Architects of the National Park Service

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Architects of the National Park Service are the architects and landscape architects who were employed by the National Park Service (NPS) starting in 1918 to design buildings, structures, roads, trails and other features in the United States National Parks. Many of their works are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, and a number have also been designated as National Historic Landmarks.

The National Park Service was established in 1916, and Charles Punchard, Jr. became its first landscape architect in July 1918. Punchard died in 1920 and was replaced by his assistant, Daniel Ray Hull. In 1922, Hull hired Thomas Chalmers Vint as a draftsman. Vint became the head of the Landscape Architectural Division after Hull retired in 1927. Vint remained with the NPS until he retired in 1961 and is credited with directing and shaping landscape planning and development at the NPS. Vint also significantly expanded the design group's staffing in the late 1920s and 1930s, starting in 1928 with Merel S. Sager. The NPS Branch of Plans and Designs was organized in 1933. Vint was appointed as the first chief architect, with Charles E. Peterson in charge of the Eastern Division and William G. Carnes in charge of the Western Division. Carnes replaced Vint as the Chief Landscape Architect, and in 1956, Sager succeeded Carnes in that position.[1]

Other significant architects and landscape architects who were employed by NPS include Herbert Maier, John Wosky, Harold G. Fowler, Cecil J. Doty, Lyle E. Bennett, A. Paul Brown, Mark Daniels, Ernest A. Davidson, Herbert Kreinkemp, Harry Langley, and Ken Saunders.[1][2][3]

Much of the work of the NPS architects is in a "rustic" style that has become known as "National Park Service rustic" architecture.[2]

One of the distinctive features of architecture of the National Park Service is the blending of traditional architecture and landscape architecture. Vint and others experimented with use of stone and logs to construct buildings in a natural way, following example of landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted. Vint also provided the first master plan for many Park Service units in his 1931 plan for Mount Rainier National Park. It established the principle of designating specific areas as wilderness.[4]

Several private architects, though not the subject of this article, also made important contributions to the development of the NPS rustic architectural style. Gilbert Stanley Underwood designed several important rustic works in the National Parks, including Old Faithful Lodge (1923), Bryce Canyon Lodge (1925), Ahwahnee Hotel (1926), Zion Lodge (1927), and Grand Canyon Lodge (1928). Mary Colter also contributed a number of important early works, including the Mary Jane Colter buildings at Grand Canyon National Park.

Works[edit]

Works attributed to the architects of the National Park Service or to its architect subgroups, include the following (with attribution variations). Some works are specifically noted to be done by the "NPS Landscape Architecture Division" or the "NPS Landscape Engineering Division"; some are noted to be works of the "NPS Office of Design & Construction" or the "NPS Branch of Plans and Design".[5]

Alaska[edit]

Upper Toklat River Cabin No. 24, built in 1931 to a standard design of the NPS Branch of Plans and Designs
Lower Toklat River Ranger Cabin No. 18, in a National Park Service style originated at Yellowstone

Denali National Park and Preserve[edit]

Arizona[edit]

Grand Canyon National Park[edit]

Other[edit]

California[edit]

Yosemite National Park[edit]

Crane Flat Fire Lookout, Yosemite, built in 1931, a two-story structure with a lower storage level and an upper observation level, with an overhanging roof, designed by the National Park Service's Landscape Division to blend with surroundings.
Specifically designed as a National Park Service lookout intended to blend with its surroundings, in contrast to the metal towers used by the U.S. Forest Service. This lookout was highlighted by Thomas Chalmers Vint as a prototype for general use.[17]

Sequoia National Park[edit]

Lassen Volcanic National Park[edit]

Colorado[edit]

Rocky Mountain National Park[edit]

