Arc (protein)

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Activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein
Identifiers
Symbols ARC ; Arg3.1
External IDs OMIM612461 HomoloGene9056 GeneCards: ARC Gene
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 23237 11838
Ensembl ENSG00000198576 ENSMUSG00000022602
UniProt Q7LC44 Q9WV31
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_015193 NM_001276684
RefSeq (protein) NP_056008 NP_001263613
Location (UCSC) Chr 8:
143.69 – 143.7 Mb
Chr 15:
74.67 – 74.67 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
Arc immunohistochemical staining of the rat (Rattus norvegicus) dentate gyrus. Image shows Arc protein levels at one hour following inhibitory avoidance training and immediate, systemic injection of 3 mg/kg corticosterone.

Arc, for activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (also known as Arg3.1), is a plasticity protein first characterized in 1995.[1][2] Arc is a member of the immediate-early gene (IEG) family, a rapidly activated class of genes functionally defined by their ability to be transcribed in the presence of protein synthesis inhibitors. Arc mRNA is localized to activated synaptic sites in an NMDA receptor-dependent manner,[3][4] where the newly translated protein is believed to play a critical role in learning and memory-related molecular processes.[5] Arc is widely considered to be an important protein in neurobiology because of its activity regulation, localization, and utility as a marker for plastic changes in the brain. Disfunctions in the production of Arc protein has been implicated as an important factor in understanding of various neurological conditions including: Amnesia;[6] Alzheimer's disease; Autism spectrum disorders; and, Fragile X syndrome.[7] Along with other IEGs such as zif268 and Homer 1a, Arc is also a significant tool for systems neuroscience as illustrated by the development of the cellular compartment analysis of temporal activity by fluorescence in situ hybridization, or catFISH technique[8][9] (see fluorescent in situ hybridization).

Molecular Profile[edit]

The Arc gene, located on chromosome 15 in the mouse[3], chromosome 7 in the rat[4], and chromosome 8 in the human[5], is conserved across vertebrate species and has low sequence homology to spectrin,[1] a cytoskeletal protein involved in forming the actin cellular cortex. A number of promoter and enhancer regions have been identified that mediate activity-dependent Arc transcription: a serum response element (SRE; see serum response factor) at ~1.5 kb upstream of the initiation site;[10][11] a second SRE at ~6.5 kb;[11] and a synaptic activity response element (SARE) sequence at ~7 kb upstream that contains binding sites for cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), and SRF.[12]

The 3' UTR of the mRNA contains a cis-acting element required for the localization of Arc to neuronal dendrites,[13] as well as sites for two exon junction complexes (EJCs)[14] that make Arc a natural target for nonsense mediated decay (NMD).[15] Also important for translocation of cytoplasmic Arc mRNA to activated synapses is an 11 nucleotide binding site for heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2 (hnRNP A2).[16]

Once transported, the translated protein is 396 residues in length, with an N-terminus located at amino acids 1-25, a C-terminus at 155-396 (note that the spectrin homology located at 228-380 within the C-terminal), and a putative coiled coil domain at amino acids 26-154.[17] Additionally, the protein has binding sites for endophilin 3 and dynamin 2 at amino acids 89-100 and 195-214, respectively.[18] While Arc mRNA is subject to degradation by NMD, the translated protein contains a PEST sequence at amino acids 351-392, indicating proteasome-dependent degradation.[19] The translated protein can be visualized with an immunoblot as a band at 55 kDa.

Knockouts[edit]

Arc is critical as a ubiquitous signaling factor in early embryonic development and is required for growth and patterning during gastrulation.[20] The first knockouts (KOs) for Arc were therefore incompatible with life. Subsequent efforts produced homozygous knockout mice by targeting the entire Arc gene rather than portions of the coding region, eliminating dominant negative effects. These animals proved viable and exhibit no gross malformations in neuronal architecture, but express higher levels of the GluR1 subunit and increased miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) in addition to displaying deficiencies in long-term memory.[21]

Induction[edit]

Changes in Arc mRNA and/or protein are correlated with a number of behavioral paradigms including cued fear conditioning,[22] contextual fear conditioning,[23] spatial memory,[24][25] operant conditioning,[26][27] and inhibitory avoidance.[5] The mRNA is notably upregulated following electrical stimulation in LTP-induction procedures such as high frequency stimulation (HFS),[24] and is massively and globally induced by maximal electroconvulsive shock (MECS).[1][3]

