Arcellinid testate amoebae are commonly found in soils, leaf litter, peat bogs and near/in fresh water. They use their pseudopodia (false feet), a temporary cell extension, for moving and taking in food. Like most amoebae, they are generally believed to reproduce asexually via binary fission. However a recent review suggests that sexual recombination may be the rule rather than the exception in amoeboid protists in general, including the Arcellinid testate amoebae.
Test or shell
Simple tests (or shells) are be made by either secretion (autogenous tests) or by the agglutination of foreign material (xenogenous tests), or sometimes a combination of both. Past environmental changes can be determined by analysing the composition of fossil tests, including the reconstruction of past climate change.
Testate amoebae are theorized to be mostly polyphyletic (coming from more than one ancestral type), but testaceafilosea, one group of testate amoebae, are theorized to be made up of one ancestral type (monophyletic). Ancient tests of terrestrial fauna are commonly found in fossilized amber, although an important new study has found mid-Cretaceous testate amoeba (i.e., Diffligia, Cucurbitella) in ancient lake sediments. It is likely that the group has evolved minimally over the course of the Phanerozoic.
- http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/artjun03/gsamoebae.html Testate amoebae, peat bogs and past climates. accessed 16 march 2007
- Identification key for holocene lacustrine arcellacean (thecamoebian) taxa
- Lara E, Heger TJ, Ekelund F, Lamentowicz M, Mitchell EA (April 2008). "Ribosomal RNA genes challenge the monophyly of the Hyalospheniidae (Amoebozoa: Arcellinida)". Protist 159 (2): 165–76. doi:10.1016/j.protis.2007.09.003. PMID 18023614.
- Lahr DJG, Parfrey LW, Mitchell EAD, Katz LA, Lara E (2011). "The chastity of amoebae: re-evaluating evidence for sex in amoeboid organisms". Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 278: 2081–2090.
- Porter, S.A., and Knoll, A.H. (2000) Testate amoeba in the Neoproterozoic Era: evidence from vase-shaped microfossils in the Chuar Group, Grand Canyon: Paleobiology 26 (3): 360-385. Also see Cryogenian
- Schmidt, A.R., Ragazzi, E., Coppellotti, O., Roghi, G. (2006) A microworld in Triassic amber, Nature, v. 444 (14):835.
- van Hengstum, P.J., Reinhardt, E.G., Medioli, F.S., Grocke, D.R. (2007) Exceptionally preserved late albian (Cretaceous) Arcellaceans (Thecamoebians) from the Dakota Formation near Lincoln, Nebraska Journal of Foraminiferal Research 37(4): 300-308
- Ralf Meisterfeld: Arcellinida, In: John J. Lee, Gordon F. Leedale, Phyllis Bradbury (Hrsg.): Illustrated Guide to the Protozoa, 2nd Edition. Vol. 2, Society of Protozoologists, Lawrence, Kansas 2000, ISBN 1-891276-23-9, pp. 827-860
- Adl SM, Simpson AGB, Lane CE, Lukeš J, Bass D, Bowser SS, Brown MW, Burki F, Dunthorn M, Hampl V, Heiss A, Hoppenrath M, Lara E, le Gall L, Lynn DH, McManus H, Mitchell EAD, Mozley-Stanridge SE, Parfrey LW, Pawlowski J, Rueckert S, Shadwick L, Schoch CL, Smirnov A, Spiegel FW (2012). "The Revised Classification of Eukaryotes". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59: 429–514.
- ISTAR, the International Society for Testate Amoeba Research
- Tree of Life: Arcellinida
- An article by G. T. Swindles
- Protozoa: The testate amoebae
- BioImages: The Virtual Field-Guide (UK) - TESTACEA (Testate amoebae)
- Pictures of testate amoebae
- The Cushman Foundation Thecamoebian Page