Moraine Park Amphitheater
  • Bear Lake Comfort Station (1940), Rocky Mountain National Park, Bear Lake, Estes Park, Colorado (designed by W. C. Hill, working under Howard W. Baker, Regional Landscape Architect, NPS Branch of Plans and Design), NRHP-listed[37]
  • East Inlet Trail, west side of Rocky Mountain National Park, 6.9 miles from Grand Lake to Lake Verna (trail existed in 1914; first NPS construction by 1924; rebuilt in 1931 under leadership of L.S. Moore; listed in part due to its reflecting NPS Naturalistic Design), NRHP-listed[38]
  • Fall River Pass Ranger Station, Rocky Mountain National Park, Fall River Pass (designed by Daniel Ray Hull, landscape engineer for NPS), NRHP-listed.[39]
  • Fall River Pump House and Catchment Basin, near the top of Fall River Rd., Rocky Mountain National Park, Estes Park, Colorado (L. Fletcher and W. G. Hill, landscape architects with the National Park Service), NRHP-listed[40]
  • Fall River Entrance Historic District, Rocky Mountain National Park, Fall River Entrance, Estes Park, Colorado (three buildings designed by Edward A. Nickel, Associate Structural Engineer, NPS Branch of Plans and Design, Western Division), NRHP-listed[41]
  • Fern Lake Patrol Cabin (1925), Rocky Mountain National Park, Fern Lake, Estes Park, Colorado (designed by members of the NPS Landscape Engineering Division in Los Angeles under supervision of Daniel Ray Hull), NRHP-listed[42]
  • Fern Lake Trail, Rocky Mountain National Park, Estes Park, Colorado, (trail reworked by NPS landscape architects in 1933; rebuilt by CCC workers), NRHP-listed[43]
  • Flattop Mountain Trail, Rocky Mountain Park, Estes Park, Colorado, (National Park Service and Civilian Conservation Corps), NRHP-listed[44]
  • Glacier Basin Campground Ranger Station (1930), Rocky Mountain National Park, Glacier Basin, Estes Park, Colorado, (NPS Branch of Plans and Designs), NRHP-listed[45]
  • Lake Haiyaha Trail (1930-1935), also known as Nymph Lake Trail and Dream Lake Trail, Rocky Mountain National Park, 2.1 miles roughly along Bear, Nymph & Dream Lakes, then up Chaos Canyon, Estes Park, Colorado, (Allison van V. Dunn, landscape architect, National Park Service), NRHP-listed[46]
  • Lost Lake Trail, also known as Sawmill Trail, Rocky Mountain National Park, 4.5 miles roughly along North Fork of the Big Thompson River, Estes Park, Colorado (rebuilt in 1934 under direction of Allison van V. Dunn, landscape architect with National Park Service), NRHP-listed[47]
  • Milner Pass Road Camp Mess Hall and House (1926), Rocky Mountain National Park, Milner Pass Road, Estes Park, Colorado (designed by personnel of NPS Landscape Engineering Division, Los Angeles, under supervision of Daniel Ray Hull; "one of the earliest structures in the park to demonstrate the 'NPS Rustic' style of architecture"), NRHP-listed[48]
  • Moraine Park Museum and Amphitheater (1934), Rocky Mountain National Park, Estes Park, Colorado (National Park Service Branch of Plans and Design), NRHP-listed[49]
  • North Inlet Trail (1926-1931), 11.5 miles roughly along North Inlet & Hallett Creek to Flattop Mountain, Grand Lake, Colorado (trail rebuilt 1926-1931; Allison van V. Dunn, an NPS landscape architect, arrived in 1929 and oversaw the final years of rebuilding), NRHP-listed[50]
