Architecture of Finland
The architecture of Finland has a history spanning over 800 years, and while up until the modern era the architecture was strongly influenced by currents from Finland's two respective neighbouring ruling nations, Sweden and Russia, from the early 19th century onwards influences came directly from further afield; first when itinerant foreign architects took up positions in the country and then when the Finnish architect profession became established. Also, Finnish architecture in turn has contributed significantly to several styles internationally, such as Jugenstil (or Art Nouveau), Nordic Classicism and Functionalism. In particular, the works of the country's most noted modernist architect, Alvar Aalto, regarded as one of the major figures in the world history of modern architecture, has had significant worldwide influence. In an article from 1922 titled “Motifs from past ages”, Aalto discussed national and international influences in Finland, and as he saw it;
"Seeing how people in the past were able to be international and unprejudiced and yet remain true to themselves, we may accept impulses from old Italy, from Spain, and from the new America with open eyes. Our Finnish forefathers are still our masters."
In a 2000 review article of twentieth century Finnish architecture, Le Monde critic, Frédéric Edelmann suggested that Finland has more great architects of the status of Alvar Aalto in proportion to the population than any other country in the world. Finland's most significant architectural achievements are related to modern architecture mostly because the current building stock has less than 20% that dates back to before 1955, which relates significantly to the reconstruction following World War II.
1249 is the date normally given for the beginning of Swedish rule over the land known as Finland (in Finnish, Suomi), and this rule continued until 1809, after which it was ceded to Russia, but under which it had a significant degree of autonomy as the Grand Duchy of Finland. Finland declared independence from Russia in 1917, at the time of the Russian Revolution. These historical factors have had a significant bearing on the history of architecture in Finland, along with issues of the founding of towns and the building of castles and fortresses (in the numerous wars between Sweden and Russia fought in Finland) as well as the availability of materials and craftsmanship and later on government policy on issues such as housing and public buildings. As an essentially forested region, timber was the natural building material, while the hardness of the local stone (predominantly granite) made it difficult to work, and the manufacture of brick was rare before the mid-19th century.
- 1 From early architecture to 1809 (including the Swedish colonial period)
- 2 Grand Duchy period, 1809-1917
- 3 Post-independence, 1917-
- 4 Architecture competitions
- 5 Influences abroad
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
From early architecture to 1809 (including the Swedish colonial period)
The vernacular architecture of Finland is generally characterised by the predominant use of wooden construction, though over time increasingly more often on a granite base foundation. However, the oldest known dwelling structure is the so-called kota, a hut or tent with a covering in fabric, peat moss or timber. The building type remained in use throughout Finland until the 19th century, and is still in use among the Sami people in Lapland. The sauna is also a traditional building type in Finland: the oldest known saunas in Finland were made from pits dug in a slope in the ground and primarily used as dwellings in winter. The first Finnish saunas are what nowadays are called "smoke saunas". These differed from present-day saunas in that they were heated by heating a pile of rocks (called kiuas) by burning large amounts of wood about 6–8 hours, and then letting the smoke out before enjoying the sauna heat (löyly).
The tradition of wood construction - beyond the kota hut - has been common throughout the entire northern boreal coniferous zone since prehistoric times. The central structural factor in its success is the corner joining - or "corner-timbering" - technique, whereby logs are laid horizontally in succession and notched at the ends to form tightly secure joints. The origins of the technique are uncertain; though it was in use by the Romans in northern Europe in the first century BC, other possible older sources are said to be from areas of present-day Russia. Crucial in its development were the necessary tools, primarily an axe rather than a saw. The resulting building type, a rectangular plan, originally with a single space and with a low-pitched saddle-back roof, is of the same origin as the megaron, the early Greek dwelling house. Its first use in Finland may have been as a storehouse, and later a sauna and then domestic house. The first examples of the "corner-timbering" technique would have used round logs, but a more developed form emerged, shaping logs with an axe to a square shape for a surer fit and better insulation. Hewing with an axe was seen as preferable to sawing because the axe-cut surfaces were better in abating water penetration. In later developments, most particularly in urban contexts, the log frame was then further covered in a layer of wooden planks. It is hypothesised that it was only from the 16th century onwards that wooden houses were painted, most notably in the familiar red-ochre or punamulta, containing up to 95% iron oxide, often mixed with tar. The balloon framing technique for timber construction popularized throughout North America only came to Finland in the 20th century. Finnish master builders had travelled to the USA to see how the industrialisation of the timber-framing technique had developed and wrote about it positively in trade journals on their return. Some experiments were made in using the wooden frame, but at this stage it did not become popular. One reason was its poor climatic performance (improved in the 1930s with the addition of insulation): others were the relatively low price of timber and labour in Finland. However, by the outbreak of the First World War, the industrialsed system had become more widespread. Also a comparatively recent "import" to Finland is the use of wooden shingles in buildings, dating only from the early 19th century. Previous to that, the traditional system had been a so-called birch-bark roofs, combining a birch-bark waterproof lining under a series of long timber poles weighed down by occasional boulders. The coating of shingles with tar was the "modern" appropriation of a material first produced in the Nordic countries during the Iron Age, a major export product, especially in sealing wooden boats.
The traditional timber house in Finland was generally of two types: i. In eastern Finland, influenced by Russian traditions; for example, in the Pertinotsa house (now in the Seurasaari Open Air Museum in Helsinki) the family's dwelling rooms are on the upper floors while the animal barns and storerooms are on the ground floor, with hay lofts above them; ii. In western Finland, influenced by Swedish traditions, the farmhouse consisted of groups of individual buildings around a central farmyard. Traditionally, the first building to be constructed in such a farmstead would be the sauna, followed by the first or main room ("tupa") of the main house; an example of this farmhouse typology is the Antti farmstead, originally from the village of Säkylä but nowadays also in Seurasaari.
The development of wood construction to an even higher, refined level occurred, however, in the construction of churches. One of the oldest known wooden church is that of Santamala, Nousiainen (only archaeological remains existing), dating from the 12th century, with a simple rectangular ground plan of 11,5 x 15 metres. The oldest preserved wooden churches in Finland date back to the 17th century (e.g. Sodankylä old church, Lapland, 1689) - none of the medieval churches are remaining. The designs of the churches clearly take influences from church architecture from central and southern Europe as well as Russia, with cruciform plans and Gothic, Romanesque and Renaissance detailing. The development of the wooden church in Finland is marked by greater complexities in plan and increasing size. The "Lapp church" of Sodankylä (c. 1689), Finland's best-preserved and least changed wooden church, is a simple, unpainted rectangular saddle-back roofed block, 13 x 8,5 metres with the walls rising 3,85 metres, and resembling a peasant dwelling. Petäjävesi church (planned and built by master builder Jaakko Klemetinpoika Leppänen, 1765) plus additional sacristy and belfry (Erkki Leppänen, 1821) (a World Heritage Site), though also unpainted on the exterior, has a cross plan with even-sized arms, 18 x 18 metres, with a 13 metre-tall interior wooden vault. The atmosphere of the interior is unique; the large windows, unusual for log construction, give it a soft light. Even at the time of the building of Petäjävesi church more complex ground plans were emerging. The Church of Elisabet in Hamina (1748–51, destroyed 1821) was a model for later churches.
