery plan.

Apart from these factors, hard work and long hours at full capacity among the population in the 1950s, 1960s and early 1970s and extra labor supplied by thousands of Gastarbeiter ("guest workers") provided a vital base for the economic upturn.

East Germany[edit]

By the early 1950s the Soviet Union had seized reparations in the form of agricultural and industrial products and demanded further heavy reparation payments.[47] Lower Silesia, which contained coal mines, and Stettin, a prominent natural port, were lost to Poland.

Exports from West Germany exceeded $323 billion in 1988. In the same year, East Germany exported $30.7 billion worth of goods; 65% to other communist states.[48] East Germany had zero unemployment.[48]

In 1976 the average annual GDP growth was roughly 5.9%.[49]

Berlin Republic[edit]

As of 2013, Germany is the third largest exporter and third largest importer in the world, producing the largest trade surplus as a national economy.

The German economy practically stagnated in the beginning of the 2000s. The worst growth figures were achieved in 2002 (+1.4%), in 2003 (+1.0%) and in 2005 (+1.4%).[50] Unemployment was also chronically high.[51] Due to these problems, together with Germany's aging population, the welfare system came under considerable strain. This led the government to push through a wide-ranging programme of belt-tightening reforms, Agenda 2010, including the labour market reforms known as Hartz I - IV.[51]

In the later part of the first decade of 2000 the world economy experienced high growth, from which Germany as a leading exporter also profited. Some credit the Hartz reforms with achieving high growth and declining unemployment but others contend that they resulted in a massive decrease in standards of living, and that its effects are limited and temporary.[51]

The nominal GDP of Germany contracted in the second and third quarters of 2008, putting the country in a technical recession following a global and European recession cycle.[52] German industrial output dropped to 3.6% in September vis-a-vis August.[53][54] In January 2009 the German government under Angela Merkel approved a €50 billion ($70 billion) economic stimulus plan to protect several sectors from a downturn and a subsequent rise in unemployment rates.[55] Germany exited the recession in the second and third quarters of 2009, mostly due to rebounding manufacturing orders and exports - primarily from outside the Euro Zone - and relatively steady consumer demand.[51]

Germany is a founding member of the EU, the G8 and the G20, and was the world's largest exporter from 2003 to 2008. In 2011 it remained the third largest exporter[17] and third largest importer.[31] Most of the country's exports are in engineering, especially machinery, automobiles, chemical goods and metals.[22] Germany is a leading producer of wind turbines and solar-power technology.[56] Annual trade fairs and congresses are held in cities throughout Germany.[57] 2011 was a record-breaking year for the German economy. German companies exported goods worth over €1 trillion ($1.3 trillion), the highest figure in history. The number of people in work has risen to 41.6 million, the highest recorded figure.[58]

Through 2012, Germany's economy continued to be stronger relative to local neighboring nations.[59]

Data[edit]

The labour productivity level of Germany. OECD, 2012
GDP per capita of the Western European big four economies[60]
Germany Exports by Product (2012) from Harvard Economic Complexity Observatory

As of December 2012, the unemployment rate was 6.7 percent.[61]

As of December 2012, the CPI rate was 2.10 percent.

The following table lists the non-seasonally adjusted GDP growth in 1992-2012.[62]

Year GDP
€Billion
Change
1992 1648.40 +1.9%
1993 1696.90 -1.0%
1994 1782.20 +2.5%
1995 1848.50 +1.7%
1996 1875.00 +0.8%
1997 1912.60 +1.7%
1998 1959.70 +1.9%
1999 2000.20 +1.9%
2000 2047.50 +3.1%
2001 2101.90 +1.5%
2002 2132.20 +0.0%
2003 2147.50 -0.4%
2004 2195.70 +1.2%
2005 2224.40 +0.7%
2006 2313.90 +3.7%
2007 2428.50 +3.3%
2008 2473.80 +1.1%
2009 2374.50 -5.1%
2010 2496.20 +4.2%
2011 2592.60 +3.0%
2012 2645.00 +0.7%

Companies[edit]

Of the world's 500 largest stock-market-listed companies measured by revenue in 2010, the Fortune Global 500, 37 are headquartered in Germany. 30 Germany-based companies are included in the DAX, the German stock market index. Well-known global brands are Mercedes-Benz, BMW, SAP, Siemens, Volkswagen, Adidas, Audi, Allianz, Porsche, Bayer, BASF, Bosch, and Nivea.[63]

Germany is recognised for its specialised small and medium enterprises. Around 1,000 of these companies are global market leaders in their segment and are labelled hidden champions.[64]

From 1991 to 2010, 40,301 mergers and acquisitions with an involvement of German firms with a total known value of 2,422 bil. EUR have been announced.[65] The largest transactions[66] since 1991 are: the acquisition of Mannesmann by Vodafone for 204.8 bil. EUR in 1999, the merger of Daimler-Benz with Chrysler to form DaimlerChrysler in 1998 valued at 36.3 bil. EUR.

