The Town Hall
|Intercommunality||Agglomeration Sud Pays Basque|
|• Mayor (2008–2014)||Marie-Jo Mialocq|
|• Land1||10.59 km2 (4.09 sq mi)|
|• Population2 density||190/km2 (490/sq mi)|
|INSEE/Postal code||64035 / 64210|
|Elevation||5–94 m (16–308 ft)
(avg. 21 m or 69 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.
- 1 Geography
- 2 Toponymy
- 3 History
- 4 Administration
- 5 Demography
- 6 Economy
- 7 Culture and Heritage
- 8 Facilities
- 9 Notable people linked to the commune
- 10 Bibliography
- 11 See also
- 12 Notes and references
Arbonne is located some 6 km south of Biarritz and 3 km east of Bidart. It is part of the Urban area of Bayonne and is located in the former province of Labourd. Access to the commune is by road D255 from Biarritz in the north passing through the village and continuing south to Saint-Pée-sur-Nivelle. The D655 branches off the D255 in the south of the commune and goes to Ahetze. The A63 autoroute passes through the northern tip of the commune but has no access from the commune. In the south of the commune is the hamlet of Le Hameau d'Arbonne. The rest of the commune is mainly farmland with patches of forest especially in the north.
Located in the watershed of the Adour, the commune is traversed by the Uhabia, a small coastal river that flows into the ocean at Bidart, and its tributaries: the Zirikolatzeko erreka and the Ruisseau d'Argelos.
The Ruisseau de Pemartin also flows through the commune and there is an extensive network of streams throughout the commune.
- Gure Egoitza
- le Hameau d'Arbonne
- Mestelan Beherea
- La Place
- le Pouy
- Ziburriako Errota
- Early Records
The name Arbonne appears in the forms:
Brigitte Jobbé-Duval indicated that 'Arbona meant "place of tree stumps".
Alhorga is a hydronym ddesignating the stream Alhorgako Erreka, a tributary of the Uhabia flowing from Saint-Pée-sur-Nivelle and Ahetze, which is mentioned with this spelling in 1863 by the Topographic Dictionary of Béarn-Basque Country.
Animaleko Buztana refers to a farm mentioned in the Collations of the Diocese of Bayonne in 1669 with the spelling Anhimaleko Bousstanha.
Harriague is also mentioned in en 1863 by the same dictionary, as is the area Hurmalague.
Menta was an Arbonne hamlet mentioned by the Topographic Dictionary Béarn-Basque country in 1863. It appeared in 1198 in the Cartulary of Bayonne and again with the spelling Mente in 1523 (chapter of Bayonne).
Mestelan Beherea appears with the spelling Mesthelan in 1863 (Topographic Dictionary of Béarn-Basque Country), designating a farm in Arbonne and also present with the spelling Mestelan in 1760 (Collations of the Diocese of Bayonne). Paul Raymond indicated that a prebend of this name was present in the Arbonne church.
Pemartin is also present with the spelling Pémartin in the 1863 dictionary.
Perukain, a hamlet in the commune has been mentioned in the forms:
- Perucam (13th century, Cartulary of Bayonne)
- Pérucain (1863, Topographic Dictionary of Béarn-Basque Country).
La Place is mentioned in the 1863 dictionary.
- Basque Spelling
The oldest lord of Arbonne whose names are known are from the Sault family, Viscounts of Labourd. At the end of the 14th century the lordship was owned by the Saint-Julien family (originally from Lower Navarre) and then in 1408 to the Amezqueta family.
The Act of 4 March 1790, which determined the new administrative landscape of France by creating departments and districts, created the Department of Basses-Pyrénées to bring together Béarn, the Gascon lands in Bayonne and Bidache, and three French Basque provinces. For these three provinces three districts were created: Mauléon, Saint-Palais, and Ustaritz which replaced the Bailiwick of Labourd. The seat of Ustaritz was transferred almost immediately to Bayonne. Its Directorate pushed many municipalities into adopting new names conforming to the spirit of the Revolution. Arbonne was called Constante, Ustaritz became Marat-sur-Nive, Itxassou Union, Saint-Étienne-de-Baïgorry Thermopyles, Saint-Palais Mont-Bidouze, Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port Nive-Franche, Louhossoa Montagne-sur-Nive, Saint-Jean-de-Luz Chauvin-Dragon, Ainhoa Mendiarte, and Souraïde Mendialde.
