Eponymous archon

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In ancient Greece the chief magistrate in various Greek city states was called eponymous archon (ἐπώνυμος ἄρχων, eponymos archon). Archon (ἄρχων, pl. ἄρχοντες, archontes) means "ruler" or "lord," frequently used as the title of a specific public office,[1] while "eponymous" means that he gave his name to the year in which he held office, much like the Roman dating by consular years.

In Classical Athens, a system of nine concurrent archons evolved, led by three respective remits over the civic, military, and religious affairs of the state: the three office holders were known as the eponymous archon, the polemarch (πολέμαρχος, "war ruler"), and the archon basileus (ἄρχων βασιλεύς, "king ruler").[2][3] The six others were the thesmothetai, judicial officers. Originally these offices were filled from the wealthier classes by elections every ten years. During this period the eponymous archon was the chief magistrate, the polemarch was the head of the armed forces, and the archon basileus was responsible for some civic religious arrangements, and for the supervision of some major trials in the law courts. After 683 BC the offices were held for only a single year, and the year was named after the eponymous archon.

Background[edit]

The archon was the chief magistrate in many Greek cities, but in Athens there was a council of archons which exerted a form of executive government. From the late 8th century BC there were three archons: the archon eponymous, the polemarch (replaced in 501 BC by ten strategoi), and the archon basileus (the ceremonial vestige of the Athenian monarchy).[4] These positions were filled from the aristocracy (the Eupatridae) by elections every ten years. During this period Archon Eponymous was the chief magistrate, the Polemarch was the head of the armed forces, and the Archon Basileus was responsible for the civic religious arrangements.

After 508 BC the offices were held for only a single year, and the year was named after the archon eponymous.[citation needed] The year ran from July to June.[5] The archon eponymous was the chief archon, and presided over meetings of the Boule and Ecclesia, the ancient Athenian assemblies. The archon eponymous remained the titular head of state even under the democracy, though with much reduced political importance. Under the reforms of Solon, himself archon eponymous in 594 BC, there was a brief period when the number of archons rose to ten. After 457 BC ex-archons were automatically enrolled as life members of the Areopagus, though that assembly was no longer extremely important politically.

One of the archons oversaw the procedure for ostracism after 487 BC.[6] An archon's court was in charge of epikleroi.[7] Other duties of the archons included supervising the Panathenaea and Dionysia.[8]

List of archons of Athens[edit]

In the following list of Archons, years where the name of the archon is unknown are identified as such. Years listed as "anarchy" mean that there was literally "no archon". There are various conflicting reconstructions of lists; sources for this list are given at the end. Note that the term of an archon covered two of our years, beginning in the spring or summer and continuing into the next spring or summer. The polemarch or strategoi, basileus, and thesmothetai (the six assistants to the archons) are also listed, where known.

Archaic period[edit]

Main article: Archaic Greece

Life archons[edit]

The later Athenian tradition varies on the exact position of this line; they held archonship for life, sometimes referred to as "Perpetual Archon," and exercised the sacral powers of kingship, as did the archon basileus later. The historicity of any of this ancient list may be reasonably doubted by the layman and capable of different interpretations, but where there may be no doubt as to historical documents. Aristotle indicates that Medon and Acastus may have ruled as king rather than Archon.[9]

Year Archon Other notable information
1068–1048 BC Medon (Μέδων)[10] First ruler of Attica after the Greek Dark Ages.
1048–1012 BC Acastus (Ἄκαστος)[11][12] Troy VIIb2 destroyed (c. 1120 BC).
1012–993 BC Archippus[13]
993–952 BC Thersippus[14]
952–922 BC Phorbas (Φόρβας) Troy VIIb3: deserted (c. 950 BC)
922–892 BC Megacles (Μεγακλῆς)
892–864 BC Diognetus
864–845 BC Pherecles[15] Homer composes the Iliad[16] and Odyssey. (c. 850 BC)[17]
845–825 BC Ariphron
824–797 BC Thespieus (Θεσπιεύς)
796–778 BC Agamestor[18]
778–755 BC Aeschylus (Αἰσχύλος) First Olympiad[19][20] (776 BC)
755–753 BC Alcmaeon (Ἀλκμαίων)


Decennial archons[edit]

In 753 BC the perpetual archonship by the Eupatridae[21] (essentially tyrants) was limited to 10 years (the "decennial archons"):[22]