Petäjävesi Old Church, 1765, bell tower 1861.
The use of stone construction in Finland was initially limited to the few medieval castles in the country (e.g. Raseborg, Olavinlinna, Savonlinna, Turku, Vyborg). However, there was also a tradition of stone-built churches during the Middle Ages. The Medieval stone building tradition in Finland is preserved in 73 stone churches and 9 stone sacristies added to otherwise originally wood churches. Probably the oldest stone church is the Church of St. Olaf in Jomala, Åland Islands, completed in 1260–1280. The stone churches are characterised by their massive walls, and with predominantly a single interior space. Small details, such as windows would sometimes be decorated with redbrick detailing. An exception among the churches was Turku Cathedral; it was originally built out of wood in the late 13th century, but was considerably expanded in the 14th and 15th centuries, mainly using stone but also brick as the construction material. The cathedral was badly damaged during the Great Fire of Turku in 1827, and was rebuilt to a great extent afterwards in brick. Similarly, Häme Castle (dating from the mid 13th century) was originally built in wood, then stone, but also brick.
During the Middle Ages there were only 6 towns in Finland (Turku, Porvoo, Naantali, Rauma, Ulvila and Vyborg), with wooden buildings growing organically around a stone church. The development in architecture went hand in hand with the founding of towns; mostly following a regular grid plan. Helsinki was founded in 1550, with regulations instructing buildings be constructed in stone, for "representational" reasons but also as a fire precaution - yet in practice the buildings continued to be built in timber. However, the development in Helsinki's architecture only came after 1748 with the construction of the Sveaborg fortress (first planned by Augustin Ehrensvärd), with distinct Baroque architecture placed within an unsymmetrical fortification system, all built in stone and brick.
During the 17th century Sweden became a major political power in Europe, extending its territory into present day Estonia, Russia and Poland - and this expansiveness was reflected in its architecture over the next century. These architectural ambitions were realised to an extent in Finland, too, and markedly in the fortresses, most notably in the octagonal "Ideal City" plan of the fortress town of Fredrikshamn (Hamina) (Axel von Löwen, 1723) and in Sveaborg. However, already in the mid-16th century there were examples of importing refined Renaissance architecture principles to Finland. Duke John of Finland (later King John III of Sweden) built refined Renaissance interiors in the otherwise medieval Turku Castle. Louhisaari manor house, completed in 1655 (unknown architect, though probably designed by its builder-owner Herman Klasson Fleming) is a rare example in Finland of a Palladian-style country house.
The height of Sweden's political expansion was marked by the instigation by the crown of the publication Erik Dahlbergh's Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna (Ancient and Modern Sweden), published 1660-1716, containing over 400 carefully prepared engravings illustrating the monuments of the kingdom of Sweden. However, only 9 featured Finland, mostly coats of arms of the Finnish counties, and depicting them as wilderness areas, or as in the case of the image for "South Finland", a craftsman carving a classical column in a wilderness.
Grand Duchy period, 1809-1917
Early Grand Duchy period: Neoclassicism and Gothic revival
Even before the ceding of Finland to Russia in 1809, the advent of Neoclassicism in the mid-18th century arrived with French artist-architect Louis Jean Desprez, employed by the Swedish state, and who designed Hämeenlinna church in 1799. Another key itinerant architect was Charles (Carlo) Bassi an Italian architect also employed by the Swedish state, especially in the design of churches. in 1811 Bassi was appointed the first head of the National Board of Building (Rakennushallitus - a government post that remained until 1995), based in Turku, a position Bassi held until 1824. After the transfer of power, Bassi remained in Finland but his position of authority was soon taken by another itinerant architect, the German-born Carl Ludvig Engel, who became the most notable architect during the early period of the Grand Duchy of Finland, replacing Bassi as head of the National Board of Building in 1824. With the move of the Finnish capital from Turku to Helsinki, Engel had been appointed by Czar Alexander I to design the major new public buildings, including the major buildings around the Senate Square; the Senate church, Helsinki University buildings - including Engel's finest interior, Helsinki University Library (1836–45) - and Government buildings. All these buildings were designed following the dominant architectural style of the Russian capital, St. Petersburg, namely Neoclassicism - making Helsinki what was termed a St. Petersburg in miniature. In addition to his work in Helsinki, Engel was also appointed "state intendant" with responsibility for the design and supervision of construction of the vast majority of state buildings throughout the country, including tens of church designs, as well as the design and laying out of town plans. Among these works were the Pori Town Hall (1831) and Hamina Church (1843).
Engel had in his possession a copy of Andrea Palladio's architectural treatise I quattro libri dell'architettura, and Engel scholars have often stressed Engels' indebtedness to Palladian theory. But Engel also kept up correspondence with colleagues from Germany and followed trends there. Engel's relationship with key Prussian architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel, three years his senior and both having studied at the Bauakademie in Berlin, has yet to be properly verified. The influences from central Europe would also take on board a more formulaic process, typified by standardisations of design formulas in post-revolutionary France by Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand, for instance by the use of design grids.
Some of Engel's later works are also characterised by the turn in central Europe to Gothic Revival architecture, with an emphasis on red brick facades typical for central Europe. The German Church (1864) is typical of that period, though designed by another two itinerant architects, the German Harald Julius von Bosse (who had worked much in St. Petersburg) and the Swedish-born Carl Johan von Heideken. This period also marked the establishment of the first architecture courses in Finland, and in 1879 these began at the Polytechnical Institute in Helsinki, though at first with German or German-educated teachers. Other Finns went abroad for various periods of to study, most notably Gustaf Nyström who studied both architecture and town planning in Vienna in 1878-79. His buildings are typical of the eclecticism of the time, designing in both Gothic Revival style and a so-called neo-Renaissance style of classicism, with heavy ornamentation as well as heavy use of colour in interiors but also occasionally in facades, as for instance with Nyström's House of the Estates, Helsinki (1891).
Late Grand Duchy period: Jugend
At the end of the 19th century Finland continued to enjoy greater independence under Russia as a grand duchy; however, this would change with the coming to power of Czar Nicholas II in 1894, who introduced a greater process of "Russification". The reaction to this among the bourgeois classes was evident, too, in the arts, for instance in the music of Jean Sibelius and the artist Akseli Gallén-Kallela - but also in architecture. The Finnish Architects Club was founded in 1892 within the Swedish-speaking Engineering Society (Tekniska Föreningen). Originally a loose forum for collaboration and discussion, its voluntary basis meant that it operated informally in cafés and restaurants. In this way it resembled many of the writers’ or artists’ clubs of the time and generally fostered a collegial spirit of some solidarity. It quickly helped to establish the architect as an artist responsible for aesthetic decisions. In 1903, as a supplement to the engineering publication, the Club published the ﬁrst issue of Arkitekten (‘The Architect’ in Swedish, the predominant language still in use at the time among professional classes and certainly architects).
