Arcadocypriot Greek

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Arcadocypriot Greek
Region Arcadia, Cyprus
Era c. 1200 – 600 BC
Indo-European
Dialects
Arcadian
Cypriot
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Linguist list
grc-arc
{{{mapalt}}}
Distribution of Greek dialects in the classical period.[1]
Western group: Central group:
  Aeolic
  Arcado-Cypriot
Eastern group:
  Attic
  Ionic

Arcadocypriot or southern Achaean was an ancient Greek dialect spoken in Arcadia in the central Peloponnese and in Cyprus. Its resemblance to Mycenaean Greek, as it is known from the Linear B corpus, suggests that Arcadocypriot is its descendant. Proto-Arcadocypriot (~1200 BC) is supposed to have been spoken by Achaeans in the Peloponnese before the arrival of Dorians; for this, it is named also southern Achaean. The isoglosses of the Cypriot and Arcadian dialects testify that the Achaeans had settled in Cyprus. As Pausanias reported:

Agapenor, the son of Ancaeus, the son of Lycurgus, who was king after Echemus, led the Arcadians to Troy. After the capture of Troy the storm that overtook the Greeks on their return home carried Agapenor and the Arcadian fleet to Cyprus, and so Agapenor became the founder of Paphos, and built the sanctuary of Aphrodite at Palaepaphos (Old Paphos).[2]

The establishment happened before 1100 BC. With the arrival of Dorians in the Peloponnese, a part of the population moved to Cyprus and the rest was limited to the Arcadian mountains. After the collapse of the Mycenaean world, communication did not exist and Cypriot was differentiated from Arcadian. It was written up to the 3rd century BC with Cypriot syllabary.[3] [4]

Tsan was a letter only in use in Arcadia, up to c. the 6th century BC. Arcadocypriot kept many characteristics of Mycenaean, early lost in Attic and Ionic, such as the /w/ sound (digamma).

Main traits[edit]

Glossary[edit]

Arcadian[edit]

  • ἀμφιδεκάτη amphidekatê 21st of the month ἡ μετὰ εἰκάδα ἡμέρα(ampheikas)(dekatê tenth)
  • ἄνωδα anôda up-side (Attic ἄνωθε anôthe)
  • ἄρμωλα armôla or ἀρμώμαλα armômala (Attic ἀρτύματα artymata ἀρτύω) food Seasoning
  • ἄσιστος asistos nearest (Attic ἄγχιστος anchistos)
  • δάριν darin or dareir (Attic σπιθαμή spithame inch) span of all fingers see Ancient Greek units of measurement
  • Ἑκατόμβαιος Hecatombaios epithet for Apollo in Athens and for Zeus in Gortyna, Arcadia and Gortyna Crete
  • Ϝιστίαυ Wistiau (Attic Hestiou, eponym genitive of Hestios) (Cf.Hestia and gistia)
  • ϝοῖνος woinos (Cypriot, Cretan, Delphic, Magna Graecian also) (Attic oinos) wine
  • ζέλλω zellô (Attic βάλλω ballô "throw,put,let,cast")
  • ζέρεθρον zerethron (Homeric, Attic βέρεθρον berethron pit) (Koine barathron)
  • θύρδα thyrda outside (Attic ἔξω exô, thyra door) (Paphian θόρανδε thorande)
  • ἴν in in,inside (Attic en) (Cypriot also)
  • κάθιδος kathidos water-jug (Attic ὑδρία hydria) (Tarentine huetos)
  • κάς kas and (Attic καί kai) Cypriotic also
  • κίδαρις kidaris Arcadian dance (Athenaeus 14.631d.)[5] and Demetra Kidaria in Arcadia.
  • κόρϝα korwa girl (Attic korê) (Pamphylian name Κορϝαλίνα Korwalina)
  • Κορτύνιοι Kortynioi (Kortys Gortyna, Arcadia)
  • κυβήβη kubêbê boot,shoe (Attic hypodema)
  • Λῆναι Lênai Bacchae (Lenaeus Dionysus, Lenaia festival)
  • μωρίαι môriai horses, cattle
  • οὔνη ounê or ounei come on! Go! (Attic δεῦρο , δράμε deuro, drame)
  • πέσσεται pessetai (Attic ὀπτᾶται optatai it is cooked,roasted)
  • πος pos towards,into (Attic προς pros) (Cypriot also) ποσκατυβλάψη[6] poskatublapse (Attic proskatablapsei)
  • σίς[7] sis who, anyone (Attic tis) (Laconian tir) (Thessalian kis)(Cypr. sis (si se)