Year Archon Other notable information
753–743 BC Charops[23][24] In Rome, Romulus, the first ruler of the city, takes power.[25]
743–733 BC Aesimides[26] In Messenia, First Messenian War begins.
733–723 BC Clidicus[27] Diaulos footrace introduced at the Olympics. (724 BC)
723–713 BC Hippomenes[28]
713–703 BC Leocrates
703–693 BC Apsander[29] Hesiod writes "Theogony" (c. 700 BC).
693–683 BC Eryxias Boxing added to the Olympics. (688 BC)[30] Chalcedon colony founded (685 BC).

Annual archons[edit]

After 683 BC the archonship was limited to one year. Archons were chosen from the Areopagus council and resided in the Prytaneum.

Year Eponymous Archon[31] Other officials or associated events
682–681 BC Creon Creon is considered by the ancient sources, and most modern authorities, as the first annual archon.[32]
681–680 BC Lysiades Mentioned in the Parian Marble.
680–679 BC Tlesias Pausanias (IV.15.1) dates the beginning of the Second Messenian War to his archonship.
679–671 BC Unknown
671–670 BC Leostratus
670–669 BC Unknown
669–668 BC Pisistratus Pausanias (II.24.7) dates the first Battle of Hysiae to his archonship.
668–667 BC Autosthenes Pausanias (IV.23.4) dates the capture of Eira and the end of the Second Messenian War to his archonship.
667–664 BC Unknown
664–663 BC Miltiades[33]
663–659 BC Unknown
659–658 BC Miltiades[33]
658–645 BC Unknown Pausanias (VIII.39.3) dates the capture of Phigalia by the Spartans to his archonship.
645–644 BC Dropides The Parian Marble associates Dropides with the flourit of Terpander the Lesbian, who developed the music of the lyre.
644–639 BC Unknown
639–638 BC Damasias Thales was born
638–634 BC Unknown
634–633 BC Epaenetus (?)[34]
633–632 BC Unknown
632–631 BC Megacles Cylon attempts to become tyrant
631–624 BC Unknown
624–623 BC Aristaechmus According to the Athenian Constitution, Dracon reformed the laws of Athens during the archonship of Aristaechmus.
623–621 BC Unknown

Reorganized[edit]