In 1889 the artist Albert Edelfelt depicted the national awakening in a poster showing Mme Paris receiving Finland, a damsel, who alights with a model of St Nicholas' Church (later Helsinki Cathedral) on her hat; the parcels in the boat are all marked EU (i.e. Exposition Universelle). A distinct symbolic importance was given in 1900 to Finland receiving its own pavilion at the Paris World Expo, designed by young architects Herman Gesellius, Armas Lindgren and Eliel Saarinen in the so-called Jugendstil style (or Art Nouveau) then popular in Central Europe.
The Jugendstil style in Finland is characterised by flowing lines and the incorporation of nationalistic-mythyological symbols - especially those taken from the national epic, Kalevala - mostly taken from nature and even medieval architecture, but also contemporary sources elsewhere in Europe and even the USA (e.g. H.H. Richardson and the Shingle Style). The more prominent buildings of the National Romantic style were built in stone, but the discovery in Finland of deposits of soapstone, an easily carved metamorphic rock, overcame the difficulty of using only hard granite; an example of this is the facade of the Pohjola Insurance Building, Helsinki (1901) by Gesellius, Lindgren, and Saarinen. The Jugendstil style became associated in Finland with the fight for national independence. The importance of nationalism also was made evident in the actual surveying of Finnish vernacular buildings: all architecture students at that time - at Finland's then only school of architecture, in Helsinki - became acquainted with the Finnish building heritage my measuring and drawing it. From the 1910s onwards, in addition to large medieval castles and churches also 17th and 18th century wooden churches and neoclassical wooden towns were surveyed - a practice which continues in the Finnish schools of architecture even today. The Jugendstil style was used most notably by Gesellius, Lindgren and Saarinen in key state buildings such as the National Museum and Helsinki Railway Station. Other notable architects employing the same style were Lars Sonck and Wivi Lönn, one of the first woman architects in Finland.
Even at the height of the Jugendstil style, there were opponents who criticised the stagnant tastes and mythological approaches whereby Jugendstil was becoming institutionalised. The most well-known opponents were architect-critics Sigurd Frosterus and Gustaf Strengel. Frosterus had worked in the office of Belgian-born architect Henry van de Velde in Weimar in 1903, and at the same time Strengel worked in London at the office of architect Charles Harrison Townsend. Their critique was partly inspired by the results for the 1904 competition to design the Helsinki railway station, won by Eliel Saarinen. In the jury report, the architecture of Frosterus's entry was descibed as "imported". That same year Frosterus entered the competition for the Vyborg railway station, which Saarinen again won. Frosterus was a strict rationalist who wanted to develop architecture towards scientific ideals instead of the historical approach of Jugenstil. In Frosterus's own words: "We want an iron and brain style for the railway stations and exhibition buildings; we want an iron and brain style for stores, theatres and concert halls." According to him, an architect had to analyse his tasks of construction in order to be able to logically justify his solutions, and he must take advantage of the possibilities of the latest technology. The particular challenge of his time was reinforced concrete. Frosterus considered that the buildings of a modern metropolis should be "constructivist" in expressing their purpose and technology honestly. Frosterus designed a number of private residences, but made his major breakthrough in 1916, gaining second prize in the competition for the Stockmann department store in the heart of Helsinki. He was eventually commissioned to realise the building, which was completed after independence, in 1930.
Another point of debate at that time was that of the merits of urbanism. Again, of importance here were opposing views from abroad, namely the picturesque theories of town planning proposed by Viennese city planner Camillo Sitte, as put forward in his book City Planning According to Artistic Principles (1889) and the opposing classical-rational urbanism point of view proposed in Vienna by Otto Wagner, heavily influenced by the Parisian model - under the directorship of Baron Haussmann from 1858 to 1870 - of driving wide boulevards through the old labyrinthine city in the process of modernisation of traffic and waste management, as well as greater social control of the population. This debate came to a head in Finland in the first ever town planning design competition in 1898-1900 for the Töölö district of Helsinki. Three entries were lifted out for recognition; first prize to Gustaf Nyström (together with engineer Herman Norrmén), second prize to Lars Sonck, and third prize to a joint entry by Sonck, Bertil Jung and Valter Thomé. Nyström's scheme represented classicism with wide main streets and imposing public buildings arranged in symmetrical axial compositions, and the other two in the Sittesque style, with the street network adapted to the rocky terrain and with picturesque compositions. Undecided what course of action to take, however, the City Council asked the prize-winners to submit new proposals. When this led to further stalemate Nyström and Sonck were commissioned to work together on the final plan combining Nyström's spacious street network and elements of Sonck's Sittesque details. The final plan (1916) under the direction of Jung, made the scheme more uniform, while the architecture is seen as typical of the Nordic Classicism style. A typical street in the plan is that of Museokatu, with tall lines of buildings in a classical style along a curving street line. A still wider (24 metres) new tree-lined boulevard was that of Helsinginkatu, driven through the working-class district of Kallio, first outlined in 1887 by Sonck, but with further input from Nyström, and completed in around 1923.
A major architectural-historical event was the emigration of Eliel Saarinen to the USA in in 1923 - after having received second prize in the Chicago Tribune Tower competition of 1922. On moving to the USA, Saarinen continued much in the same architectural style, most notably for the design of the campus for the Cranbrook Academy of Art (1928), while architects in Finland moved on much quicker into modernism.
Nordic classicism and international Functionalism
With Finland's independence achieved in 1917, there was a turn away from the Jugendstil style, which became associated with bourgeois culture. In turn there was a brief return to classicism, so-called Nordic Classicism, influenced to an extent by architect study trips to Italy, but also by key examples from Sweden, in particular the architecture of Gunnar Asplund. Notable Finnish architects from this period include J. S. Sirén and Gunnar Taucher, as well as the early work of Alvar Aalto, Erik Bryggman, Martti Välikangas, Hilding Ekelund and Pauli E. Blomstedt. The most notable large scale building from this period was the Finnish Parliament building (1931) by Sirén. Also of great social significance, however, was its employment in timber constructed workers' housing, most famously in the Puu-Käpylä ("Wooden Käpylä") district of Helsinki (1920–25) by Martti Välikangas. The around 165 houses of Puu-Käpylä, modelled on farmhouses, were built from traditional square log construction clad in vertical boarding, but the construction technique was rationalised with an on-site "factory" with a partly building element technique. The principle of standardization for housing generally would take off during this time. In 1922 the National Board of Social Welfare (Sosiaalihalitus) commissioned architect Elias Paalanen to design different options of farmhouses, which were then published as a brochure, Pienasuntojen tyyppipiirustuksia (Standard drawings for small houses) republished several times. In 1934 Paalanen was commissioned to design an equivalent urban type-house, and he came up with twelve different options. Alvar Aalto, too, became involved, from 1936, in standard small houses, designing for the Ahlström timber and wood product company, with three types of the so-called AA system: 40 m² (Type A), 50 m² (Type B) and 60 m² (Type C). Though based on traditional farmhouses, there are also clear stylistic elements from Nordic Classicism but also modernism. However, it was with the repercussions of the Second World War that the standard system for house design took on even greater potency, with the advent of the so-called Rintamamiestalo (literally: War-front soldier's house).