Cypriotic[edit]

  • ἀβάθων abathôn teacher (Attic didaskalos)
  • ἁβαριστάν abaristan (γυναικιζομένην) 'effeminate'
  • ἀβαρταί abartai birds, volatile (Attic hai ptênai, ta ptêna πτηνά)
  • ἀβλάξ ablax 'brightly wonderful' (Attic λαμπρῶς lambrôs) (α + βλάξ (blax) "idiot", blapto "harm")
  • ἀβρεμής abremês ἀβλεπής, ἀνάξιος του βλέπεσθαι, 'unworthy seeing, despicable'
  • ἁγάνα hagana and agana (Attic σαγήνη sagênê 'dragnet')
  • ἄγαν θές (agan thes) (Attic σιώπα siôpa, 'shut up' ( "too much" + "put" (tithemi imp.)
  • ἄγκυρα ankura (Attic τριώβολον triôbolon, "three obolus") (Attic ankura anchor)
  • ἀγλαόν aglaon (Attic γλαφυρόν glaphyron, "smooth, sweet, simple, decorated" (Cretan also), (Attic: aglaos "bright")
  • ἀγόρ agor eagle (Attic ἀετός aetos)
  • ἀγχοῦρος anchoûros near the morning (from anchauros anchi + aurion tomorrow )
  • ἄδειὁς adeios (Attic akathartos), "cleanless, impure" (cf. Attic: adeios, adeia = "fearless, safe", Byzantine and Modern: adeios, adeia = "empty")
  • ἄδρυον adryon (ploion monoxylon canoe) (α + δρῦς)
  • ἀθρίζειν athrizein (Attic ῥιγοῦν rhigoun to shiver)
  • ἀίεις aieis 'you listen' (Attic ἀκούεις akoueis) (aïô only in poetic use)
  • αἰπόλος aipolos (Koine kapêlos wine-seller) (Attic aipolos 'goatherd') (Attic pôleô sell)
  • ἀκεύει akeuei (Attic τηρεῖ terei he observes,maintains,keeps order)
  • ἄκμων akmôn (Attic ἀλετρίβανος aletribanos plough or pestle) (Attic ἄκμων anvil, meteor) (Acmon mythology)
  • ἀκοστή akostê barley (Attic κριθή krithê ) Cypr. acc. to Hsch., but Thess. for grain of all kinds acc. to Sch.Il.6.506.)
  • ἅλς hals (Attic oinos wine) (Attic ἅλς hals sea) (<ἅλα>· *θάλασσαν (Α 141) vgAS ἢ οἶνος Κύπριοι)
  • ἀλάβη alabê or alaba (Attic μαρίλη marile charcoal-ember) λιγνύς. σποδός. καρκίνος. ἄνθρακες
  • ἀλειπτήριον aleipterion (Attic γραφεῖον grapheion writing utensil or place of writing and engraving) (Attic ἀλειφω aleiphô smear,rub)
  • ἄλευρον aleuron grave (Attic τάφος taphos )(leuros smooth, level, even )(Attic ἄλευρον wheat flour)
  • ἄλουα aloua gardens (Attic κῆποι kêpoi)
  • ἁλουργά halourga the red things of the sea τὰ ἐκ τῆς θαλάσσης πορφυρᾶ Cypr. acc. Hsch.
  • ἄνδα anda she (Attic αὕτη hautê)
  • ἄορον aoron lever μοχλός gateway πυλῶν door-keeper θυρωρός (Aeolic aoros unsleeped)
  • ἀούματα aoumata chaffs, straws left-overs of barleys τὰ τῶν πτισσομένων κριθῶν ἄχυρα (Cf. loumata,lumata)
  • ἀπέλυκα apelyka (Attic ἀπέῤῥωγα aperrhoga I am broken,crashed)
  • ἀπλανῆ aplanê many,a lot (Attic πολλά) (Laconian ameremera) (Attic aplaneis unmoving,non wandering esp. for stars)
  • ἀποαἵρει apoairei (Attic ἀποκαθαίρει apokathairei he cleans,removes) (ἀπαίρω lead off,set out to sea)
  • ἀπόγεμε apogeme imp. remove out, draw off liquor(Attic ἄφελκε aphelke) (Attic γέμω gemô to be full of)
  • ἀπολοισθεῖν apoloisthein to finish complete (Attic ἀποτελεῖν apotelein)(ὅλος holos whole)
  • ἀπόλυγμα apolugma denudation (Attic ἀπογύμνωσις apogymnôsis)(cf. apolouma)