Year Eponymous Archon Other officials or associated events
621–615 BC Unknown
615–614 BC Heniochides
614–605 BC Unknown
605–604 BC Aristocles The Parian Marble associates the archonship of Aristocles with Alyattes becoming king of Lydia.
604–600 BC Unknown
600–599 BC Critias The Parian Marble dates the flight of Sappho from Lesbos to Sicily in the archonship of Critias.
599–597 BC Unknown
597–596 BC Cypselus[35]
596–595 BC Telecles[35]
595–594 BC Philombrotus[35] First Sacred War begins.
594–593 BC Solon Solon reforms Draco's code.
593–592 BC Dropides
592–591 BC Eucrates
591–590 BC Simon
590–589 BC anarchy
589–588 BC Phormion
588–587 BC Philippus
587–586 BC Unknown
586–585 BC anarchy
585–582 BC Unknown Pythian Games reorganised at Delphi.
582–581 BC Damasias According to the Athenian Constitution, Damasias held the archonship for two years and nine months before being expelled.
581–580 BC Damasias Demetrios of Phaleron states that it was during the archonship of Damasias that "Thales was first called wise".
580–579 BC anarchy Committee of 10 men serves jointly as archons[36]
579–578 BC anarchy
578–577 BC Unknown
577–576 BC Archestratidas
576–570 BC Unknown
570–569 BC Aristomenes
569–566 BC Unknown
566–565 BC Hippocleides
565–561 BC Unknown
561–560 BC Komeas The Athenian Constitution dates the usurpation of Pisistratus as tyrant of Athens to the archonship of Komeas.
560–559 BC Hegestratus Phaenias of Eresus dates the death of Solon to the archonship of Hegestratus.
559–556 BC Unknown
556–555 BC Hegesias The Athenian Constitution dates the first expulsion of Peisistratos to the archonship of Hegesias.
555–554 BC Euthidemus
554–548 BC Unknown
548–547 BC Erxicleides Pausanias (X.5.13) dates the destruction by fire of the fourth temple of Delphi to his archonship.
547–546 BC Thespius[35] Pisistratus becomes tyrant again
546–545 BC Phormion[35]
545–536 BC Unknown
536-535 BC [...]naios The Parian Marble dates the first performance of Thespis to the tenure of this archon, whose name is damaged.
535–533 BC Unknown
533–532 BC Thericles
532–528 BC Unknown
528–527 BC Philoneus According to the Athenian Constitution, Philoneus was archon when Pisistratus died and his sons Hippias and Hipparchus succeeded him as tyrants
527–526 BC Onetor[37]
526–525 BC Hippias
525–524 BC Cleisthenes[38] Reforms of Cleisthenes.[39]
524–523 BC Miltiades Cadoux is uncertain whether this is Miltiades son of Kypselos, or Miltiades son of Cimon.[40]
523–522 BC Calliades
522–521 BC Pisistratus Possibly the son of Hippias, archon of 526/5.[41]
521–518 BC Unknown
518–517 BC Hebron (?)[42]
517–511 BC Unknown
511–510 BC Harpactides The Parian Marble dates the assassination of Hipparchus and the expulsion of the Peistratids from Athens to Harpactides' archonship.
510–509 BC Scamandrius
509–508 BC Lysagoras
508–507 BC Isagoras Cleisthenes competes with Isagoras for archonship, but is expelled by Cleomenes I of Sparta
507–506 BC Alcmeon
506–504 BC Unknown
504–503 BC Acestorides
503–501 BC Unknown
501–500 BC Hermocreon
500–499 BC Smyrus (?)[43]
499–497 BC Unknown
497–496 BC Archias[44]
496–495 BC Hipparchus
495–494 BC Philippus
494–493 BC Pythocritus
493–492 BC Themistocles
492–491 BC Diognetus
491–490 BC Hybrilides
490–489 BC Phaenippus The Parian Marble, Plutarch, and the Athenian Constitution all date the Battle of Marathon to the archonship of Phaenippus.
489–488 BC Aristides the Just
488–487 BC Anchises
487–486 BC Telesinus[45] The Athenian Constitution dates the ostracism of Megacles to the archonship of Telesinus.
486–485 BC Unknown
485–484 BC Philocrates
484–483 BC Leostratus
483–482 BC Nicodemus
482–481 BC Unknown
481–480 BC Hypsichides According to the Athenian Constitution, Hypsichides was archon when the ostracized of Athens were recalled.[46]

Classical period[edit]

