Archbishop Jovan VI of Ohrid

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Archbishop Jovan VI of Ohrid
Arhiepiskop ohridski Jovan.jpg
Born (1966-02-28) February 28, 1966 (age 48)
Bitola (Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia)

Archbishop Jovan (John) VI, born Zoran Vraniškovski (Macedonian: Архиепископ Јован Вранишковски) (born 28 February 1966 in Bitola, Macedonia) is an orthodox Macedonian cleric and head of the Orthodox Ohrid Archbishopric, an autonomous church that split off from the unrecognized Macedonian Orthodox Church in 2002 to seek reunification with the Serbian Patriarchate of Peć and the other Orthodox churches.

Jailed in Macedonia.

Biography[edit]

Vraniškovski studied at the Faculty of Civil Engineering in Skopje, graduated in 1990 and enrolled the University of Belgrade's Faculty of Orthodox Theology the same year. He graduated in June, 1995 and then started his master’s studies. As of 2008, he has also been studying for a doctoral degree, working on a doctoral dissertation on "The Unity of the Church and the Contemporary Ecclesiological Problems."

Vraniškovski was tonsured a monk with the name Jovan (John) in February 1998. Soon afterwards he was ordained a deacon and then a priest. In July 1998 was consecrated a bishop with the title Bishop of Dremvitsa and was assigned to be a vicar of the Bishop of Prespa and Pelagonia.

In March 2000, he was elected the Bishop of the diocese of Veles.

Restoring church unity[edit]

In attempt to restore its canonical status and gain recognition from the orthodox churches, the Macedonian Orthodox Church negotiated with the Serbian Orthodox Church from which it was separated since its self-declared autocephaly in 1967. These negotiations lead to an agreement signed in Niš in June 2002, thus known as the Niš Agreement,[1] which was signed by all bishops of both delegations. The bishops of the delegations of the Macedonian Orthodox Church were exposed to severe criticism for signing this agreement, and although they attempted to defend it for a short time,[2] it was soon rejected by the Synod of MOC.

The Patriarch of Peć then summoned all bishops, clergy, monastics and faithful people of the MOC to enter in liturgical and canonical unity with the Serbian Orthodox Church.[3] The Bishop of Veles, Jovan Vraniskovski, and all priests of Veles agreed to respond to this call, and all signed a document of agreement.[4]

On May 24, 2005 Jovan Vraniškovski was confirmed by Patriarch of Peć, to be Archbishop of Ohrid and Metropolitan of Skopje in accordance with the Niš Agreement. On the same day, there was an announcement of the Patriarchal and the Assembly's Tomos for Autonomy of the Ohrid Archbishopric, with Archbishop John as the Chairman of the Holy Synod of Bishops.

Reactions of the state[edit]

A few days after entering in liturgical and canonical unity with the Serbian Orthodox Church, Vraniškovski was expelled from the seat of the Metropolitanate together with the monastic community living with him.[5]

Since then he has been detained by the Macedonian national authorities several times on various charges. In 2003 he was sentenced to five days imprisonment for "disturbance of public peace and order and resisting a police officer", after attempting to perform a baptism in a church run by the national Macedonian Orthodox Church.[6]

In 2004 he was sentenced to 18 months of imprisonment for Instigation of ethnic and religious hatred, discord and intolerance.[7] The verdict stated the conviction relied on three points:[8] 1) he wrote a text in a religious calendar in which he slandered the Macedonian Orthodox Church, 2) he agreed to be appointed as an Exarch of the Ohrid Archbishopric in Macedonia and participated in the ordination of the bishops Joachim and Marko and 3) he officiated at a religious service in an apartment owned by his parents. He was imprisoned on July 26, 2005 and served 220 days in prison before the Supreme Court declared the last two of these three points to be unconstitutional[9] and his sentence was shortened to 8 months.

In 2006 he was again tried and sentenced for 2 years, on charges of embezzlement of a donation of 57,000 Euro. Initially, the Court refuted the indictment,[10] but the Court of Appeal returned the case for a retrial.[11] In the second trial, the defendants were acquitted of the indictment,[12] but the Court of Appeal returned the case for a third trial.[13] On the third trial both defendants were found guilty, and as a second defendant, Jovan Vraniškovski was sentenced 2 years imprisonment, where the first defendant was sentenced to 1 year and 3 months imprisonment.[14] He was imprisoned on August 8, 2006 and served 256 days before being released.

Jovan Vraniškovski is facing a detainment order for a third retrial of a third case in which he was initially acquitted by the Veles Trial Court in April 2006 on charges of embezzling 324,000 Euro from MOC funds while he was a bishop with the MOC. The case was returned to the Veles Trial Court for retrial by the Court of Appeals in Skopje, and he was acquitted for a second time in April 2007. On November 14, 2007, the Court of Appeals in Skopje returned this case to the Veles Trial Court for a third trial. Vraniškovski's attorney claimed that neither he nor Vraniškovski was asked to appear in court to testify in the case. On March 17, 2008, the Veles court issued a detention order for Vraniškovski for failing to appear in court.[15]

Archbishop Jovan Vraniškovski and other members of the Orthodox Ohrid Archbishopric were physically attacked on a number of occasions and the churches they have built or used have been destroyed.[16]

International reactions[edit]

Amnesty International found the Archbishop Jovan to be a Prisoner of conscience.[17]

The US Mission to the OSCE in its report stated that The United States is concerned that Vraniskovski’s January detention and his ongoing trial may be disproportionate to his alleged offenses and violate his freedom of religion. We believe that governments should avoid involvement in religious disputes. [18]

Freedom House speaking of Jovan Vraniskovski's second imprisonment reported that he has been again arrested ... for his ties to the Serbian Orthodox Church.[19] Reporting about the first imprisonment Freedom House writes that the charge was loosely based on the fact that he had performed a baptism and held church services in his apartment. Amnesty International has declared him a prisoner of conscience..[19] In Freedom House's publications Macedonia received a downward trend arrow due to ... an increase in the harassment of leaders of various religious groups.[20]

Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe reported that Macedonian officials, in response to the ecclesiastical dispute concerning the status of the Macedonian Orthodox Church, have over-reacted and found the 18-month prison sentence to be excessive and unjustified.[21]

Reactions of the Orthodox churches[edit]

Patriarch Bartholomew and Jovan in 2004

The orthodox churches reacted upon the imprisonment of Archbishop Jovan and appealed for his release.

Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople sent a letter to the Prime Minister of the Republic of Macedonia requesting immediate release of Archbishop Jovan. [22][23]

Patriarch Alexy II of Moscow sent a letter to the President of the Republic of Macedonia demanding immediate release of the Archbishop Jovan. [24]

Holy Synod Of Hierarchs Of The Church of Greece expressed a severe protest for an emergent release of Archbishop Jovan from prison, and for respect of religious freedom in the Republic of Macedonia. [25]

The Holy Community of the Mount Athos sent a letter of support to the Archbishop Jovan, signed by all Representatives and Abbots who are in the common Assembly of the twenty Holy Monasteries of the Holy Mount Athos. [26]

The Standing Conference of the Canonical Orthodox Bishops in the Americas Condemned the Imprisonment of Archbishop Jovan by the Republic of Macedonia and asked for his release. [27]

Metropolitan Herman of the Orthodox Church in America called for release of Archbishop Jovan of Ohrid. [28]

Books[edit]

  • A Short History of the Orthodox Ohrid Archbishopric (Ohrid, 2007)
  • The Freedom in the Prison (Skopje, 2007)

Studies and articles[edit]

  • Ecclesiological Heresis of the Schismatical Organization in R. Macedonia
  • Contribution of the Church in the Prisons
  • Theological and Historical Aspects of the Church Schism in R. Macedonia and its Overcoming
  • The Educational Character of Orthodox Christianity
  • Theology and Ecology
  • The Theology of St. Theophylact of Ohrid in His Commentaries on the Gospel of Matthew
  • The Holy Relics - A Seal of a Sanctified Life
  • Baptism and Chrismation
  • The One and Many Through an Ecclesiological Aspect
  • The Crisis is to Unite the Christians
  • A Witness
  • A Verdict for the Communism
  • The Church is One
  • Autonomy or Autocephaly

References[edit]

  1. ^ Full text of the Nis Agreement
  2. ^ Statement by the MOC bishops that signed the Niš Agreement: we do not want to be schismatics [1]
  3. ^ Summon by the Patriarch Paul
  4. ^ The agreement with the signatures of the priests from the Metropolis of Veles for entrance into liturgical and canonical unity with the Serbian orthodox church
  5. ^ Media coverage of the eviction
  6. ^ The head of the Serbian Orthodox Church in Macedonia was put in Jail
  7. ^ The 18-month sentence was based on charges that Vraniskovski held private religious services in union with the Serbian Orthodox Church and that he was responsible for the content of a religious calendar describing the MOC as "the last fortress of communism" and its believers as heretics. US State Dept. Report on Religious Freedom in Macedonia, 2006
  8. ^ Verdict from the Court of First Instance of Bitola
  9. ^ Verdict from the Supreme Court
  10. ^ First verdict - the indictment refuted
  11. ^ Ruling of the Court of Appeals with regard to the rejection verdict
  12. ^ Second verdict - acquittal
  13. ^ Ruling of the Court of Appeals in regard to the acquittal verdict
  14. ^ Third verdict - convicting
  15. ^ US State Dept. Religious Freedom Report 2008, Macedonia
  16. ^ Freedom House report on Macedonia, 2006
  17. ^ Amnesty International sees Jovan Vraniskovski a prisoner of conscience
  18. ^ US Mission to the OSCE - Statement on the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
  19. ^ a b Freedom House report on Macedonia, 2007
  20. ^ Freedom House report on Macedonia, 2005
  21. ^ In addition to these legal problems, concern exists about the situation surrounding Bishop Jovan (Zoran Vraniskovski). Macedonian officials, in response to the ecclesiastical dispute concerning the status of the Macedonian Orthodox Church, have over-reacted to Jovan’s activities on behalf of the Serbian Orthodox Church. Authorities in January 2004 arrested Jovan for conducting a church service in a private apartment. Responding to complaints of neighbors about disturbing the peace is appropriate, but sentencing him to 18 months in jail for “causing national, racial or religious hate, discord and intolerance” is excessive and unjustified. Religious Freedom in Southeastern Europe
  22. ^ Σεπτόν Πατριαρχικόν Γράμμα πρός τόν Ἐξοχ. κ. Vlado Buckovski, Πρωθυπουργόν τῆς FYROM(11/08/2005)
  23. ^ Patriarchal Letter to the Prime Minister of the Republic of Macedonia Mr. Vlado Buckovski
  24. ^ A letter from His Holyness Patriarch Alexy II of Moscow to the President of the Republic of Macedonia
  25. ^ Διαμαρτυρία της Συνόδου για τον Αρχιεπίσκοπο Αχρίδος
  26. ^ The letter from the Assembly of the twenty Holy Monasteries of Holy Mount Athos to the Metropolitan Jovan
  27. ^ SCOBA Condemns Imprisonment of Archbishop Jovan By Macedonia and Asks For His Release
  28. ^ Metropolitan Herman calls for release of Archbishop Jovan of Ohrid

External links[edit]