Apart from housing design, the period of Nordic Classicism is regarded as being fairly brief, surpassed by the more "continental" style - especially in banks and other office buildings - typified by Frosterus and Pauli E. Blomstedt (e.g. Liittopankki bank building, Helsinki, 1929). In reality, however, a synthesis of elements from various styles emerged. Nevertheless, but by the late 1920s and early 1930s there was already a significant move towards Functionalism, inspired most significantly by French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier, but also from examples closer to hand, again Sweden, such as the Stockholm Exhibition (1930) by Asplund and Sigurd Lewerentz. The significant vehicle for the development of modernism in Finland was Alvar Aalto, who was a friend of Asplund as well as key Swedish architect Sven Markelius, who had invited him to join Congrès International d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM), ostensibly run by Le Corbusier. Aalto's reputation as a significant contributor to modernism was endorsed by his involvement in CIAM and by the inclusion of his works in significant architectural journals worldwide as well as significant histories of architecture, notably in the second edition (1949) of Space, Time and Architecture by the secretary-general of CIAM, Sigfried Giedion. Aalto's significant buildings from the early period of Modernism, which basically corresponded to the theoretical principles and architectural aesthetic of Le Corbusier and other modernist architects such as Walter Gropius, include the Turku Sanomat newspaper offices, Turku, Paimio tuberculosis sanatorium (1932) (part of a nationwide campaign for tuberculosis sanatorium construction) and Viipuri Library (1927–35). Central to Functionalism was paying close attention to how the building is used. In the case of the Aalto's Paimio tuberculosis sanatorium, the starting point for the design, he himself claimed, was to make the building itself a contributor to the healing process. Aalto liked to call the building a "medical instrument". For instance, particular attention was paid to the design of the patient bedrooms: these generally held two patients, each with his or her own cupboard and washbasin. Aalto designed special non-splash basins, so that the patient would not disturb the other while washing. The patients spent many hours lying down, and thus Aalto placed the lamps in the room out of the patients line of vision and painted the ceiling a relaxing dark green so as to avoid glare. Each patient had their own specially designed cupboard, fixed to the wall and off the floor so as to aid in cleaning beneath it.
Another key Finnish modernist architect from that period, who had also gone through Nordic Classicism, and who was briefly in partnership with Aalto - working together on the design of the Turku Fair of 1929 - was Erik Bryggman, chief among his own works being Resurrection Chapel (1941) in Turku. However, for Giedion the importance of Aalto led in his move away from high modernism, towards an organic architecture - and as Giedion saw it, the impulse for this lay in the natural formations of Finland. Though these "organic elements" were said to be visible already in these first projects, they became more apparent in Aalto's masterpiece house design, Villa Mairea (1937–39), in Noormarkku - designed for industrialist Harry Gullichsen and his industrialist-heiress wife Maire Gullichsen - the design for which it is felt took inspiration from Frank Lloyd Wright's Fallingwater (1936–39), in Pennsylvania, USA. Though even when designing a luxury villa, Aalto argued that he felt Villa Mairea would provide research for building standardisation for social housing.
The shift or transition from Nordic Classicism to Functionalism is said sometimes to have been sudden and revolutionary, as with Aalto's Turku Sanomat newspaper offices and Paimio Sanatorium, which employs such distinct modernist features as use of reinforced concrete construction, steel strip windows and flat roofs. The shift in Aalto's design approach from classicism to modernism is epitomised by the Viipuri Library (1927–35), which went through a transformation from an originally classical competition entry proposal (1927) to the completed high-modernist building, following delays in the project, yet still retaining many of the ideals of the original idea. Traces of Nordic Classicism would naturally continue synthesized with Functionalism and a more idiosyncratic individual style, a well-known example being Erik Bryggman's mature work, the Resurrection Chapel in Turku, dating from as late as 1941.
Alvar Aalto, Villa Mairea, Noormarkku, 1938-39.
A major event that enabled Finland to display its modernist architecture credentials was the Helsinki Olympic Games. Key among the buildings was the Olympic Stadium by architects Yrjö Lindegren and Toivo Jäntti, the first version of which was the result of an architectural competition in 1938, intended for the games due to be held in 1940 (cancelled due to the war), but eventually held in an enlarged stadium in 1952. The importance of the Olympic Games for architecture was that it coupled the modern, white Functionalist architecture with modernisation of the nation, giving it public endorsement; indeed the general public could contribute to the funding of the stadium's construction by purchasing various souvenir trinkets. Other channels by which Functionalist architecture developed was by means of various state architecture offices, such as the military, industry, and to a small extent tourism. A strong "white Functionalism" characterised the architecture of Erkki Huttunen, head of the building department of the retail cooperative Suomen Osuuskauppojen Keskuskunta (SOK), realised in their production works, offices and even shops. Following independence there was a growing tourism industry with an emphasis on experiencing the wilderness of Lapland: the fasionable Functionalist architecture of the Hotel Pohjanhovi in Rovaniemi by Pauli E. Blomstedt (1936, destroyed in the Lapland War in 1944) catered to the growing middle-class Finnish tourists as well as foreign tourists to Lapland, though at the same time more modest hostels designed in a vernacular rustic style were also being built.
Following World War Two, Finland ceded 11% of its territory and 30% of its economic assets to the Soviet Union as part of the Moscow Peace Treaty of 1940. Also 12% of Finland's population, including some 422,000 Karelians, were evacuated. The state response to this has become known as the period of reconstruction. Reconstruction started in the rural areas because still at that time two-thirds of the population lived there. But reconstruction involved not only the repair of war damage (e.g. the destruction of the city of Rovaniemi by the retreating German army) but also the beginnings of greater urbanisation, programmes for standardised housing, building programmes for schools, hospitals, universities and other public service buildings, as well as the construction of new industries and power stations. For instance, architect Aarne Ervi was responsible for the design of five power stations along the Oulujoki river in the decade after the war, and Alvar Aalto designed several industrial complexes following the war, though in fact he had been heavily involved in designing projects of various sizes for Finnish industrial enterprises already since the 1930s. The Finnish Lutheran Church also became a key figure in architecture by arranging with the Finnish Association of Architects (SAFA) architectural competitions for the design of new churches and cemeteries/cemetery chapels throughout the country, and significant war-time and post-war examples include: Turku Resurrection Chapel (Erik Bryggman, 1941), Lahti Church (Alvar Aalto, 1950), Vuoksenniska Church (Alvar Aalto, 1952-7), Vatiala Cemetery Chapel, Tampere (Viljo Rewell, 1960), Hyvinkää Church (Aarno Ruusuvuori, 1960), and Holy Cross Chapel, Turku (Pekka Pitkänen, 1967).