Main article: Classical Greece
Year Eponymous Archon Other officials or notable events
480–479 BC Calliades[47] According to Diodorus Siculus, the Second Persian invasion of Greece began during Calliades' archonship.[48] Aristides and Themistocles are strategoi.
479–478 BC Xanthippus Battle of Plataea; Aristides is strategos
478–477 BC Timosthenes Delian League founded.
477–476 BC Adimantus
476–475 BC Phaedon
475–474 BC Dromoclides
474–473 BC Acestorides
473–472 BC Menon
472–471 BC Chares
471–470 BC Praxiergus
470–469 BC Demotion
469–468 BC Apsephion
468–467 BC Theagenides
467–466 BC Lysistratus
466–465 BC Lysanias
465–464 BC Lysitheus Sophanes is a strategos
464–463 BC Archedemides
463–462 BC Tlepolemus Cimon is a strategos
462–461 BC Conon According to the Athenian Constitution (ch. 25), Ephialtes reforms the Areopagus, and is assassinated
461–460 BC Euthippus Also spelled Euippos.[49]
460–459 BC Phrasicles
459–458 BC Philocles Phrynicus, Dicaeogenes and Hippodamas are strategoi.
458–457 BC Habron So Diodorus Siculus (11.79); other authorities state the eponymous archon for this year was Bion.[50]
457–456 BC Mnesitheides
456–455 BC Callias
455–454 BC Sosistratus
454–453 BC Ariston
453–452 BC Lysicrates
452–451 BC Chaerephanes
451–450 BC Antidotus Anaxicrates and Cimon are strategoi
450–449 BC Euthydemus
449–448 BC Pedieus Second Sacred War begins.
448–447 BC Philiscus Pericles, Tolmides and Epiteles are strategoi; Peace of Callias ends the Greco-Persian Wars
447–446 BC Timarchides Construction of the Parthenon begins.
446–445 BC Callimachus
445–444 BC Lysimachides Peace between Athens and Sparta. Age of Pericles begins.
444–443 BC Praxiteles Pericles is a strategos
443–442 BC Lysanias Pericles is a strategos
442–441 BC Diphilus Pericles is a strategos
441–440 BC Timocles Pericles and Glaucon are strategoi[51][52]
440–439 BC Morychides Pericles is a strategos
439–438 BC Glaukinos Also spelled Glaukidos. Pericles is a strategos
438–437 BC Theodorus Pericles is a strategos
437–436 BC Euthymenes Pericles is a strategos. Construction of the Propylaea begins
436–435 BC Lysimachus So Diodorus Siculus (12.33); other authorities state the eponymous archon for this year was Nausimachos.[50] Pericles is a strategos
435–434 BC Antiochides Also spelled Antilochidos. Pericles is a strategos
434–433 BC Krates Also spelled Chares. Pericles is a strategos
433–432 BC Apseudes Pericles, Lacedaemonius, Diotimus, and Proteas are strategoi
432–431 BC Pythodorus Pericles and Callias are strategoi.
431–430 BC Euthydemus Also spelled Euthydemos. Pericles is a strategos.
430–429 BC Apollodorus Pericles dies; Xenophon, Hestiodorus, Calliades, Melesandrus, and Phanomachus are strategoi.
429–428 BC Epameinon Phormio is a strategos.
428–427 BC Diotimus Demosthenes, Asopius, Paches, Cleidippes, and Lysicles are strategoi
427–426 BC Eukles Also spelled Eukleides. Nicias, Charoiades and Procles are strategoi
426–425 BC Euthynos Also spelled Euthydemos. Laches and Hippocrates are strategoi
425–424 BC Stratocles Nicias, Eurymedon, Pythodorus, and Sophocles are strategoi
424–423 BC Isarchus Demosthenes, Cleon, Thucydides and Hippocrates are strategoi
423–422 BC Amynias Also spelled Ameinias. Cleon is a strategos
422–421 BC Alcaeus Cleon is a strategos
421–420 BC Aristion Construction of the Erechtheion begins.
420–419 BC Astyphilus Alcibiades is strategos
419–418 BC Archias
418–417 BC Antiphon Laches and Nicostratus are strategoi[53]
417–416 BC Euphemus
416–415 BC Arimnestus Nicias, Alcibiades, and Lamachus are strategoi
415–414 BC Charias Also spelled Chabrias. Alcibiades is a strategos
414–413 BC Tisandrus Lamachus is a strategos
413–412 BC Cleocritus Eurymedon, Demosthenes, and Nicias are strategoi
412–411 BC Callias Scambonides
411–410 BC Mnasilochus (died); Theopompus Simichus and Aristarchus are strategoi
410–409 BC Glaucippus
409–408 BC Diocles Anytus is a strategos
408–407 BC Euctemon
407–406 BC Antigenes Alcibiades, Adeimantus, and Aristocrates are strategoi
