Archery at the Summer Olympics

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Archery at the Summer Olympics
Archery pictogram.svg
Governing body WA
Events 4 (men: 2; women: 2)
Games
1896 1900 1904 1908 1912 1920
1924 1928 1932 1936 1948 1952
1956 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976
1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000
2004 2008 2012 2016
Medalists • Records

Archery had its debut at the 1900 Summer Olympics and has been contested in 14 Olympiads. Eighty-three nations have competed in the Olympic archery events, with France appearing the most often at 11 times. The most noticeable trend has been the dominance of the Korean women archers, who have won 14 out of 15 gold medals in the women's events since 1984. The Korean men archers have been strong in the team event, winning four out of seven gold medals, but less distinguished in the individual event. It is governed by the World Archery Federation (WA; formerly FITA). Recurve archery is the only discipline of archery featured at the Olympic Games. Archery is also an event at the Summer Paralympics.

History[edit]

The second Olympic games, Paris 1900, saw the first appearance of archery. 7 disciplines in varying distances were contested. The next Olympics, St. Louis 1904, had 5 archery events but no athletes from outside the United States competed. At the 1908 Summer Olympics, there were 3 archery events. Archery was not featured at the 1912 Summer Olympics but reappeared in the 1920 Summer Olympics.

Between 1920 and 1972, archery was not contested at the Olympic games. The archery competition that was featured at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich consisted of a double FITA Round (from 2014 known as a '1440 Round') competition with two events – men's individual and women's individual. This form of the archery competition was held until the 1988 Summer Olympics, when team competition was added and the Grand FITA Round format was used. Starting at the 1992 Summer Olympics, the Olympic Round with head-to-head matches was adopted, and has been used ever since.

In 1984 at Los Angeles, Neroli Fairhall of New Zealand was the first paraplegic competitor in the Olympic Games.

Medal tables[edit]

From 1972[edit]

1972 marked the beginning of the modern archery competition at the Olympic Games. The events began to use standardized forms and many nations competed.

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 South Korea 14 9 6 34
2 United States 8 4 2 14
3 Italy 2 2 3 7
4 China 1 6 2 9
5 Soviet Union 1 3 3 7
6 Finland 1 1 2 4
Ukraine 1 1 2 4
8 Australia 1 0 1 2
France 1 0 1 2
10 Spain 1 0 0 1
11 Japan 0 3 2 5
12 Sweden 0 2 0 2
13 Chinese Taipei 0 1 1 2
Germany 0 1 1 2
Mexico 0 1 1 2
Poland 0 1 1 2
17 Indonesia 0 1 0 1
18 Great Britain 0 0 4 4
19 Unified Team 0 0 2 2
20 Netherlands 0 0 1 1
Russia 0 0 1 1
Total 20 nations 36 36 36 108

All years[edit]

This table includes archery competitions in 1900, 1904, 1908, and 1920 in addition to the ones from 1972 on, which are shown above. These four years preceded the modern, standardized archery competition under the rules of the World Archery Federation and were contested by three nations at most. In one year (1904), only the United States competed. Other nations that competed during that period were France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Great Britain.

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  South Korea (KOR) 19 9 6 34
2  United States (USA) 14 10 8 32
3  Belgium (BEL) 11 6 3 20
4  France (FRA) 6 10 7 23
5  Great Britain (GBR) 2 2 5 9
6  Italy (ITA) 2 2 3 7
7  China (CHN) 1 6 2 9
8  Soviet Union (URS) 1 3 3 7
9  Finland (FIN) 1 1 2 4
 Ukraine (UKR) 1 1 2 4
11  Australia (AUS) 1 0 1 2
 Netherlands (NED) 1 0 1 2
13  Spain (ESP) 1 0 0 1
14  Japan (JPN) 0 3 2 5
15  Sweden (SWE) 0 2 0 2
16  Chinese Taipei (TPE) 0 1 1 2
 Germany (GER) 0 1 1 2
 Mexico (MEX) 0 1 1 2
 Poland (POL) 0 1 1 2
20  Indonesia (INA) 0 1 0 1
21  Unified Team (EUN) 0 0 2 2
22  Russia (RUS) 0 0 1 1
Total 61 60 52 173

Qualification[edit]

Qualification spots in archery are allotted to National Olympic Committees rather than to individual athletes.