The Arc transcript is the first known IEG that is entirely dependent upon activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase or MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade,[10] a pathway important for regulation of cell growth and survival.[28] Extracellular signaling to neuronal dendrites activates postsynaptic sites to increase Arc levels through a wide variety of signaling molecules, including mitogens such as epidermal growth factor (EGF),[1] nerve growth factor (NGF),[1] and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF),[14] glutamate acting at NMDA receptors,[3][4] dopamine through activation of the D1 receptor subtype,[29][30] and dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG).[31] The common factor for these signaling molecules involves activation of cyclic-AMP and its downstream target protein kinase A (PKA). As such, direct pharmacological activation of cAMP by forskolin or 8-Br-cAMP robustly increases Arc levels[10][30] while H89, a PKA antagonist, blocks these effects[30] as does further downstream blockade of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase [sic] (MEK).[10] Note that the MAPK cascade is a signaling pathway involving multiple kinases acting sequentially [MAPKKK--> MAPKK--> MAPK].

MAPK is able to enter the nucleus and perform its phosphotransferase activity on a number of gene regulatory components[32] that have implications for the regulation of immediate-early genes. Several transcription factors are known to be involved in regulating the Arc gene (see above), including serum response factor (SRF),[10][33] CREB,[33] MEF2,[33] and zif268.[34]

Trafficking[edit]

Following transcription, Arc mRNA is transported out of the nucleus and localized to neuronal dendrites[1] and activated synapses,[35] a process dependent on the 3' UTR,[13] polymerization of actin,[36] and ERK phosphorylation.[36] The mRNA (and aggregate protein) is carried along microtubules radiating out from the nucleus by kinesin (specifically KIF5)[37] and likely translocated into dendritic spines by the actin-based motor protein myosin-Va.[38] Arc has been shown to be associated with polyribosomes at synaptic sites,[39] and is translated in isolated synaptoneurosomal fractions[40] in vitro indicating that the protein is likely locally translated in vivo.

Synaptically localized Arc protein interacts with dynamin and endophilin, proteins involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and facilitates the removal of AMPA receptors from the plasma membrane.[18] Consistent with this, increased Arc levels reduce AMPA currents,[41] while Arc KOs display increases in surface AMPA expression.[42]

Database Information[edit]

- Mitocheck database [6] with video data [7] on mitosis in Arc-silenced human cells.

- Ensembl Arc gene information [8].

- Arc gene in Mus musculus [9].