  • ἀρὰς ἐπισπεῖραι aras epispeirai Cypriot cursing custom sowing barley with water σπειρόντων κριθὰς μεθ' ἁλὸς καταρᾶσθαί τισιν
  • ἄριζος arizos grave (Attic taphos) (α + ῥίζα rhiza root)
  • ἄρμυλα armula shoes (Attic ὑποδήματα hypodemata)
  • ἀρμώατος armôatos (Attic σπασμός spasmos spasm)
  • ἄρουρα aroura 'heap of wheat with straws' σωρὸς σίτου σὺν ἀχύροις (Homeric,Ionic ἄρουρα aroura earth)
  • ἄρπιξ arpix harpix or aprix acanthus "specie of thorn", εἶδος ἀκάνθης (Attic aprix fast, tight)
  • αὔγαρος augaros (Attic ἄσωτος asôtos unsaved,wasteful, prodigal)
  • αὐεκίζειν auekizein (Attic σφακελίζειν sphakelizein produce gangrene)
  • Ἀχαιομάντεις 'Achaiomanteis seers, priests in Cyprus (Hesychius)
  • βᾶλλαι ballai (Attic βαθμοί bathmoi grades,steps,stages) (Aeolic arrows)
  • βλάστα blasta (Attic βλάστησις blastesis Vegetation)
  • βομβοία bomboia (Attic κολυμβὰς ἐλαία kolumbas elaia pickled olive,swimming in brine)(Attic kolumbaô dive,swim)
  • βορβορίζει borborizei γογγύζει. μολύνει it groans, pollutes
  • βουκανῆ boukanê anemone flower ἀνεμώνη (bukanê trumpet)
  • βουνός bounos (Attic στιβάς stibas bed of straw, reeds, leaves) (Koine bounos hill,mountain)
  • βοώνητα boôneta (Attic 'purchased things in the price of cows') τιμῆς βοῶν ἠγορασμένα (Cypriot unholy things)
  • βρένθιξ brenthix (Attic θριδακίνη thridakine lettuce)
  • βρίγκα brinka small (Attic μικρόν mikron)
  • βριμάζειν brimazein orgasmize ὀργᾷν εἰς συνουσίαν (Brimô mythology) (brimaomai freak, be enraged)
  • βροῦκα brouka green locust χλωρὰν ἀκρίδα (Ionic broukos)
  • βρούχετος brouchetos frog (Attic βάτραχος bathrachos) (Hsch. brouchetos pit βάραθρον)
  • βύβλιοι byblioi gravekeepers
  • γάνος ganos garden pl. ganea (Hebrew gan 'garden')
  • γέμοις νυ gemois nu lit."you may be full,filled now" Hsch. λαβέ καὶ κάθιζε take and sit
  • γένεσις genesis libation (Attic σπονδή sponde)
  • γοᾶναι goanai (Attic κλαίειν klaiein to cry) (goaô moan)
  • γρᾶ gra or grasthi "eat (imp)" (Attic φάγε phage) (Attic graô gnaw) (Sanskrit grasate eat) (PIE *gres- devour) (Salaminian καγρᾶkagra kata + graô Koine kataphagas gluttonous)
  • δαματρίζειν damatrizein τὸ συνάγειν τὸν Δημητριακὸν καρπόν "collect the fuits of Demeter"
  • δεῖν dein 'turn' (Attic στρέφειν strephein (cf. Attic: deo tie)
  • δίπτυον diptuon (Attic hemimedimnos, a dry measure) (Aeolic kammarpsis)
  • διφθεραλοιφός diphtheraloiphos elementary teacher γραμματοδιδάσκαλος grammatodidaskalos ( aleiphô "smear" + diphthera "goatskin,writing-material, parchment"
  • δρόσος drosos ἀχρείος achreios "needless, useless" (Attic drosos dew)
  • δύσεα dusea (the things around the wall) τοῦ τοίχου τὰ πέριξ
  • ἔαρ ear (Attic αἷμα haima blood) (Attic Ear Spring (season))
  • Ἔγχειος Encheios Ἀφροδίτη
  • ἔλαψα elapsa (Attic διέφθειρα diephtheira I harmed)
  • ἔλφος elphos butter (Attic βούτυρον boutyron)
  • ἔναυὁν enauon ἔνθες put in,ignite <εναύοντες>· ἀνάπτοντες πυρί. τὰ γὰρ σμήνη τῶν μελισσῶν διώκουσι διὰ πυρὸς καὶ καπνοῦ A (n)
  • ἔπιξα epixa (Attic ὄρνεα ornea birds)