406–405 BC Callias Angelides Archestratus, Thrasylus, Pericles, Lysias, Diomedon, Aristocrates, Erasinides, Protomachus, and Aristogenes are strategoi
405–404 BC Alexias Adeimantus, Eucrates, Philocles, Menandrus, Tydeus, and Cephisodotus are strategoi
404–403 BC Pythodorus Sparta sets up the oligarchy of the Thirty Tyrants; Pythodorus not recognized as Eponymous Archon
403–402 BC Eucleides[54] Thirty Tyrants expelled, democracy reestablished. Old Attic alphabet was officially abolished in favor of the Ionic alphabet of twenty-four letters.
402–401 BC Mikon Also spelled Mikion.
401–400 BC Xenainetos Also spelled Exainetos.
400–399 BC Laches
399–398 BC Aristocrates
398–397 BC Euthykles Also spelled Ithykles.
397–396 BC Souniades
396–395 BC Phormion
395–394 BC Diophandus
394–393 BC Ebulides
393–392 BC Demostratos Adeimantus is a strategos
392–391 BC Philocles
391–390 BC Nicoteles
390–389 BC Demostratos Thrasybulus and Ergocles are strategoi
389–388 BC Antipatros Agyrrhius and Pamphilus are strategoi
388–387 BC Pyrgion Thrasybulus and Dionysius are strategoi
387–386 BC Theodotos
386–385 BC Mystichides
385–384 BC Dexitheus
384–383 BC Dieitrephes Also spelled Diotrephes
383–382 BC Phanostratos
382–381 BC Euandros
381–380 BC Demophilos
380–379 BC Pytheas
379–378 BC Nikon
378–377 BC Nausinikos
377–376 BC Kalleas Also spelled Kallias.
376–375 BC Charisandrus Cedon is a strategos.
375–374 BC Hippodamas
374–373 BC Socratides
373–372 BC Asteius Iphicrates, Callistratus, Chabrias, and Timotheus are strategoi
372–371 BC Alcisthenes
371–370 BC Phrasicleides
370–369 BC Dyscinitus
369–368 BC Lysistratus
368–367 BC Nausigenes
367–366 BC Polyzelus
366–365 BC Ciphisodorus Chabrias is a strategos
365–364 BC Chion Iphicrates is a strategos
364–363 BC Timocrates
363–362 BC Charicleides Ergophilus and Callisthenes are strategoi
362–361 BC Molon Leosthenes and Autocles are strategoi.
361–360 BC Nicophemus Timomachus is a strategos
360–359 BC Callimides Menon, Timotheus, and Cephisodotus are strategoi
359–358 BC Eucharistus
358–357 BC Ciphisodotus
357–356 BC Agathocles Chabrias is a strategos.
356–355 BC Elpines Iphicrates, Timotheus, and Menestheus are strategoi.
355–354 BC Callistratus
354–353 BC Diotemus
353–352 BC Thudemus
352–351 BC Aristodemus
351–350 BC Theellus Theogenes is Basileus (possibly)
350–349 BC Apollodorus
349–348 BC Callimachus Hegesileus is a strategos
348–347 BC Theophilus
347–346 BC Themistocles[55] Proxenus is a strategos
346–345 BC Archias
345–344 BC Ebulus
344–343 BC Lyciscus Phocion is a strategos.
343–342 BC Pythodotus
342–341 BC Sosigenes
341–340 BC Nicomachus
340–339 BC Theophrastus Phocion is a strategos
339–338 BC Lysimachides Phocion is a strategos, and is defeated by Philip II of Macedon
338–337 BC Chaerondas Lysicles is a strategos
337–336 BC Phrynichus
336–335 BC Pythodelos Also spelled Pythodoros.
335–334 BC Euainetos
334–333 BC Ktisicles
333–332 BC Nicocrates
332–331 BC Niketes Also spelled Nikeratos
331–330 BC Aristophanes
330–329 BC Aristophon
329–328 BC Kephisophon
328–327 BC Euthicritos
327–326 BC Hegemon
326–325 BC Chremes
325–324 BC Antikles Philocles is a strategos
324–323 BC Hegesias Also spelled Agesias
323–322 BC Kephisodoros Also spelled Kephisophon. Phocion and Leosthenes are strategoi.
322–321 BC Philocles
321–320 BC Archippos
320–319 BC Neaechmos
319–318 BC Apollodoros
318–317 BC Archippus
317–316 BC Demogenes Demetrius Phalereus installed by the Macedonian regent Cassander as Governor.
316–315 BC Demokleides
315–314 BC Praxiboulos
314–313 BC Nikodoros
313–312 BC Theophrastos So Diodorus Siculus (19.73); other authorities state the eponymous archon for this year was Theodoros.[56]
312–311 BC Polemon Seleucid Empire begins.
311–310 BC Simonides
310–309 BC Hieromnemon
309–308 BC Demetrius
308–307 BC Kairimos Also spelled Charinos.
307–306 BC Anaxicrates Demetrius Phalereus is expelled when Demetrius I Poliorcetes captures the city from Cassander.
306–305 BC Coroebus Antigonid dynasty begins.
305–304 BC Euxenippus
304–303 BC Pherecles
303–302 BC Leostratus