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Lyford GL, Yamagata K, Kaufmann WE, Barnes CA, Sanders LK, Copeland NG, Worley PF (1995). “Arc, a growth factor and activity-regulated gene, encodes a novel cytoskeletal-associated protein that is enriched in neuronal dendrites.” Neuron. 14:433-445.
  2. ^ a b c Wallace CS, Lyford GL, Worley PF, Steward O (1998). “Differential intracellular sorting of immediate early gene mRNAs depends on signals in the mRNA sequence.” J Neurosci. 18:26-35.
  3. ^ a b Steward O, Worley PF (2001). “Selective targeting of newly synthesized Arc mRNA to active synapses requires NMDA receptor activation.” Neuron. 30:227-240.
  4. ^ a b McIntyre CK, Miyashita T, Setlow B, Marjon KD, Steward O, Guzowski JF, McGaugh JL (2005). “Memory-influencing intra-basolateral amygdala drug infusions modulate expression of Arc protein in the hippocampus.” PNAS. 102:10718-10723.
  5. ^ Gautam A, Wadhwa R, Thakur MK. Involvement of hippocampal Arc in amnesia and its recovery by alcoholic extract of Ashwagandha leaves. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2013 Nov;106:177-84.
  6. ^ "Arc protein 'could be key to memory loss', says study". BBC News Online. 2013-06-09. Retrieved 2013-06-09. 
  7. ^ Guzowski JF, McNaughton BL, Barnes CA, Worley PF (1999). "Environment-specific expression of the immediate-early gene Arc in hippocampal neuronal ensembles." Nature Neuroscience. 2:1120-1124.
  8. ^ Vazdarjanova A, McNaughton BL, Barnes CA, Worley PF, Guzowski JF (2002). "Experience-dependent coincident expression of the effector immediate-early genes Arc and Homer 1a in hippocampal and neocortical neuronal networks." J Neurosci. 1:10067-10071.
  9. ^ a b c d e Waltereit R, Dammermann B, Wulff P, Scafidi J, Staubli U, Kauselmann G, Bundman M, Kuhl D (2001). “Arg3.1/Arc mRNA induction by Ca2+ and cAMP requires protein kinase A and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular regulated kinase activation.” J Neurosci. 21:5484-5493.
  10. ^ a b Pintchovski SA, Peebles CL, Kim HJ, Verdin E, Finkbeiner S (2009). "The serum response factor and a putative novel transcription factor regulate expression of the immediate-early gene Arc/Arg3.1 in neurons. J Neurosci. 29:1525-37.
  11. ^ Kawashima T, Okuno H, Nonaka M, chi-Morishima A, Kyo N, Okamura M, Takemoto-Kimura S, Worley PF, Bito H (2009). "Synaptic activity-responsive element in the Arc/Arg3.1 promoter essential for synapse-to-nucleus signaling in activated neurons." PNAS. 106:316-21.
  12. ^ a b Kobayashi H, Yamamoto S, Maruo T, Murakami F (2005) “Identification of a cis-acting element required for dendritic targeting of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein mRNA.” Eur J Neurosci. 22:2977-2984.
  13. ^ a b Giorgi C, Yeo, GW, Stone ME, Katz DB, Burge C, Turrigiano G, Moore MJ (2007). “The EJC factor eIF4AIII modulates synaptic strength and neuronal protein expression.” Cell. 130:179-191.
  14. ^ Tange TO, Nott A, Moore MJ (2004). “The ever-increasing complexities of the exon junction complex.” Curr Op Cell Bio. 16:279-284.
  15. ^ Gao Y, Tatavarty V, Korza G, Levin MK, Carson JH (2008). "Multiplexed dendritic targeting of alpha calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, neurogranin, and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein RNAs by the A2 pathway." Mol Biol Cell. 19:2311-27.
  16. ^ Bloomer WAC, VanDongen HMA, VanDongen AMJ (2007). “Activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein Arc/Arg3.1 binds to spectrin and associates with nuclear promyelocytic leukemia (PML) bodies.” Brain Research. 1153:20-33.
  17. ^ a b Chowdhury S, Shepherd JD, Okuno H, Lyford G, Petralia RS, Plath N, Kuhl D, Huganir RL, Worley PF (2006). “Arc/Arg3.1 interacts with the endocytotic machinery to regulate AMPA receptor trafficking.” Neuron. 52:445-459.
  18. ^ Rao VR, Pintchovski SA, Chin J, Peebles CL, Mitra S, Finkbeiner S (2006). "AMPA receptors regulate transcription of the plasticity-related immediate-early gene Arc." Nat Neurosci. 9:887-95.
  19. ^ Liu D, Bei D, Parmar H, Matus A (2000). “Activity-regulated, cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) is essential for visceral endoderm organization during early embryogenesis.” Mech Dev. 92:207-215.
  20. ^ Plath N, Ohana O, Dammermann B, Errington ML, Schmitz D, Gross C, Mao X, Engelsberg A, Mahike C, Welzi H, Kobalz U, Stawrakakis A, Fernandez E, Walteriet R, Bick-Sander A, Therstappen E, Cooke SF, Blanquet V, Wurst W, Salmen B, Bosl MR, Lipp HP, Grant SGN, Bliss TVP, Wolfer DP, Kuhl D (2006). “Arc/Arg3.1 is essential for the consolidation of synaptic plasticity and memories.” Neuron. 52:437-444.