  • ἐροῦντες erountes (Attic λέγοντες legontes the saying) (Attic erountes the ones who will say)
  • ἐρούα eroua walk and rest πορεύου,αναπαύου (cf. Homeric erôeô)
  • ἔστη estê (Attic στολή stolê, equipment,garment) (cf. esthês clothing)
  • ζάει zaei (Attic κινεῖ καὶ πνεῖ it moves and blows) (zaei binei, inire, coïre, of illicit intercourse)
  • θᾶτες thates or thutes manual labourers (Attic θῆτες thêtes) (see Timocracy)
  • θεῖον theiοn (Attic ἴγδιον igdion mortar) (Aristophanes θυεία thyeia igdion mortar)
  • θίβων thibôn (Koine thibis ark,basket) (Hebrew tēbhāh ark, from Egyptian tebt 'box')
  • θρόδαξ throdax (Attic θρίδαξ thridax lettuce)
  • θύα thua flavourings ἀρτύματα. Κύπριοι. ἔνιοι τὰ ἀρώματα. Καλλίμαχος (fr.564). Εὔπολις (fr. 108,2) τὰ πέμματα. λέγεται δὲ καὶ τὰ θυόμενα ταῖν θεαῖν
  • ἵγα higa shut up (Attic σιώπα siôpa) (Cretan iga)
  • ἱμονιά himonia strap (Attic ἵμας himas)
  • ἳν hin dat. and acc. of the old pers. Pron. hi (q.v.). in, Arc., Cypr., and Cret. for en (q.v.)[8]
  • καλίνδινα kalindina intestines (Attic ἔντερα entera) (PIE: ghel-ond-, ghol-n•d- stomach; bowels) (Homeric cholades) (Macedonian gola)
  • καχίλα kachila flowers (Attic ἄνθη anthê)
  • κενεά (Attic ἀναδενδράδες anadendrades climbing vineyards) (Attic kena kenea vain
  • κίβισις kibisis bag (Attic πήρα pêra) (Aetolian kibba)
  • κίλλος killos morning cicada ( τέττιξ πρωϊνὸς tettix proinos) (Hesychius killos donkey)
  • Κινυράδαι Kinyradai priests of Aphrodite ἱερεῖς Ἀφροδίτης
  • κίρις kiris or kirris (cypriotic epithet for Adonis) (Laconian kirris λύχνος lychnos light,lamp)
  • κίτταρις kittaris Cypriot Diadem.Κίτταροι Kittaroi, the ones who wear it
  • κιχητός kichêtos the vessel or the substance where the censer(Attic libanôtos) is being dyed εἰς ὃ ἐμβάπτεται ὁ λιβανωτός
  • κυνύπισμα kunupisma drink from pomace (stemphyla), i.e. left-overs of pressed grapes.
  • λήνεα lênea or λείνα leina (Attic ἔρια eria wools)
  • μόψος mopsos 'stain on the clothes' (Attic kêlis κηλὶς ἡ ἐν τοῖς ἱματίοις) (Mopsus mythology) (Mopsopia old name of Attica and Attic tales of Euphorion of Chalcis)
  • μύθα mytha voice (Attic φωνή phonê mythos μυθέομαι mytheomai speak narrate)
  • μυλάσασθαι mulasasthai cleanse with oil (Attic σμήξασθαι smêxasthai σμήχω smêchô)
  • ὄλινοι olinoi sheaves of barley <ὄλινοι κριθῆς>· δέσμαι. καὶ ὤλενος παρὰ Κυπρίοις
  • ὀρτός ortos (Attic βωμός bômos altar)
  • οὐάραι ouarai we (Attic ἡμεῖς hemeis)
  • οὔαρον ouaron olive oil (Attic ἔλαιον elaion)
  • οὖνον ounon or ounos road (Attic odos) (Koine dromos)
  • πέσσον pesson (Attic ὄρος mountain or χωρίον village)
  • πιλνόν pilnon (Attic φαιόν phaion obscure brown, πελιδνόν pelidnon livid (blue,green/ dark)
  • πρέπον prepon beast (Attic τέρας teras beast)(prepôn -ontos, a fish) (Attic prepon -ntos suitable)
  • Πυγμαίων Pygmaion Ἄδωνις Adonis
  • ῥύεινα rhueina lamb, accusative (Attic ἄρνα arna)(nom. rhuein,arên from Wrêna)
  • σί βόλε si bole? (Attic τί βούλει; ti boulei? what do you want?)
  • σίγυνον sigunon (Attic ἀκόντιον akontion spear)[9]