|Adopted by the Town Council on 20 May 1988.
|1794||1795||Dominique Duhart||Mayor of Constante which united Arbonne, Arcangues, and Bassussarry|
|1795||Jean Laborde||Mayor of Constante|
|1977||1995||Bernard Abeberry||The council elected in 1983 had two women for the first time|
(Not all data is known)
Arbonne is part of nine inter-communal structures:
- the Agglomération Sud Pays Basque;
- the SIVOM of Arbonne-Arcangues-Bassussarry;
- the SIVU of Arbonne-Bidart;
- the Ouhabia association;
- the mixed association of Bizi Garbia;
- the Association for promotion of basque culture;
- the mixed association for management of Ura drinking water;
- the mixed association for sanitation in Ura;
- the Energy association of Pyrénées-Atlantiques.
The commune is part of the Eurocité basque Bayonne-San Sebastian (a cross-border association to develop the area from Bayonne in France to San Sebastian in Spain).
In 2009 the commune had 1,993 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year.[Note 1]
Culture and Heritage
- The Church of Saint-Laurent, of a medium size, has an arched Bell-gable characteristic of Labourd religious buildings. Its origin is from the 12th century. Some old Hilarri are visible in the cemetery.
- The old benoîterie dating to the 16th century is now the venue for exhibitions (paintings, crafts). As with the church it has been classified as a historical monument since 1992
The commune has a general practitioner, three nurses, a speech therapist, a physiotherapist, and a dentist - all in the village centre.
Arbonne has two primary schools, one public and one private (Saint-Laurent school)
- Jean Borotra - called the Basque bondissant (the Bounding Basque), born in 1898 at Biarritz and died in 1994 at Arbonne, a tennis player and French politician
- Bernard Béreau, born in 1940 at Arbonne and died in 2005, he was a French footballer
- Marie-Michèle Beaufils, born in 1949 at Arbonne, she is a contemporary writer
- Arbonne, Arbona, Collective work under the direction of Hubert Lamant-Duhart, Ekaina, 1988 (French)
- Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department
- Arbonne official website (French)
- ARBONA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia (Euskomedia Fundazioa) (Spanish)
- INSEE commune file (French)
Notes and references
- At the beginning of the 21st century, the methods of identification have been modified by Law No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002, the so-called "law of local democracy" and in particular Title V "census operations" allows, after a transitional period running from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For communes with a population greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is conducted annually, the entire territory of these communes is taken into account at the end of the period of five years. The first "legal population" after 1999 under this new law came into force in 1 January 2009 and was based on the census of 2006.
- Inhabitants of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (French)
- Brigitte Jobbé-Duval, Dictionary of place names - Pyrénées-Atlantiques, 2009, Archives and Culture, ISBN 978-2-35077-151-9 (French)
- Google Maps
- Géoportail, Géoportail - IGN, consulted on 14 October 2011 (French)
- Paul Raymond, Topographic Dictionary of Béarn-Basque Country (French)
- Cartulary of Bayonne or Book of Gold - Manuscript from the 14th century - DEpartmental Archives of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (French)
- Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy, Presses universitaires de Bordeaux, 2006, ISBN 2 86781 396 4 (French)
- Chapter of Bayonne - Departmental Archives of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (French)
- Manuscripts of the 17th and 18th centuries - Departmental Archives of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (French)
- Euskaltzaindia - Academy of the Basque language (Basque)
- Hubert Lamant-Duhart, Arbonne, Arbona, Collective work under the direction of Hubert Lamant-Duhart, Ekaina, 1988 (French)
- Philippe Veyrin, The Basques, Arthaud, 1947, reprinted 1975, ISBN 2 7003 0038 6, p. 185 (French)
- Communal Notice for Arbonne, consulted on 7 July 2012 (French).
- Hubert Lamant-Duhart in Arbonne, Arbona, Collective work under the direction of Hubert Lamant-Duhart, Ekaina, 1988, p. 213 (French)
- List of Mayors of France
- Intercommunality of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Cellule informatique préfecture 64, consulted on 13 December 2011 (French)
- French Ministry of Culture Notice PA00084554 Church of St. Laurent (French)
- The residence of the Benoîte or guardian of the church and cemetery.
- French Ministry of Culture Notice PA00084551 The benoîterie of Arbonne (French)
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