Volkswagen AG headquarters in Wolfsburg

The list includes the largest German companies by revenue in 2011:

Rank[67] Name Headquarters Revenue
(Mil. €)
Profit
(Mil. €)
Employees
(World)
01. Volkswagen AG Wolfsburg 159,000 15,800 502,000
02. E.ON SE Düsseldorf 113,000 −1,900 79,000
03. Daimler AG Stuttgart 107,000 6,000 271,000
04. Siemens AG Berlin, München 74,000 6,300 360,000
05. BASF SE Ludwigshafen am Rhein 73,000 6,600 111,000
06. BMW AG München 69,000 4,900 100,000
07. Metro AG Düsseldorf 67,000 740 288,000
08. Schwarz-Gruppe (Lidl) Neckarsulm 63,000 N/A 315,000
09. Deutsche Telekom AG Bonn 59,000 670 235,000
010. Deutsche Post AG Bonn 53,000 1,300 471,000
Allianz SE München 104,000 2,800 141,000
Deutsche Bank AG Frankfurt am Main 2,160,000 4,300 101,000

Economic region[edit]

Main article: Eurozone
Germany is part of a monetary union, the Eurozone (dark blue), and of the EU single market.

Germany as a federation is a polycentric country and does not have a single economic center. The stock exchange is located in Frankfurt am Main, the largest Media company (Bertelsmann AG) is headquartered in Gütersloh; the largest car manufacturers are in Wolfsburg, Stuttgart and München.[68]

Germany is an advocate of closer European economic and political integration. Its commercial policies are increasingly determined by agreements among European Union (EU) members and EU single market legislation. Germany introduced the common European currency, the euro on 1 January 1999. Its monetary policy is set by the European Central Bank in Frankfurt.

The southern states ("Bundesländer"), especially Bayern, Baden-Württemberg and Hessen, are economically stronger than the northern states. One of Germany's traditionally strongest (and at the same time oldest) economic regions is the Ruhr area in the west, between Bonn and Dortmund. 27 of the country's 100 largest companies are located there. In recent years, however, the area, whose economy is based on natural resources and heavy industry, has seen a substantial rise in unemployment (2010: 8.7%).[68]

The economy of Bayern and Baden-Württemberg, the states with the lowest number of unemployed people (2010: 4.5%, 4.9%), on the other hand, is based on high-value products. Important sectors are automobiles, electronics, aerospace and biomedicine, among others. Baden-Württemberg is an industrial center especially for automobile and machine building industry and the home of brands like Mercedes-Benz (Daimler), Porsche and Bosch.[68]

With the reunification on 3 October 1990, Germany began the major task of reconciling the economic systems of the two former republics. Interventionist economic planning ensured gradual development in eastern Germany up to the level of former West Germany, but the standard of living and annual income remains significantly higher in western German states.[69] The modernisation and integration of the eastern German economy continues to be a long-term process scheduled to last until the year 2019, with annual transfers from west to east amounting to roughly $80 billion. The overall unemployment rate has consistently fallen since 2005 and reached a 20-year low in 2012. The country in July 2014 began legislating to introduce a federally-mandated minimum wage which would come into effect on 1 January 2015.[70]

Wealth[edit]

Germany is the richest country in Europe, and the second richest in the world after the United States, in terms of the number of high wealth households worth more than $100 million. The following top 10 list of German billionaires is based on an annual assessment of wealth and assets compiled and published by Forbes magazine on March 4, 2014.[71]

  1. $25 billion Karl Albrecht
  2. $21.1 billion Dieter Schwarz
  3. $19.3 billion Theo Albrecht
  4. $18.4 billion Michael Otto & family
  5. $17.4 billion Susanne Klatten
  6. $14.9 billion Stefan Quandt
  7. $14.3 billion Georg Schaeffler
  8. $12.8 billion Johanna Quandt
  9. $10.4 billion Klaus-Michael Kühne
  10. $8.8 billion Hasso Plattner

Wolfsburg is the city in Germany with the country's highest per capita income, at $128,000. The following top 10 list of German cities with the highest income per person is based on a study by the Cologne Institute for Economic Research on July 31, 2013.[72]