There were four ways for NOCs to earn berths in Olympic archery. No NOC is allowed to enter more than three archers of each gender. For each gender, the host nation is guaranteed three spots. The most recent World Target Competition's top 8 teams (besides the host nation) each receive three spots, and the 19 highest ranked archers after the team qualifiers are removed also earn spots for their country. 15 of the remaining 18 spots are divided equally among the five Olympic continents for allocation in continental tournaments. The last three spots in each gender are determined by the Tripartite Commission invitation.

Each NOC that receives three places for individual archers (i.e., the host nation, the top 8 teams at the World Target Competition, and any other nation that is able to take 3 of the remaining 37 places) is able to have its three archers compete as a team in the team competition. The minimum age for an Olympic archer is 16.

2012[edit]

For 2012, the qualification rules were adjusted slightly. The host nation continued to receive three spots, as did the top eight teams at the World Championship. However, only 8 further individuals qualified through the individual placement at the World Championship. The continental tournaments received unbalanced allocations, with Africa and Oceania receiving only two qualification spots to the other continents' three. The Tripartite Commission retained its three selections. The remaining 13 spots were decided by Final Qualification Tournaments. Three additional team spots (9 individual spots) were allocated through the Final Qualification team event, and the last 4 spots through the Final Qualification individual tournament. If any of the NOCs qualifying through Final Qualification had already earned an individual spot, one more spot as added to the individual Final Qualification quota.[1]

Competition[edit]

Modern Olympic archery consists of four medal events: men's individual, women's individual, men's team, and women's team. In all four events, the distance from the archer to the target is 70 metres.

Individual[edit]

In the individual competitions, 64 archers compete. The competition begins with the ranking round. Each archer shoots 72 arrows (in six ends, or groups, of 12 arrows). They are then ranked by score to determine their seeding for the single-elimination bracket. After this, final rankings for each archer are determined by the archer's score in the round in which the archer was defeated, with the archers defeated in the first round being ranked 33rd through 64th.

Pre-2008[edit]

The first elimination round pits the first ranked archer against the sixty-fourth, the second against the sixty-third, and so on. In this match as well as the second and third, the archers shoot simultaneously 18 arrows in ends of 3 arrows. The archer with the higher score after 18 arrows moves on to the next round while the loser is eliminated.

After three such rounds, there are 8 archers remaining. The remaining three rounds (quarterfinals, semifinals, and medal matches) are referred to as the finals rounds. They consist of each archer shooting 12 arrows, again in ends of 3 arrows. The two archers in the match alternate by arrow instead of shooting their arrows simultaneously as in the first three rounds. The losers of the quarterfinals are eliminated, while the losers of the semifinals play each other to determine the bronze medal and fourth place. The two archers who are undefeated through the semifinals face each other in the gold medal match, in which the winner takes the gold medal while the loser receives the silver medal.

2008 changes[edit]

All matches in 2008 were in the previous finals round format, using 12 arrow matches. Archers alternated shooting by arrow.

2012 changes[edit]

The individual match system was completely overhauled for the 2012 Olympics, though the single elimination with bronze medal match format was retained. The matches now consisted of sets. Each set comprised both archers shooting three arrows. The archer with the best score in the set received two points; if the set was drawn, each archer received one point. The match would continue until one archer reached six points. If the match was tied after five sets, a single arrow shoot-off was held with the closest arrow to center winning.[2]

Team[edit]

Each country that has three archers in the individual competition also gets to compete as a team. The same three archers from the individual competition must compete as the country's team. Their scores in the individual ranking round are added to determine the team's ranking round score.