The 1950s also marked the beginning not only of greater population migration to the cities but also state financed projects for social housing based on systems of standardisation and prefabricated element construction. A leader in the design of social housing was Hilding Ekelund - who had previously been responsible for the design of the athletes' village for the Olympic Games. A challenge to the traditional urbanisation process came, however, with the design of "forest towns", high-rise developments set in forested areas on the outskirts of the major cities, such as the Pihlajamäki suburb of Helsinki (1959–65), based on a town plan by Olli Kivinen, and building designs by Lauri Silvennoinen, the area comprising white Functionalist-style 9-storey tower blocks and up to 250-metre-long 4-5-storey "lamella" blocks dispersed within a forest setting. Pihlajamäki was also one of the first precast concrete construction projects in Finland. The major example of the goal to set living within nature was Tapiola garden city, located in Espoo, promoted by its founder Heikki von Hertzen to encourage social mobility. The town planning for the garden city was made by Otto-Iivari Meurman, and with the key buildings of the town centre by Aarne Ervi, and other buildings by, among others, Aulis Blomstedt and Viljo Revell. In the 1950s and 1960s, as the Finnish economy began to prosper with greater industrialisation, the state began to consolidate a welfare state, building more hospitals, schools, universities and sports facilities (athletics being a sport Finland had proved successful in internationally). Also larger businesses would have architectural policies, notably the dairy company Valio, in constructing rational high-tech factories and later, their headquarters (Helsinki, 1975–78) by their own architect Matti K. Mäkinen, together with architect Kaarina Löfström.
There was also at this time more disposable income; one outlet for this was the growth in the number of leisure homes - previously the preserve of the very wealthy - preferably placed alone on one of the numerous isolated lakesides or the coastal waterfront. An essential part of the leisure home (occupied for summer holidays and intermittently during the spring and autumn, but close up for the winter) has been the sauna, usually as a separate building. Indeed, the sauna had traditionally been a rural phenomenon, and its popularity in modern homes was a consequence of its growth as a leisure-time activity rather than as a washing facility. The Finnish Association of Architects (SAFA) and commercial companies organised design competitions for standardised models of leisure homes and saunas, preferably built in wood. Architects could also use the summer house type and sauna as an opportunity to experiment, an opportunity that many architects still use today. In terms of size and opulence, Aalto's own summer house, the so-called Experimental House, in Muuratsalo (1952–53) fell between the traditions of middle-class splendor and modest rusticity, while its accompanying lakeside sauna, built from round logs, was a modern application of rustic construction. The 1960s witnessed more experimental summer house types, designed with the objective of serial production. The most noted of these was Matti Suuronen's Futuro House (1968) and Venturo House (1971), of which several were made and sold worldwide. Their success was short lived, however, as production was hit by the 1970s energy crisis.
The late 1950s and 1960s also witnessed a reaction to the then still dominant position of Alvar Aalto in Finnish architecture, though some, most significantly Heikki and Kaija Siren (e.g. Otaniemi Chapel, 1956–57), Keijo Petäjä (e.g. Lauttasaari Church, Helsinki, 1958), Viljo Revell (e.g. Toronto City Hall, Canada, 1958–65), Timo Penttilä (e.g. Helsinki City Theatre, 1967), Marjatta and Martti Jaatinen (e.g. Kannelmäki church, 1962–68), and brothers Timo and Tuomo Suomalainen (e.g. Temppeliaukio Church, Helsinki, 1961–69) developed their own interpretation of a non-rationalist modernist architecture. Taking architecture in an even more idiosyncratic organic line than Aalto was Reima Pietilä, while at the other end of the spectrum was a rationalist line epitomized in the works of Aarne Ervi, Aulis Blomstedt, Aarno Ruusuvuori, Kirmo Mikkola, Kristian Gullichsen, Matti K. Mäkinen, Pekka Salminen, Juhani Pallasmaa and, slightly later, Helin & Siitonen Architects.
Blomstedt was the key figure here, as one of the founding figures of the Museum of Finnish Architecture, professor of architecture theory at Helsinki University of Technology, editor of the main Finnish architecture journal Arkkitehti (Finnish Architecture Review), and as a key member of the Helsinki branch of CIAM he helped create in 1958 Le Carré Bleu, a journal of architecture theory published in French. Among its articles, the journal featured Blomstedt's own studies in geometric proportion, inspired just as much by Swiss mathematician Hans Kayser as Le Corbusier's studies of proportional systems. One of Blomstedt's key works, the extension to the Finnish Language Adult Education Centre, Helsinki (1959) (the main building, from 1927, had been designed by Gunnar Taucher together with Blomstedt's older brother Pauli E. Blomstedt) was an application of this research, with the entire building based on subdivisions of a basic 360mm module (5x72, 3x120 and 2x180mm). One of Blomstedt's proportional experiments, from 1973, even became the logo for the Museum of Finnish Architecture.
Reima Pietilä had also been active in the activities of the Museum of Finnish Architecture as well as publishing theoretical articles in Le Carré Bleu and Arkkitehti. Pietilä even attended a meeting of the Team X group of architects, held in 1972 at Cornell University in the USA, who were very much concerned with questions of structuralism in architecture, that is emphasising the elements of culture, somewhat in reaction to the universalising tendencies of modernism, especially as originally promoted by Team X's instigators, the older generation of CIAM. Pietilä took a diametric viewpoint to that of the rationalist school, and though the works (designed in partnership with his wife Raili Pietilä) had much of the organic idiosyncrasies of Aalto, they were far more abstract and nebulous. In arguing that nature is the apotheosis of plasticity, he demanded a morphological analysis of architectural products, considering Euclidean geometry as an inadequate instrument of analysis. His first major work, the Finnish Pavilion at the 1958 Brussels Expo did in fact take a modular approach akin to the theories of Blomstedt; however, the wooden rectangular box-like units as a whole gave a foretaste of Pietilä's later surfaces based entirely on free form; the most notable of these organic works being Kaleva Church, Tampere (1959–66), Dipoli student assembly building, Espoo (1961–66), Metso Library, Tampere (1978–86) and culminating in his final work, the Official Residence of the President of Finland, Mäntyniemi, Helsinki (1983–93). All these buildings had been the result of open architectural competitions.
A more direct connection between Aalto and the somewhat opposing trend of Structuralism can be seen in the work of Arto Sipinen; he had been an employee of Aalto at the time when the latter was directing the construction of the Seminaarinmäki campus for the University of Jyväskylä (1951-69). Aalto had resigned from planning of the area in 1969 following disagreements with the clients and consequently a competition was held in 1969-70 for the further planning of the campus, including a new main library. The competition was won by Sipinen. But in contrast to Aalto's vaguely organic "Athenian acropolis layout", Sipinen's scheme involved a Structuralist-inspired layout, part strict rational grid, and part "Kasbah". Sipinen would continue during the following decades the same Structuralist form language with the University of Jyväskylä's other campuses at Mattilanniemi and Ylistönrinne, and yet more notably in the design of the Espoo Cultural Centre (1989).
