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The name Archelaus (Greek: Ἀρχέλαος, i.e. "prime/rule of people") may refer to:
- Archelaus (philosopher), pupil of Anaxagoras, 5th century BC
- Archelaus I of Macedon, reigned 413–399 BC
- Archelaus (general), fought in the First, Second and Third Mithridatic Wars (1st century BC)
- Archelaus (died 55 BC), son of general Archelaus, the high priest of Comana Cappadocia in 1st century BC
- Archelaus, son to the above, another high priest of Comana Cappadocia in 1st century BC
- Archelaus of Cappadocia, son to the above and reigned as King 36 BC – AD 17
- Archelaus of Cilicia (died 38), son to the above and Client King under Roman Emperor Tiberius in the 1st century AD
- Herod Archelaus (born 23 BC), ethnarch of Samaria, Judea, and Idumea, 4 BC-6 AD
- Archelaus of Sparta, son of Agesilaus I (died 886 BC)
- Archelaus of Priene, an ancient Greek sculptor
- Archelaus the deacon, a third-century saint martyred with Quiriacus of Ostia in 235
- Archelaus, bishop of Caschar in Mesopotamia, third-century bishop to whom is attributed a Disputation with Manes, see Mani (prophet)
- Archelaus, son of Heracles
- Archelaus, son Electryon and Anaxo, killed by the sons of Pterelaus
- Archelaus, son of Aegyptus. He was killed by his wife, Anaxibia, daughter of Danaus.
- Archelaus, son of Temenus (son of Heracles). Driven into exile by his brothers, he was promised the kingdom of king Cisseus of Macedonia, and the hand of his daughter in marriage. He was, however, betrayed and murdered by the king.
- Archelaus (play) by Euripides
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