  • Shadow Mountain Lookout (1932), southeast of Grand Lake in Rocky Mountain National Park, Grand Lake, Colorado (original plans by NPS Landscape Architecture Division were rejected; new plans completed by NPS Chief Forester, John Coffman), NRHP-listed[51]
  • Shadow Mountain Trail, 4.8 miles long on east side of Shadow Mountaine Lake, Grand Lake, Colorado (trail rebuilt in 1930 by National Park Service; trail design reflects NPS Naturalistic Design of the 1920s to 1940s), NRHP-listed[52]
  • Thunder Lake Patrol Cabin (1930), Rocky Mountain National Park (Howard R. Baker and Thomas Chalmers Vint of the NPS Design Staff), NRHP-listed[53]
  • Thunder Lake Trail-Bluebird Lake Trail, roughly along North Saint Vrain Creek, west of Wild Basin Ranger Station, Allens Park, Colorado (National Park Service and Civilian Conservation Corps), NRHP-listed[54]
Upper Thunder Lake Trail reconstructed in 1929-1930 upon arrival of the park's first NPS-trained landscape architect; portions of Bluebird Lake Trail rebuilt in late 1930s with CCC labor.[54]
  • Timber Creek Campground Comfort Stations Nos. 245, 246, and 247 (1935), Rocky Mountain National Park (Howard W. Baker of NPS Branch of Plans and Designs), NRHP-listed[55]
  • Timber Creek Road Camp Barn (1930), Rocky Mountain National Park, approximately 200 yards south of Columbine Lake Rd., 450 yards west of Kawuneeche Visitor Center, Estes Park, Colorado (designed by personnel at NPS Office of Design & Construction, San Francisco, under supervision of Thomas Chalmers Vint), NRHP-listed[56]
  • Timberline Cabin (1925), Rocky Mountain National Park, Fall River Rd., vicinity of Estes Park, Colorado (plans prepared by members of the NPS Landscape Engineering Division under supervision of T. C. Vint), NRHP-listed[57]
  • Utility Area Historic District, Rocky Mountain National Park, Beaver Meadows Entrance Rd., Estes Park, Colorado (approximately 30 contributing structures; plans by NPS Landscape Engineering Division), NRHP-listed[41][58]
"Nowhere in Rocky Mountain National Park is the theme of NPS Rustic Architecture exemplified better than in the Utility Area Historic District."[41]
  • Agnes Vaille Shelter (1927), near the summit of Long's Peak, less than 100 yards south of Keyhole at over 13,400 feet elevation, along East Longs Peak Trail, Rocky Mountain National Park (National Park Service design staff; NPS rustic architecture), NRHP-listed[59]
  • Wild Basin House (1931), Rocky Mountain National Park, Wild Basin, Estes Park, Colorado (plans approved by T. C. Vint, drawn by the NPS Branch of Plans and Design), NRHP-listed[60]
  • Wild Basin Ranger Station and House (1932), Rocky Mountain National Park, Wild Basin, Estes Park, Colorado (plans drawn by NPS Branch of Plans and Design), NRHP-listed[61]
  • Willow Park Patrol Cabin (1923), Rocky Mountain National Park, Fall River Rd., Estes Park, Colorado (designed by members of the NPS Landscape Engineering Division under the supervision of Daniel Ray Hull), NRHP-listed[62]
  • Willow Park Stable (1926), Rocky Mountain National Park, Fall River Pass, Estes Park, Colorado (designed by members of the NPS Landscape Engineering Division under the supervision of Daniel Ray Hull), NRHP-listed[63]