If the minimalism of the "rationalist school" could be equally inspired by the works of the modernist masters Le Corbusier and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe as the machine aesthetic of Russian Constructivist architecture or the machine futurism of Buckminster Fuller, there were also allusions and references to cultural precedent, equally Finnish peasant dwellings and Japanese vernacular architecture. This attitude could also indeed be seen as falling under the Structuralist outlook of that time, as evident also in Japanese modernist architects such as Kenzo Tange, and in the parallel architectural phenomenon of Brutalist architecture (a reference to the British architectural style from the same period). The main exponent of this style was Aarno Ruusuvuori, with the heavy use of concrete as an aesthetic; e.g. Huutoniemi Church, Vaasa (1964), and the Weilin & Göös Print Works, Espoo (1964–66; converted into the WeeGee Exhibition Centre, 2006). Other well known examples of the Brutalost concrete style were Holy Cross Chapel, Turku, by Pekka Pitkänen (1967) and Järvenpää Church by Erkki Elomaa (1968).
The ideas of Mies van der Rohe have had a different interpretation in the buildings of Juha Leiviskä, equally inspired by De Stijl in regard to the unbounded continuity of space as represented by series of parallel walls, but also ideas about the ethereal qualities of natural light from German Baroque churches; indeed, Leiviskä made his reputation with competition success in the design of churches; e.g. St.Thomas's Church and Parish Centre, Oulu (1975), Myyrmäki Church, Vantaa (1984), Kirkkonummi Parish Centre, Kirkkonummi (1984), Männistö Church, Kuopio (1992), and Pakila Church, Helsinki (2002).
Postmodernism, Critical Regionalism, Deconstruction, Minimalism, Parametricism
Since the late 1970s Finland has been more open to direct international influences. The continuity from the earlier Functionalism, however, has been evident in a prevailing Minimalism, evident, for example, in the works of Heikkinen – Komonen Architects (e.g. Heureka Science Centre, Vantaa, 1985–89) and Olli Pekka Jokela (e.g. Biokeskus 3, Helsinki, 2001) as well as the prolific output of Pekka Helin (e.g. Finnish Parliament Annex, 2004). The irony and playfulness of Postmodern architecture was greeted with disdain in Finland, though it would be incorrect to say it had no influence; for example the works of Simo Paavilainen (influenced more by his scholarly interest in Nordic Classicism and Postmodernism's Italian rationalist interpretation), the more whimsical postmodern collages of Nurmela-Raimoranta-Tasa architects (e.g. BePOP shopping centre, Pori, 1989), and the theoretical musings on place and phenomenology by Juhani Pallasmaa. Interestingly, Aalto's architecture (the early Nordic Classicism and later mature works) was used in defending the positions of both modernist and postmodernist schools of thought. The architects of the so-called "Oulu koulu" (Oulu school), most notably Heikki Taskinen and Reijo Niskasaari, had been students of Reima Pietilä at the University of Oulu school of architecture, and in attempting to create a regionalist architecture combined elements of populist postmodernism - for instance, the quotation of classical elements such as pediments - with ideas about vernacular architecture, organic growth and building morphology. A key example of this was Oulunsalo town hall (1982) by Arkkitehtitoimisto NVV (architects Kari Niskasaari, Reijo Niskasaari, Kaarlo Viljanen, Ilpo Väisänen and Jorma Öhman).
The aims at a new understanding of regionalism yet in a modern idiom materialised in the greater use of timber - the building material most associated historically with Finnish architecture. A special unit, the so-called Wood Studio, was founded at Aalto University not only to research wood construction but also to build experimental structures in wood, often using computer-based parametric design principles. An early example of this is the Observation Tower at Helsinki Zoo (2002) by Ville Hara and the Wood Studio. Similarly, Kärsämäki Shingle Church (1999-2004) by Anssi Lassila, was the result of a student competition held by the University of Oulu Department of Architecture, based on the idea of a modern church built using 18th century timber construction techniques, as a reminder of a previous church on the same site. Other notable large-scale wooden constructions since 2000 include the Sibelius Concert Hall, Lahti (1997-2000), by APRT; the east stand roof of the Helsinki Olympic Stadium (2005) by K2S Architects; and Kilden Performing Arts Centre, Kristiansand, Norway (2012), by ALA Architects. The Museum of the History of Polish Jews, Warsaw, Poland (2013), by Lahdelma & Mahlamäki is characterised by the principle of "complex objects in a glass box", including parametrically-designed organic forms.
If Deconstructivism can be said to have had an influence on Finnish architecture in the 1990s and 2000s, it was mainly through the global influence of Dutch architect Rem Koolhaas; an architecture typified by playful formal disjunctions of forms and the use of the "generic", an anti-architecture with aesthetic value. Prime examples of this have been the work of Kai Wartiainen (e.g. High Tech Centre, Ruoholahti, Helsinki, 2001) and ARK-House Architects (e.g. Helsinki City College of Technology, Audio Visual School, 2001). Examples of more biomorphic works, if not always using parametric design principles, are seen in the work of Jyrki Tasa of Arkkitehdit NRT (e.g. Moby Dick House, Espoo, 2008; Into House, Espoo, 1998), and Anttinen Oiva Architects (Kaisa House, University of Helsinki Library, 2012).
BePOP shopping centre, Pori (1989), Nurmela-Raimoranta-Tasa architects.
Heureka Science Centre (1985–89), Heikkinen-Kommonen Architects.
Seafront regeneration: High Tech Centre, Ruoholahti, Helsinki (2001), Kai Wartiainen.
Sibelius Hall, Lahti (2000), Hannu Tikka and Kimmo Lintula (APRT Architects).
Kilden Performing Arts Centre, Kristiansand, Norway (2012), ALA Architects.
Museum of the History of Polish Jews, Warsaw (2013), Lahdelma & Mahlamäki.
Neo- and generic urbanism and green building
Late 20th century and early 21st century Finland has witnessed greater consolidation of the greater capital region, Helsinki-Espoo-Vantaa. Helsinki, unable to expand outwards due to being hemmed in to the coastline by the neighbouring cities (formerly rural counties) of Espoo and Vantaa, has adopted planning policies of increased urban densification, also argued for under a policy of sustainable development and "green building". Significant earlier planning policies that effected urban growth were the construction of three ring roads as well as the construction of a Helsinki Metro system, begun in 1982, which in turn had been reactions to a 1968 plan by the American-Finnish firm Smith-Polivinen to drive wide freeways through the centre of Helsinki. The Metro already extends into Vantaa, and is due (2014–15) to extend into Espoo, with new growth nodes being planned around the new stations. This already occurred within the boundaries of Helsinki in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the prime example being the construction of the Itäkeskus (east centre), with the metro station integrated into a shopping centre and adjacent library and swimming hall, the most significant architectural work of the ensemble being the main shopping mall and 82-metre-tall tower (1987) by Erkki Kairamo (Gullichsen Kairamo Vormala Architects), an architect much influenced by 1920s and 30s Russian Constructivist architecture. The former industrial, dockyard and ship-building areas of Helsinki are being replaced by new housing areas, designed mostly in a minimalist-functionalist as well as new support services such as kindergartens and schools, as well allowing for large-scale shopping malls (e.g. the new districts of Ruoholahti, Arabianranta, Hernesaari, Hanasaari, Jätkäsaari and Kalasatama), projects often driven forward by architecture and urban planning competitions. Another major landmark in urban planning and architecture was the creation, on the basis of an 1995 architectural competition, of the eco-district of Viikki (plan by Petri Laaksonen), adjacent to a new campus for the University of Helsinki. Other major cities, in particular Lahti, Tampere, Oulu and Turku are adopting similar strategies as the Greater Helsinki region, while also developing more efficient rail and road systems within these networks.