  21. ^ Monti B, Berteotti C, Contestabile A (2006). “Subchronic rolipram delivery activates hippocampal CREB and Arc, enhances retention and slows down extinction of conditioned fear.” Neuropshychopharm. 31:278-286.
  22. ^ Huff NC, Frank M, Wright-Hardesty K, Sprunger D, Matus-Amat P, Higgins E, Rudy JW (2006). “Amygdala regulation of immediate-early gene expression in the hippocampus induced by contextual fear conditioning.” J Neurosci. 26:1616-1623.
  23. ^ a b Guzowski JF, Lyford GL, Stevenson GD, Houston FP, McGaugh JL, Worley PF, Barnes CA (2000). “Inhibition of activity-dependent Arc protein expression in the rat hippocampus impairs maintenance of long-term potentiation and the consolidation of long-term memory.” J Neurosci. 20:3993-4001.
  24. ^ Guzowski JF, Setlow B, Wagner EK, McGaugh JL (2001). “Experience-dependent gene expression in the rat hippocampus after spatial learning: a comparison of immediate-early genes Arc, c-fos, and zif268.” J Neurosci. 21:5089-5098.
  25. ^ Kelly MP, Deadwyler SA (2002). “Acquisition of a novel behavior induces higher levels of Arc mRNA than does overtrained performance.” Neuroscience. 110:617-626.
  26. ^ Kelly MP, Deadwyler SA (2003). “Experience-dependent regulation of the immediate-early gene Arc differs across brain regions.” J Neurosci. 23:6443-6451.
  27. ^ Impey S, Obrietan K, Storm DR (1999). “Making new connections: role of ERK/MAP kinase signaling in neuronal plasticity.” Neuron. 23:11-14.
  28. ^ Granado N, Ortiz O, Suarez LM, Martin ED, Cena V, Solis JM, Moratalla R (2008). “D1 but not D5 dopamine receptors are critical for LTP, spatial learning, and LTP-induced Arc and zif268 expression in the hippocampus.” Cerebral Cortex. 18:1-12.
  29. ^ a b c Bloomer WAC, VanDongen HMA, VanDongen AMJ (2008). “Arc/Arg3.1 translation is controlled by convergent N-methyl-D-aspartate and Gs-coupled receptor signaling pathways.” J Biol Chem. 283:582-592.
  30. ^ Brackmann M, Zhao C, Kuhl D, Manahan-Vaughan D, Braunewell KH (2004). “MGluRs regulate the expression of neuronal calcium sensor proteins NCS-1 and VILIP-1 and the immediate early gene Arg3.1/Arc in the hippocampus in vivo.” Biochem and Biophys Res Comm. 322:1073-1079.
  31. ^ Treisman R (1996). “Regulation of transcription by MAP kinase cascades.” Curr Op Cell Biol. 8:205-215.
  32. ^ a b c Kawashima T, Okuno H, Nonaka M, Adachi-Morishima A, Kyo N, Okamura M, Takemoto-Kimura S, Worley PF, Bito H (2009). “Synaptic activity response element in the Arc/Arg3.1 promoter essential for synapse-to-nucleus signaling in activated neurons.” PNAS. 106:316-321.
  33. ^ Li L, Carter J, Gao X, Whitehead J, Tourtellotte WG (2005). “The neuroplasticity-associated Arc gene is direct transcriptional target of early growth response (Egr) transcription factors.” Mol and Cell Biol. 25:10286-10300.
  34. ^ Steward O, Wallace CS, Lyford GL, Worley PF (1998). “Synaptic activation causes the mRNA for the IEG Arc to localize selectively near activated postsynaptic sites on dendrites.” Neuron. 21:741-751.
  35. ^ a b Huang F, Chotiner JK, Steward O (2007). “Actin polymerization and ERK phosphorylation are required for Arc/Arg 3.1 mRNA targeting to activated synaptic sites on dendrites.” J Neurosci. 27:9054-9067.
  36. ^ Kanai Y, Dohmae N, Hirokawa N (2004). “Kinesin transports RNA: isolation and characterization of an RNA-transporting granule.” Neuron. 43:513-525.
  37. ^ Yoshimura A, Fujii R, Watanabe Y, Okabe S, Fukui K, Takumi T (2006). “Myosin-Va facilitates the accumulation of mRNA/protein complex in dendritic spines.” Curr Biol. 16:2345-2351.
  38. ^ Bagni C, Mannucci L, Dotti CG, Amaldi F (2000). “Chemical stimulation of synaptosomes modulates alpha-calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II mRNA association to polysomes.” J Neurosci. 20:1-6.
  39. ^ Yin Y, Edelman GM, Vanderklish PW (2002). “The brain-derived neurotrophic factor enhances synthesis of Arc in synaptoneurosomes.” PNAS. 99:2368-2373.
  40. ^ Rial Verde EM, Lee-Osbourne J, Worley PF, Malinow R, Cline HT (2006). “Increased expression of the immediate-early gene Arc/Arg3.1 reduces AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission.” Neuron. 52:461-474.
  41. ^ Shepherd JD, Rumbaugh G, Wu J, Chowdhury S, Plath N, Kuhl D, Huganir RL, Worley PF (2006) “Arc/Arg3.1 mediates homeostatic synaptic scaling of AMPA receptors.” Neuron. 52:475-484.