Hellenistic period[edit]

Main article: Hellenistic period
Year Eponymous Archon Other officials or notable events
302–301 BC Nicocles[55]
301–300 BC Clearchus
300–299 BC Hegemachus[57]
299–298 BC Euctemon
298–297 BC Mnesidemus
297–296 BC Antiphates
296–295 BC Nicias
295–294 BC Nicostratus
294–293 BC Olympiodorus
293–292 BC Olympiodorus
292–291 BC Philippus
291–290 BC Charinos (?)[58]
290–289 BC Ambrosios (?)[58]
289–288 BC Ariston (?)[58]
288–287 BC Kimon
287–286 BC Xenophon
286–285 BC Diokles
285–284 BC Diotimus
284–283 BC Isaeos
283–282 BC Euthius
282–281 BC Nikias Attalid dynasty begins.
281–280 BC Ourias
280–279 BC Telekles[59]
279–278 BC Anaxicrates
278–277 BC Democles
277–276 BC Aristonymos
276–275 BC Philokrates
275–274 BC Olbios
274–273 BC Eubulos
273–272 BC Glaukippos
272–271 BC Lysitheides
271–270 BC Pytharatos[60]
270–269 BC Sosistratos
269–268 BC Peithidemos Beginning of the Chremonidean War; Athens declares war on Macedon, ruled by Antigonus Gonatas.
268–267 BC Diogeiton
267–266 BC Menekles
266–265 BC Nikias (Otryneus)
265–264 BC Eubulos
264–263 BC Diognetus
263–262 BC Antipatros Athens surrenders to Antigonus Gonatas in the archonship of Antipatros.[61]
262–261 BC Arrheneides Antigonus Gonatas imposes a new regime on Athens.[61]
261–260 BC [...]sinos[62]
260–259 BC Philostratos
259–258 BC Philinos
258–257 BC Antiphon
257–256 BC Thymochares
256–255 BC Antimachos
255–254 BC Kleomachos
254–253 BC Phanostratos
253–252 BC Pheidostratos
252–251 BC Kallimedes
251–250 BC Thersilochos
250–249 BC Polyeuktos
249–248 BC Hieron
248–247 BC Diomedon
247–246 BC Theophemos
246–245 BC Philoneos
245–244 BC Kydenor
244–243 BC Lysiades
243–242 BC Eurykleides
242–241 BC Phanomachos
241–240 BC Lykeus
240–239 BC Polystratos
239–238 BC Athendoros
238–237 BC Lysias
237–236 BC Alkibiades
236–235 BC Kimon
235–234 BC Ekphantos
234–233 BC Lysanias
233–232 BC Unknown
232–231 BC Mneseides (?)
231–230 BC Jason (?)
230–228 BC Unknown
228–227 BC Heliodorus
227–226 BC Leochares[63]
226–225 BC Theophilos
225–224 BC Ergochares
224–223 BC Nicetes
223–222 BC Antiphilus[64]
222–221 BC Euxenos
221–220 BC Unknown
220–219 BC Thrasyphon[65]
219–218 BC Menecrates
218–217 BC Chaerephon
217–216 BC Kallimachos
216–215 BC Unknown
215–214 BC Hagnias
214–213 BC Diocles First Macedonian War begins. (214 BC)
213–212 BC Euphiletus
212–211 BC Heracleitus
211–210 BC Archelaos
210–209 BC Aeschron[66]
209–208 BC Unknown[67]
208–207 BC Unknown
207–206 BC Kallistratos
206–205 BC Pantiades
205–204 BC Diodotos
204–203 BC Apollodorus
203–202 BC Proxenides
202–201 BC Dionysios
201–200 BC Isokrates[68]
200–199 BC Nikophon
199–198 BC [...]ppos
198–197 BC Unknown
197–196 BC Ankylos
196–195 BC Pleistainos[69]
195–194 BC Unknown
194-193 BC Dionysios
193–192 BC Phanarchides
192–191 BC Diodotus
191–190 BC Timouchos
190–189 BC Demetrios
189–188 BC Euthykritos
188–187 BC Symmachus
187–186 BC Theoxenus
186–185 BC Zopyrus
185–184 BC Eupolemus
184–183 BC Charicles[69]
183–182 BC Hermogenes
182–181 BC Timesianax
181–180 BC Hippias
180–179 BC Dionysius
179–178 BC Menedemus
178–177 BC Philon
177–176 BC [...]ppos
176–175 BC Hippacus
175–174 BC Sonicus
174–173 BC Alexandros
173–172 BC Alexis
172–171 BC Sosigenes
171–170 BC Antigenes
170–169 BC Aphrodisios
169–168 BC Eunicus
168–167 BC Xenocles
167–166 BC Nicosthenes
166–165 BC Achaios (?)[70]
165–164 BC Pelops
164–163 BC Euergetes
163–162 BC Erastus
162–161 BC Poseidonius
161–160 BC Aristolas
160–159 BC Tychandrus
159–158 BC Aristaimos[71]
158–157 BC Aristaechmus
157–156 BC Anthesterius
156–155 BC Callistratus
155–154 BC Mnestheus
154–153 BC Unknown
153–152 BC Phaidrias
152–151 BC Andreas (?)[72]
151–150 BC Zeleucus (?)[72]
150–149 BC Speusippos (?)[72] Fourth Macedonian War begins (150 BC).
149–148 BC Lysiades (?)[72]
148–147 BC Archon
147–146 BC Epikrates Rome takes control of Greece