Itäkeskus (East Centre), Helsinki (1987), Erkki Kairamo.
Of central importance in the development of architecture in Finland for over 100 years has been the development of architectural competitions, mostly under the control of the Finnish Association of Architects (SAFA). The first architectural competition was held in 1860, even before the founding of SAFA. Twelve competitions had been held by 1880. It was only after 1893 that the competition system became more systematic, with the setting of rules. Many of the leading works of architecture at the turn of that century were the results of competitions: e.g. Tampere Cathedral (Lars Sonck, 1900), National Museum, Helsinki (Herman Gesellius, Armas Lindgren and Eliel Saarinen, 1902). Sonck was only 23 years old when he won the competition. Indeed, several well-known architects kick-started their careers while still young by winning an architecture competition. Competitions have been used especially in the design of public buildings, as well as most notably churches, but also for various scales of urban and regional planning. Beside Sonck and Gesellius-Lindgren-Saarinen, among the notable careers that began or were boosted by competition success are: Vyborg Library by Alvar Aalto, the Finnish pavilion at the 1958 Brussels World's Fair by Reima Pietilä, Myyrmäki Church (1984) by Juha Leiviskä, the Nokia Corporation Headquarters, Espoo (1983–97) by Helin and Siitonen Architects, the Heureka Science Centre, Vantaa (1989) by Heikkinen – Komonen Architects, the Lusto Finnish Forest Museum, Punkaharju (1994) by Lahdelma & Mahlamäki Architects, the new canopy for the Helsinki Olympic Stadium (2003) by K2S Architects, and the Kilden Performing Arts Centre (2012), Kristiansand, Norway, by ALA Architects. The competition results have been seen to have reflected the international trends of the time, or to have endorsed the critical regionalism, that is, what Aalto had referred to as being international yet true to themselves.
Finnish architects, primarily Alvar Aalto, have had a significant influence outside Finland. Distinguished Portuguese architect Álvaro Siza Vieira, British architect Colin St John Wilson and American architects Richard Meier, Robert Venturi and Steven Holl have each expressed the influence of Aalto on their work. Indeed, Holl has had the opportunity on two occasions to build next to Aalto buildings, with his competition-winning entry for the Helsinki Museum of Contemporary Art, named after his entry titled Kiasma (1993–98), built close to Aalto's Finlandia Hall, and Simmons Hall at MIT (2002) in Cambridge, USA, built opposite Aalto's Baker House (1947–49). But before Aalto, the first significant event in direct influence was Eliel Saarinen emigrating to the USA in 1923 - after having received second prize in the Chicago Tribune Tower competition of 1922 - where he was responsible for the design of the campus for the Cranbrook Academy of Art, Michigan. Often dubbed as the "Architect of the American Century", Eero Saarinen (1910–61), although born in Finland, the son of Eliel Saarinen, was raised and educated mostly in the United States, and created significant pieces of architecture throughout the United States, from the TWA Flight Center at New York's Kennedy Airport to the Gateway Arch over St. Louis - the style of each building varying considerably depending on the context and design brief. With his popularity, Saarinen was able to influence the choice of architecture in line with his own, most notably in the selection of Jorn Utzon's entry for the competition for the Sydney Opera House, Australia, but also in the selection of Finnish architect Viljo Revell's entry for the competition for Toronto City Hall, Canada (1958–65).
In more recent times, of equal significance worldwide as actual buildings designed by Finnish architects has been the architectural theory - and prolific amount of writing published in several different languages - by Finnish architect and theorist Juhani Pallasmaa, with such books as The Eyes of the Skin – Architecture and the Senses (2012), Understanding Architecture (2012) and The Thinking Hand (2009), and Finnish architecture theorist Kari Jormakka, with such books as Eyes That Do Not See (2012), Heimlich Manoevres - Ritual in Architecture (1995) and Basic Design Methods (2007).
- List of Finnish architects
- List of World Heritage Sites in Finland
- List of medieval stone churches in Finland
- Richards, J.M. 800 Years of Finnish Architecture. London: David & Charles, 1978. ISBN 0-7153-7512-1
- Alvar Aalto-thisisFINLAND
- Alvar Aalto, "Motifs from past ages" (1922). Reproduced in Göran Schildt (ed), Alvar Aalto in His Own Words, Otava: Helsinki, 1997, p.35
- Frédéric Edelman, article in Le Monde, Paris, September 19, 2000.
- Constructing the Finnish welfare state since 1945
- Riitta Nikula, Architecture and Landscape - The Building of Finland, Otava, Helsinki, 1993.
- Lars Pettersson, Finnish Wooden Church, Helsinki: Museum of Finnish Architecture, 1992.
- A.V. and Y.A. Opolovnikov, The Wooden Architecture of Russia: Houses, Fortifications, Churches, London, Thames & Hudson, 1989.
- Construction with logs was described by Roman architect Vitruvius Pollio in his architectural treatise De Architectura. He noted that in Pontus (modern-day Romania, former Roman Empire province Dacia) dwellings were constructed by laying logs horizontally overtop of each other and filling in the gaps with "chips and mud". Vitruvius, "De Architectura" (Ten Books on Architecture) Penguin, London, 2012.
- Panu Kaila, "Keittomaali" (in Finnish), Helsinki, Museovirasto Rakennushistorian osasto, 2000.
- Pekka Korvenmaa, "The Finnish Wooden House Transformed: American prefabrication, war-time housing and Alvar Aalto", Construction History, Vol. 6, 1990.
- Helsinki's Senate Square- ThisisFINLAND
- Henrik Lilius (ed.), Carl Ludvig Engel, Helsinki: Opetusministeriö, 1990.
- Roger Connah, Finland - Modern Architectures in History, Reaktion Books, 2005.
- Kennth Frampton, Modern Architecture - A Critical History, Thames & Hudson, 2007 (4th edition).
- Sigurd Frosterus, "Architecture; A Challenge"; Gustaf Strengell, "Architecture; A challenge to our opponents by Gustaf Strengell and Sigurd Frosterus", Hufvudstadsbladet 1904. Both English translations published in Abacus 3, Helsinki, 1983.
- Kimmo Sarje, "Façades and Functions Sigurd Frosterus as a Critic of Architecture", The Nordic Journal of Aesthetics, Vol 22, No 40-41 , 2011.