The first team round is the round of 16, but as the number of teams is usually between 9 and 15 the highest ranked teams typically get a bye in the first round. Prior to the 2008 changes, matches consisted of each team shooting 27 arrows in 3 ends of 9 arrows, with each archer on the team shooting 3 arrows per end. Advancement and medals were determined in the same manner as the individual competition.

2008 changes[edit]

The number of arrows per team in a match was reduced to 24, in 4 ends of 6 arrows. Each of the three archers on a team now shoots 8 arrows in a match.

Events[edit]

Early Games[edit]

Early Olympic archery competitions had events that were unique for each of the Games.

1900 1904 1908 1912 1920
6 events, men only 6 events, men and women 3 events, men and women not held 10 events, men only
 

Modern Games[edit]

[Someone add an explanation of the notation in the tables: numeric digit, X, dash, blank.]

Event 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 Years
Double FITA Round, men 1 1 1 1 1 5
Double FITA Round, women X X X X X 5
Team Double FITA Round, men X 1
Team Double FITA Round, women X 1
Olympic round, individual men X X X X X X 6
Olympic round, individual women X X X X X X 6
Olympic round, team men X X X X X X 6
Olympic round, team women X X X X X X 6
Events 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 36

Participating nations[edit]

The following nations have taken part in the archery competition.

[Someone add an explanation of the notation in the tables: numeric digit, X, dash, blank.]

Event 96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 Years
 American Samoa (ASA) 1 1
 Argentina (ARG) X 1
 Australia (AUS) 3 X X X X X X 6 X 5 2 11
 Austria (AUT) X X X 3
 Bangladesh (BAN) 1 1
 Belarus (BLR) X X X 2 1 5
 Belgium (BEL) 18 14 3 X X X X X X 9
 Bhutan (BHU) X X X X X X 2 1 8
 Brazil (BRA) X X X X 1 1 6
 Bulgaria (BUL) X X X X 1 1 6
 Canada (CAN) 6 X X X X X X X 4 2 10
 Central African Republic (CAF) X 1
 Chile (CHI) X 1 2
 China (CHN) X X X X X X 6 6 8
 Chinese Taipei (TPE) 1 X X X X X X 6 6 9
 Colombia (COL) X X 3 2 4
 Costa Rica (CRC) X X X 3
 Ivory Coast (CIV) 1 1
 Cuba (CUB) X X 1 1 4
 Cyprus (CYP) X 1 2
 Czech Republic (CZE) 2 1
 Czechoslovakia (TCH) X X 2
 Denmark (DEN) 4 X X X X X 2 3 8
 Egypt (EGY) X X 2 2 4
 El Salvador (ESA) X X 2
 Estonia (EST) X X 1 3
 Fiji (FIJ) X 1 1
 Finland (FIN) 3 X X X X X X X X 1 10
 France (FRA) 129 15 8 5 X X X X X X X 5 4 13
 Georgia (GEO) X X X 2 1 5
 Germany (GER) X X X X 2 2 6
 Great Britain (GBR) 41 6 X X X X X X X X 6 6 12
 Greece (GRE) X X 2 1 3
 Guam (GUM) X 1
 Hong Kong (HKG) X X X 1 4
 Hungary (HUN) 2 X X X 4
 India (IND) X X X X 4 6 6
 Indonesia (INA) 1 X X X X X X X 2 1 10
 Iran (IRI) 2 2 2
 Iraq (IRQ) 1
 Ireland (IRL) X X X X X X 6
 Italy (ITA) 3 X X X X X X X X 6 6 11
 Japan (JPN) 4 X X X X X X X 5 6 10
 Jordan (JOR) X 1
 Kazakhstan (KAZ) X X X 1 2 5
 Kenya (KEN) X 1
 North Korea (PRK) X X X X 2 1 6
 South Korea (KOR) 3 X X X X X X 6 6 9
 Laos (LAO) X 1
 Luxembourg (LUX) 2 X X X X X 1 6
 Malaysia (MAS) X 3 4 3
 Malta (MLT) X X X 3
 Mauritius (MRI) X X 1 3
 Mexico (MEX) 6 X X X X X X 4 6 9
 Moldova (MDA) X 1 2
 Monaco (MON) X X 2
 Mongolia (MGL) 3 X X X X X 2 6
 Morocco (MAR) 1 1
 Myanmar (MYA) X X 1 1 4
 Netherlands (NED) 6 8 X X X X X X X 1 10
 New Zealand (NZL) 1 X X X X X X 7
 Norway (NOR) 4 X X X X X 1 7
 Philippines (PHI) 3 X X X 1 2 6
 Poland (POL) 4 X X X X X X X 6 2 10
 Portugal (POR) X X X X X 1 6
 Puerto Rico (PUR) 1 X X X X 5
 Qatar (QAT) 1 1
 Romania (ROU) X 1 2
 Russia (RUS) X X X 5 3 5
 Samoa (SAM) 1 1 2
 San Marino (SMR) X X 1 3
 Saudi Arabia (KSA) X X 2
 Slovenia (SLO) X X X 1 4
 Solomon Islands (SOL) X 1
 South Africa (RSA) X X X X 1 1 6
 Soviet Union (URS) 6 X X X 4
 Spain (ESP) 2 X X X X X X X 1 2 10
 Sweden (SWE) 5 X X X X X X X X 1 1 11
 Switzerland (SUI) 4 X X X 1 2 6
 Tajikistan (TJK) X 1 2
 Thailand (THA) X X 1 3
 Tonga (TGA) X 1
 Turkey (TUR) X X X X X X 2 1 8
 Uganda (UGA) X 1
 Ukraine (UKR) X X X 5 6 5
 Unified Team (EUN) X 1
 United States (USA) 29 1 6 X X X X X X X 5 6 12
 Vanuatu (VAN) X 1
 Venezuela (VEN) 1 2 2
 West Germany (FRG) 4 X X X 4
 Yugoslavia (YUG) X X 2
 Zimbabwe (ZIM) X X 2
No. of nations 3 1 3 3 27 24 25 35 41 44 41 46 43 49 55 92
No. of archers 153 29 57 30 95 64 67 109 146 136 128 128 128 128 128
Year 96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12