Roman period[edit]

Main article: Roman Greece
Year Eponymous Archon Other officials or notable events
146–145 BC Aristophantos (?)[71][72]
145–144 BC Metrophanes (?)[72]
144–143 BC Theaitetos
143–142 BC Aristophon
142–141 BC Mikion (?)[72]
141–140 BC [Dionysios]
140–139 BC Hagnotheus
139–138 BC Diokles[73]
138–137 BC Timarchus
137–136 BC Heracleitus
136–135 BC Timarchides
135–134 BC Dionysius
134–133 BC Nicomachus
133–132 BC Xenon
132–131 BC Ergocles
131–130 BC Epicles
130–129 BC Demostratus
129–128 BC Lyciscus
128–127 BC Dionysius
127–126 BC Theodorides
126–125 BC Diotimus
125–124 BC Jason
124–123 BC Nicias (died); Isigenes
123–122 BC Demetrius
122–121 BC Nicodemus
121–120 BC Phocion (?)
120–119 BC Eumachus
119–118 BC Hipparchus
118–117 BC Lenaeus
117–116 BC Menoites
116–115 BC Sarapion
115–114 BC Nausias
114–113 BC [...]raton
113–112 BC Paramonus
112–111 BC Dionysius
111–110 BC Sosicrates
110–109 BC Polycleitus
109–108 BC Jason
108–107 BC Demochares
107–106 BC Aristarchos
106–105 BC Agathokles
105–104 BC Andronides (?)
104–103 BC Herakleides
103–102 BC Theokles
102–101 BC Echekrates
101–100 BC Medeios
100–99 BC Theodosius
99–98 BC Prokles
98–97 BC Argeius
97–96 BC Heracleitus
96–95 BC [...]kraton
95–94 BC Theodotos
94–93 BC Kallias
93–92 BC Kriton
92–91 BC Menedemos
91–90 BC Medeius
90–89 BC Medeius
89–88 BC Medeius
88–87 BC anarchy Athens captured by Lucius Cornelius Sulla, who reorganizes its government
87–86 BC Philanthes
86–85 BC Hierophantes
85–84 BC Pythocritus
84–83 BC Niketas
83–82 BC Pammenes
82–81 BC Demetrios
81–80 BC Ar[...]
80–79 BC Apollodorus
79-78 BC Unknown
78–77 BC Aischraios
77-76 BC Seleukes
76–75 BC Herakleodoros
75–74 BC Aeschines
74–73 BC Unknown
73–72 BC Nicetes (?)
72–71 BC Unknown
71–70 BC Aristoxenus (?)
70–69 BC Criton (?)
69–67 BC Unknown
67–66 BC Theoxenus (?)
66–65 BC Medeius (?)
65–64 BC Unknown
64-63 BC Oinophilos
63-62 BC [...]ios
62–61 BC Aristeius
61–60 BC Theophemus
60–59 BC Herodes[74]
59–58 BC Leukios
58–57 BC Kalliphon
57–56 BC Diocles
56–55 BC Cointus
55–54 BC Aristoxenus
54–53 BC Zenon
53–52 BC Diodoros
52–51 BC Lysandros
51–50 BC Lysiades
50–49 BC Demetrios
49–48 BC Demochares
48–47 BC Philokrates
47–46 BC Diokles
46–45 BC Eukles
45–44 BC Diokles
44–43 BC Leukios of Rhamnonte
43-42 BC Polycharmos
42–41 BC Euthydomos
41–40 BC Nikandros
40–39 BC Philostratos
39–38 BC Diokles of Melite
38–37 BC Menandros of Steiria
37–36 BC Kallikratides (?)
36–35 BC Asklepiodoros
35–34 BC Theopeithes
34–33 BC Apollogenes (?)
33–32 BC Kleidamos
32-31 BC Unknown
31–30 BC Unknown
30–29 BC Architemos
29–26 BC Unknown
26–25 BC Dioteimos