- Pekka Lehtinen, "The Boulevard of Helsinginkatu - A street project for an industrial city", Ptah, 1:2004, pp.55-63.
- Sigfried Giedion, Space, Time and Architecture: The Growth of a New Tradition, Harvard University Press, 2nd edition, 1949.
- Margaretha Ehrström, Sirkkaliisa Jetsonen and Tommi Lindh, Nomination of Paimio Hospital for Inclusion in the World Heritage List. Museovirasto, Helsinki, 2005.
- Juhani Pallasmaa, Alvar Aalto - Villa Mairea, 1938-39. Alvar Aalto Foundation, 1998.
- Voitto Raatikainen, Meidän kaikkien stadion, Helsinki, WSOY, 1994.
- Harri Hautajärvi, "Suuntana Lappi", Sankaruus ja Arki - Suomen 50-luvun miljöö. Suomen rakennustaiteen Museo, Helsinki, 1994.
- Petteri Kummala, 'Jälleenrakennuskausi', Arkkitehtuurimuseo
- Tuija Mikkonen, Corporate Architecture in Finland in the 1940s and 1950s: Factory building as architecture, investment and image. Finnish Academy of Science and Letters, Helsinki, 2005.
- Timo Tuomi, Kristiina Paatero, Eija Rauske (eds), Hilding Ekelund (1893-1984): arkkitehti/arkitekt/architect, Suomen rakennustaiteen museo, Helsinki, 1997.
- Riitta Hurme, Suomalainen lähiö Tapiolasta Pihlajamäkeen, Societas scientiarum Fennica, Helsinki, 1991.
- Timo Tuomi, Tapiola; A History and Architectural Guide, Espoo City Museum, 1992.
- Alvar Aalto, Experimental House, Muuratsalo, 1952-53.
- Harri Hautajärvi, Huviloita - Saunoja, Rakennustieto, Helsinki, 2006.
- Helena Sarjakoski, Rationalismi ja runollisuus - Aulis Blomstedt ja suhteiden taide, Rakennustieto, Helsinki, 2003.
- Aino Niskänen (ed.), Hikes into Pietilä Terrain, Rakennustaiteen seura, Helsinki, 2007.
- Reima Pietilä, "Morphology of Expressive Space", Le Carre Bleu, n. 1, 1958.
- Raili and Reima Pietilä, Challenging Modern Architecture, Museum of Finnish Architecture, Helsinki, 2009.
- Mia Hipeli (ed.), Alvar Aalto Architect. 16: Jyväskylä University 1951-71. Alvar Aalto Society, Jyväskylä, 2009.
- Malcolm Quantrill, Juha Leiviska and the Continuity of Finnish Modern Architecture, Chichester: Wiley-Academy, 2001.
- Anni Vartola, The Aalto Card in the Conflict between Postmodernism and the Modernist Tradition in Finland, Alvar Aalto Museum, 2012.
- Rem Koolhaas's Defense of Generic Architecture
- Jyrki Tasa, "Into House", Espoo, Puu, 1/1998.
- Kaisa House, University of Helsinki, 2012.
- "Urbanism, new centres", ARK, 6 / 2013.
- Smith-Polvisen liikennesuunnitelma (Smith-Polvinen Traffic Plan)
- Eco-Viikki - Aims, Implementations,Results, City of Helsinki, 2005.
- Pertti Solla, "Architectural Competitions in Finland", in Pekka Korvenmaa (ed) The Work of Architects, Finnish Building Centre, Helsinki, 1992.
- Alvaro Siza, Interview with Marja-Riitta Norri, 'Architecture and Cultural Values', 4th International Alvar Aalto Symposium, 1988, p.12.
- Nicholas Ray, 'Sir Colin St John Wilson Obituary', The Guardian, 16 May 2007.
- East Hampton Architect Richard Meier Marks 50 Years in Business
- Venturi states: "Aalto is the Modernist I connect with the most". 'An interview with Robert Venturi', American Art of the 1960s, Vol.I, edited by John Elderfield, New York, 1991, p.158.
- Gareth Griffiths, 'Steven Holl and His Critics', Ptah, Helsinki, 2006.
- Eero Saarinen: Architect of the American Century
- Mark Osbaldeston, Unbuilt Toronto: A History of the City That Might Have Been. Toronto: Dundurn Press, 2008, p. 94.
- Juhani Pallasmaa, The Eyes of the Skin: Architecture and the Senses, John Wiley, 2012; Understanding Architecture, Phaidon, 2012; The Thinking Hand, John Wiley, 2009.
- Kari Jormakka, Eyes That Do Not See, Bauhaus Verlag, 2012; Basic Design Methods, Birkhauser, 2008; Heimlich Manoevres - Ritual in Architecture, Verso, 1995.
- Asgaard Andersen, Michael (ed.) (2009), Nordic Architects Write: A Documentary Anthology, London: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-46351-5.
- Connah, Roger (2005), Finland - Modern Architectures in History, London: Reaktion, ISBN 978-1861892508.
- Connah, Roger (2007), The Piglet Years: The Lost Militancy in Finnish Architecture, Tampere: Datutop, ISBN 978-952-15-1702-0.
- Helander, Vilhelm (1995), Modern Architecture in Finland, Helsinki: Kirjayhtymä.
- Korvenmaa, Pekka (ed.) (1992), The Work of Architects - The Finnish Association of Architects 1892-1992, Helsinki: Finnish Building Centre, ISBN 951-682-243-6.
- Lilius, Henrik (1985), The Finnish Wooden Town, Birthe Krüger, Denmark: Anders Nyborg, ISBN 87-85176-23-0.
- Nikula, Riita (1993), Architecture and Landscape - The Building of Finland, Helsinki: Otava.
- Nikula, Riita (1994), Heroism and the Everyday: Building Finland in the 1950s, Helsinki: Museum of Finnish Architecture.
- Nikula, Riita (2006), Focus on Finnish 20th century architecture and town planning, Helsinki: Yliopistopaino, ISBN 9789529214631.
- Norri, Marja-Riitta; Wang, Wilfried (eds.) (2007), 20th Century Architecture: Finland, Berlin: Prestel.
- Paavilainen, Simo (ed.) (1982), Nordic Classicism 1910-1930, Helsinki: Museum of Finnish Architecture, ISBN 951-9229-21-3.
- Pettersson, Lars (1989), Finnish Wooden Churches, Helsinki: Museum of Finnish Architecture.
- Richards, J.M. (1978), 800 Years of Finnish Architecture, London: David & Charles.
- Salokorpi, Asko (ed.) (1982), Writings on Architecture - Abacus Yearbook 3, Helsinki: Museum of Finnish Architecture, ISBN 951-9229-27-2.
- Salokorpi, Asko (1985), Classical Tradition and the Modern Movement, Helsinki: Museum of Finnish Architecture, ISBN 951-9229-38-8.
- Wäre, Ritva (1993), How nationalism was expressed in Finnish architecture at the turn of the last century, Dublin: Irish Academic Press.
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- Museum of Finnish Architecture
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- Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Architecture
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