Colorado National Monument[edit]

Other[edit]

Mesa Verde Superintendent's Office

Florida[edit]

Fort Matanzas National Monument visitors center
A work of National Park Service Rustic architecture

Minnesota[edit]

Surviving CCC camp building chimney, at St. Croix Recreational Demonstration Area
The National Park Service provided technical, overall expertise on the design of traffic circulation in the park, and in buildings' designs; work was done by CCC and WPA.[79]

Missouri[edit]

Arrow Rock State Historic Site[edit]

Lake of the Ozarks State Park[edit]

Knob Noster State Park[edit]

Meramec State Park[edit]

Montauk State Park[edit]

Roaring River State Park[edit]

Van Meter State Park[edit]

Other[edit]

Montana and Wyoming[edit]

Devils Tower National Monument[edit]

Glacier National Park[edit]

Grand Teton National Park[edit]

Yellowstone National Park[edit]

First "wayside exhibit built in the National Park System", an "open air museum-in-miniature", and a small shelter for interpretative information, in National Park Service Rustic style.[84]

Nevada[edit]

New Mexico[edit]

Carlsbad Caverns National Park[edit]

Oklahoma[edit]

  • Nichols Park (1938-1941), located on the Indian Nation Turnpike (toll road) approximately two mile south of downtown Henryetta in Okmulgee County, Oklahoma (design by Charles Krueger of the National Park Service; built by Civilian Conservation Corps), NRHP-listed[89]
The registered properties are listed in part due to their NPS rustic architecture and include a beach house, two picnic shelter, and comfort station.[89]
  • Perry Lake Park (1934-1935), also known as CCC Park, 1520 South 4th Street, Perry, Oklahoma (National Park Service; built by Civilian Conservation Corps), NRHP-listed[90]
The registered properties include a boat house and are listed in part as "an excellent example of the architecture and landscape design philosophy of the National Park Service."[90]

Oregon[edit]

Crater Lake National Park[edit]

Watchman Lookout Station No. 68

[91][92]

Other[edit]

Listed properties include bathhouse (1938, designed by J. Elwood Isted), kitchen shelters (adapted by Glen O. Stevenson from a Plan by J. Elwood Isted for Washington State Parks), pumphouse (1937, designed by J. Elwood Isted), caretaker's house (1936, designed by Jack Peterson), caretaker's garage (1937, designed by J. Elwood Isted)[93]

South Dakota[edit]

Utah[edit]

Bryce Canyon National Park[edit]

Zion National Park[edit]

East Entrance Sign
Grotto Trail

Washington[edit]

Mount Rainier National Park[edit]

Shelter at Camp Muir

Olympic National Park[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  4. ^ Carr 1998, p. 240
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  19. ^ Leslie Starr Hart (1978). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Mariposa Grove Museum". National Park Service. 
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  63. ^ "Classified Structure Field Inventory Report: Willow Park Stable". National Park Service. 
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  69. ^ Kathy McKoy (December 28, 1992). National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Saddlehorn Caretaker's House and Garage. National Park Service. 
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  73. ^ Kathy McKoy (December 28, 1992). National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Saddlehorn Utility Area Historic District. National Park Service. 
  74. ^ "Saddlehorn Utility Area Building & Utilities Shop". List of Classified Structures. National Park Service. 2008-12-11. 
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  77. ^ "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: North Rim Road, Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park". National Park Service. 
  78. ^ a b c d e f g h i "National Register of Historic Places Multiple Property Documentation Form: Minnesota State Park CCC/WPA/Rustic Style Historic Resources". National Park Service. September 5, 1989. 
  79. ^ Rolf Anderson, Susan Begley, and Ethan Carr (January 6, 1997). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: St. Croix Recreational Demonstration Area". National Park Service. 
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  88. ^ Swanson, Betsy (October 1986). "National Register of Historic Place Inventory - Nomination Form: Rattlesnake Springs Historic District". National Park Service. Retrieved 28 August 2011. 
  89. ^ a b "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Nichols Park". National Park Service. 
  90. ^ a b "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Perry Lake Park". National Park Service. 
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  119. ^ GGF (July 23, 1982). "Pacific Northwest Regional Office Inventory: Narada Falls Comfort Station". National Park Service. 
  120. ^ Harvey, David (September 7, 1982). "Pacific Northwest Regional Office Inventory: Summerland Trail Shelter". National Park Service. 
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  123. ^ Harvey, David (September 4, 1982). "Pacific Northwest Regional Office Inventory: Tahoma Vista Comfort Station". National Park Service. Retrieved 14 March 2011. 
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  126. ^ Harvey, David (September 30, 1982). "Pacific Northwest Regional Office Inventory: Tolmie Peak Fire Lookout". National Park Service. 
  127. ^ Harvey, David (September 12, 1982). "Pacific Northwest Regional Office Inventory: White River Mess Hall and Dormitory". National Park Service. 
  128. ^ Toothman, Stephanie (September 1983). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: White River Entrance". National Park Service. Retrieved 8 March 2011. 
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