Paphian[edit]

  • ἐπίκορον epicoron (Attic ἐπίκοπον epikopon) cutting, re-stamped coin (from keirô and koptô cut)
  • ἐς πόθ' ἕρπες es poth' herpes? (Attic πόθεν ἥκεις pothen hekeis? where do you come from?) (Attic ἕρπειν herpein to creep, to crawl, move slowly like a serpent
  • εὐτρόσσεσθαι eutrossesthai (Attic ἐπιστρέφεσθαι epistrephesthai return)
  • θόρανδε thorande (Attic ἔξω exo outside) θύρα thyra door
  • ἵγγια hingia one (Cypr. ingia) (εἷς heis) (Cretan itton hen one)
  • ἰμίτραιον imitraion(Hsch.ὑπόζωστον hypozoston under-girdle,rope of ship
  • ἰμπάταὁν impataon (Attic ἔμβλεψον emblepson look inside -imperative) (Hsch. inkapathaon enkatablepson)
  • κάβειος kabeios young (Attic νέος neos)
  • καβλή kablê (Koine μάνδαλος mandalos latch)
  • κακκέρσαι kakkersai (Attic κατακόψαι katakopsai to cut,slay) (kata + keirô cut)
  • καλέχεο kalecheo (Attic κατάκεισο katakeiso lay down -imperative) (Homeric λέχος lechos bed)
  • καπατάξεις kapataxeis (Attic κατακόψεις katakopseis you will cut,slay)
  • κάῤῥαξον karrhaxon (Attic κατάραξον kataraxon strike -imperative) (kata + arassô
  • κατέρεαι katereai (Attic κάθισαι kathisa sit)
  • κίβος kibos (Attic kibôtos ark or ἐνεός eneos speechless)
  • κιδνόν kidnon here (Attic ἐνθάδε enthade)
  • κόρζα korza or korzia heart ( Attic καρδία kardia ) ( Ionic kardiê )( Homeric kradiê ) ( Aeolic karza )
  • κύβος kubos saucer bowl dish (Attic τρύβλιον trublion) (Attic kubos cube)
  • λιμήν limên ἀγορά and (ἐνδιατριβή endiatribê delay,abide,stay) (Attic λιμήν limên port,harbour)
  • μοχοῖ mochoi inside (Attic ἐντός entos)(cf.muchos innermost part, nook, corner)
  • σάπιθος sapithos sacrifice (Attic θυσία thysia)
  • σάσαι sasai to sit (Attic καθίσαι kathisai) (cf. Poetic thassô sit, thôkos backless throne)
  • σές ses (Attic ἔλαθες elathes you were hidden,escaped notice see λανθάνω lanthano)
  • σίαἱ sihai to spit (Attic πτύσαι ptusai to spit,cast out)
  • σοάνα soana (Attic ἀξίνη axinê axe)
  • στροπά stropa (Attic ἀστραπή astrapê) (Homeric sterope, lightning flash)
  • ὕεσι huesi (Koine στολή stolê garment), (Attic ἀμφίεσις amphiesis clothing, Hsch. ὑεστάκα huestaka)
  • Φάπη Phapê Παφία Paphia (Paphian Aphrodite)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Roger D. Woodard (2008), "Greek dialects", in: The Ancient Languages of Europe, ed. R. D. Woodard, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 51.
  2. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece 8.5.1
  3. ^ Kypros — Salamis — c. 600 BC [1]
  4. ^ Kypros — Kourion ~320 BC [2]
  5. ^ Mortals and Immortals [3] by Jean Pierre Vernant
  6. ^ Arkadia — Tegea — 4th century BC IG V,2 6 38
  7. ^ Arkadia — Mantineiastoichedon. — 5th century BC [4]
  8. ^ LSJ
  9. ^ Poetics (Aristotle)-XXI [5]

Bibliography[edit]

  • A History of Ancient Greek: From the Beginnings to Late Antiquity- Arcado-Cypriot by A.Panayotou
  • C. M. Bowra Homeric Words in Arcadian Inscriptions
  • Yves Duhoux, Introduction aux Dialectes Grecs Anciens, Cabay, Lounain-la-Neuve 1983 ISBN 2-87077-177-0
  • Rüdiger Schmitt, Einführung in die griechischen Dialekte, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1977 ISBN 3-534-05672-8
  • Markus Egetmeyer, "Le dialecte grec ancien de Chypre. Tome I: Grammaire; Tome II: Répertoire des inscriptions en syllabaire chypro-grec. Berlin/New York: De Gruyter, 2010.