Records[edit]

The Olympic records for archery are for the competition format established in 1992.

Men's
# of arrows Archer(s) Score Games
72 (ranking)  Im Dong-Hyun (KOR) 699 2012
18  Park Kyung-mo (KOR) 173 2004
12  Lee Chang Hwan (KOR) 117 2008
36 (finals)  Tim Cuddihy (AUS) 340 2004
216 (team ranking)  South Korea (KOR)
Im Dong-Hyun
Kim Bub-Min
Oh Jin-Hyek
2087 2012
27 (team)  South Korea (KOR)
Jang Yong-ho
Oh Kyo-moon
Kim Chung-tae
258 2000
54 (team finals)  United States (USA)
Justin Huish
Butch Johnson
Rod White
502 1996
Women's
# of arrows Archer(s) Score Games
72 (ranking)  Park Sung Hyun (KOR) 682 2004
18  Yun Mi-Jin (KOR) 173 2000
2004
12  Park Sung Hyun (KOR) 115 2008
36 (finals)  Kim Nam-soon (KOR) 334 2000
215 (team ranking)  South Korea (KOR)
Park Sung Hyun
Lee Sung Jin
Yun Mi-Jin
2030 2004
27 (team)  South Korea (KOR)
Kim Soo-nyung
Kim Nam-soon
Yun Mi-Jin
252 2000
54 (team finals)  South Korea (KOR)
Kim Soo-nyung
Kim Nam-soon
Yun Mi-Jin
502 2000
24 (team finals)  South Korea (KOR)
Park Sung Hyun
Joo Hyun-Jung
Yun Ok-Hee
231 2008

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]