  1. $128,000 Wolfsburg, Lower Saxony
  2. $114,281 Frankfurt am Main, Hesse
  3. $108,347 Schweinfurt, Bavaria
  4. $104,000 Ingolstadt, Bavaria
  5. $99,389 Regensburg, Bavaria
  6. $92,525 Düsseldorf, North-Rhine Westphalia
  7. $92,464 Ludwigshafen am Rhein, Rhineland-Palatinate
  8. $91,630 Erlangen, Bavaria
  9. $91,121 Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg
  10. $88,692 Ulm, Baden-Württemberg

Natural resources[edit]

Strip mining lignite at Tagebau Garzweiler near Grevenbroich, Germany.

The German soil is relatively poor in raw materials. Only lignite (brown coal) and potash salt (Kalisalz) are available in significant quantities. However, the former GDR's Wismut mining company produced a total of 230,400 tonnes of uranium between 1947 and 1990 and made East Germany the fourth largest producer of uranium ore worldwide (largest in USSR's sphere of control) at the time. Oil, natural gas and other resources are, for the most part, imported from other countries.[73]

Potash salt is mined in the center of the country (Niedersachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt and Thüringen). The most important producer is K+S AG (formerly Kali und Salz AG).[73]

Germany's bituminous coal deposits were created more than 300 million years ago from swamps which extended from the present-day South England, over the Ruhr area to Poland. Lignite deposits developed in a similar way, but during a later period, about 66 million years ago. Because the wood is not yet completely transformed into coal, brown coal contains less energy than bituminous coal.[73]

Lignite is extracted in the extreme western and eastern parts of the country, mainly in Nordrhein-Westfalen, Sachsen and Brandenburg. Considerable amounts are burned in coal plants near to the mining areas, to produce electricity. Transporting lignite over far distances is not economically feasible, therefore the plants are located practically next to the extraction sites. Bituminous coal is mined in Nordrhein-Westfalen and Saarland. Most power plants burning bituminous coal operate on imported material, therefore the plants are located not only near to the mining sites, but throughout the country.[73]

Sectors[edit]

German exports in 2006

Germany has a social market economy characterised by a highly qualified labour force, a developed infrastructure, a large capital stock, a low level of corruption,[74] and a high level of innovation.[75] It has the largest national economy in Europe, the fourth largest by nominal GDP in the world, and ranked fifth by GDP (PPP) in 2009.

The service sector contributes around 70% of the total GDP, industry 29.1%, and agriculture 0.9%.[76]

Primary[edit]

In 2010 agriculture, forestry, and mining accounted for only 0.9% of Germany’s gross domestic product (GDP) and employed only 2.4% of the population,[22] down from 4% in 1991. Agriculture is extremely productive, and Germany is able to cover 90% of its nutritional needs with domestic production. Germany is the third largest agricultural producer in the European Union after France and Italy. Germany’s principal agricultural products are potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, and cabbages.

Despite the country’s high level of industrialization, almost one-third of its territory is covered by forest.[77] The forestry industry provides for about two-thirds of domestic consumption of wood and wood products, so Germany is a net importer of these items.

Industry[edit]

The world's largest coherent chemistry plant BASF in Ludwigshafen.
See also: Mittelstand

Industry and construction accounted for 29% of gross domestic product in 2008, and employed 29.7% of the workforce.[22] Germany excels in the production of automobiles, machinery, electrical equipment and chemicals. With the manufacture of 5.2 million vehicles in 2009, Germany was the world’s fourth largest producer and largest exporter of automobiles. German automotive companies enjoy an extremely strong position in the so-called premium segment, with a combined world market share of about 90%.

Small- to medium-sized manufacturing firms (Mittelstand companies) which specialize in technologically advanced niche products and are often family-owned and form major part of the German economy.[78] It is estimated that about 1500 German companies occupy a top three position in their respective market segment worldwide. In about two thirds of all industry sectors German companies belong to the top three competitors.[79]

Services[edit]

Bavaria (l.) is a tourism destination and Berlin (r.) a centre of creative industries.

In 2008 services constituted 69% of gross domestic product (GDP), and the sector employed 67.5% of the workforce.[22] The subcomponents of services are financial, renting, and business activities (30.5%); trade, hotels and restaurants, and transport (18%); and other service activities (21.7%).

The largest annual international trade fairs and congresses are held in several German cities such as Hanover, Frankfurt, and Berlin.[80]

Germany is the third most visited country in Europe, with a total of 369.6 million overnights during 2010.[81][82]

Infrastructure[edit]

Energy[edit]

Main article: Energy in Germany

Germany is the world's fifth largest consumer of energy, and two-thirds of its primary energy was imported in 2002. In the same year, Germany was Europe's largest consumer of electricity, totaling 512.9 terawatt-hours. Government policy promotes energy conservation and the development of renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind, biomass, hydroelectric, and geothermal energy. As a result of energy-saving measures, energy efficiency has been improving since the beginning of the 1970s. The government has set the goal of meeting half the country's energy demands from renewable sources by 2050.

The largest solar power and third-largest wind power capacity in the world is installed in Germany.

In 2000, the red-green coalition under Chancellor Schröder and the German nuclear power industry agreed to phase out all nuclear power plants by 2021.[83] The conservative coalition under Chancellor Merkel reversed this decision in January 2010, electing to keep plants open. The nuclear disaster of the Japanese nuclear plant Fukushima in March 2011 however, changed the political climate fundamentally: Older nuclear plants have been shut down. And a general phase out until 2020 or 2022 is now probable. Renewable energy yet still plays a more modest role in energy consumption, though German solar and windpower industries play a leading role worldwide.

In 2009, Germany consumed energy from the following sources:[84] Oil 34.6%, Natural gas 21.7%, Lignite 11.4%, Bituminous coal 11.1%, Nuclear power 11.0%, Hydro and wind power 1.5%, Others 9.0%.

There are 3 major entry points for oil pipelines: in the northeast (the Druzhba pipeline, coming from Gdańsk), west (coming from Rotterdam) and southeast (coming from Nelahozeves). The oil pipelines of Germany do not constitute a proper network, and sometimes only connect two different locations. Major oil refineries are located in or near the following cities: Schwedt, Spergau, Vohburg, Burghausen, Karlsruhe, Cologne, Gelsenkirchen, Lingen, Wilhelmshaven, Hamburg and Heide.[85]

Germany's network of natural gas pipelines, on the other hand, is dense and well-connected. Imported pipeline gas comes mostly from Russia, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Although gas imports from Russia have been historically reliable, even during the cold war, recent price disputes between Gazprom and the former Soviet states, such as Ukraine, have also affected Germany. As a result, high political importance is placed on the construction of the Nord Stream pipeline, running from Vyborg in Russia along the Baltic sea to Greifswald in Germany. This direct connection avoids third-party transit countries.[85]

Transport[edit]

Main article: Transport in Germany
The ICE 3 trainset

With its central position in Europe, Germany is an important transportation hub. This is reflected in its dense and modern transportation networks. The extensive motorway (Autobahn) network that ranks worldwide third largest in its total length and features a lack of blanket speed limits on the majority of routes.[86]

Germany has established a polycentric network of high-speed trains. The InterCityExpress or ICE is the most advanced service category of the Deutsche Bahn and serves major German cities as well as destinations in neighbouring countries. The train maximum speed varies between 200 km/h and 320 km/h (125-200 mph). Connections are offered at either 30-minute, hourly, or two-hourly intervals.[87]

The largest German airports are the Frankfurt International Airport and the Munich International Airport, both are global hubs of Lufthansa. Other major airports are Berlin Tegel, Berlin Schönefeld, Düsseldorf, Hamburg, Hanover, Cologne-Bonn, Leipzig/Halle and in the future Berlin Brandenburg International Airport.

Technology[edit]

Liquid crystal visualized by a polarizing microscope. Germany is a pioneer research center for nanotechnology and material engineering.[88]

Germany's achievements in sciences have been significant, and research and development efforts form an integral part of the economy.[89]

Germany is also one of the leading countries in developing and using green technologies. Companies specializing in green technology have an estimated turnover of €200 billion. German expertise in engineering, science and research is eminently respectable.

The lead markets of Germany's green technology industry are power generation, sustainable mobility, material efficiency, energy efficiency, waste management and recycling, sustainable water management.[90]

With regard to triadic patents Germany is in third place after the USA and Japan. With more than 26,500 registrations for patents submitted to the European Patent Office, Germany is the leading European nation. Siemens, Bosch and BASF, with almost 5,000 registrations for patents between them in 2008, are among the Top 5 of more than 35,000 companies registering patents. Together with the USA and Japan, with regard to patents for nano, bio and new technologies Germany is one of the world’s most active nations. With around one third of triadic patents Germany leads the way worldwide in the field of vehicle emission reduction.[91]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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