25–22 BC Unknown
22–21 BC Apolexis
20–19 BC Demeas
19–17 BC Unknown
17-16 BC Ai[...][75]
16–15 BC Pythagoras[75]
15–14 BC Antiochos[75]
14–13 BC Polyainus
13–12 BC Zenon
12–11 BC Leonidas
11–10 BC Theophilos
10–9 BC Nikias
9–8 BC Xenon
8–7 BC Apolexis ex Oisu[76]
7–6 BC Unknown
6–5 BC Nikostratos
5–4 BC Kotys
4–3 BC Anaxagoras
3–2 BC Demochares
2–1 BC Polycharmos
1 BC–AD 1 Lakon
1–2 Demokrates
2–3 [...] Sounieus
3–4 [...] Sphettios
4–5 [...]on
5–23 Unknown
23–24 M[...]
24–25 Charm[...]
25–26 Kallikr[...]
26–27 Pamphilos Julio-Claudian dynasty begins.
27–28 Themistocles
28–29 Oinophilus
29–30 Boethos
30–31 [...]tros
31-36 Unknown
36–37 Basileus Rhoemetalkes Ne(oteros) Later king of Odrysia[77]
37–38 Arist[...] (?)
38-39 Polykritos (?)
39-40 Zen[on] (?)
40-41 [...]ouios Leo[...][78]
41-45 Unknown
45–46 Antipatros
46–49 Unknown
49–50 Deinophilus
50–54 Unknown
53–54 Dionysodoros
54–56 Unknown
56–57 Konon
57–61 Unknown
61–62 Thrasyllus
62–65 Unknown
64–65 C. Carrinus Gaius Filius Secundus
65–66 Demostratos
66-74 Unknown
74-75 C. Julius Antiochus
Epiphanes Philopappos
(?)
Grandson of the last king of Commagene
75–79 Unknown
c. 80 Loukios
81-83 Unknown
83-84 Anarchy
84-85 Unknown
85-86 Titus Flavius Domitianus Also Roman Emperor
86-87 Q. Trebellius Rufus Also high priest of the imperial cult for Narbonese Gaul.[79]
87-88 Anarchy
88-89 Ti. Claudius Hierophantes Kallikratidios
89-90 Aiolion
90-91 L. Flavius Phlammas
91-92 T. Flavius Leosthenes
92–93 [...] Oethen
93–94 [...]oteionos
94-95 Dionysodoros
95-96 Filopappos kai Lailianon
96–112 Unknown
112–113 Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus Later Roman Emperor
113–114 Oktaios Theon
114–115 Oktaios Proklos
115–116 Pantainos
116–117 Phlaouios Makreinos
117–118 T. Koponios Maximos So Oliver; Samuels sees two names in the primary source.[80]
118–119 L. Ouiboullios Hipparchos
119–120 Phlaiouios Stratolaos
120-121 Kl. Demophilos
121-122 Flavius Sophokles
122-123 T. Flavius Alkibiades Son of T. Flavius Leosthenes, archon in 91/2[81]
123-124 Kasios Diogenes
124-125 Phl. Euphanes
125-126 G. Ioulios Kasios
126–127 Claudius Herodes Marathonius Brother-in-law of Ouiboullios Hipparchos, archon in 118/9
127–128 Memmios [...]ros
128–131 Unknown
131–132 Kl. Philogenes
132–138 Unknown
138–139 Praxagoras
139–140 Flavius Alkibiades Son of T. Flavius Alkibiades, archon in 122/3[81]
140–141 Tib. Kl. Attalos
141–142 P. Ail. Phileas
142–143 P. Ail Alexandros
143–144 Publius Aelius Vibullius Rufus Nephew of Herodes Atticus, archon in 126/7
144–145 Unknown
145–146 Flavius Arrianus Paianieus
146–147 Ti. [...]
147–148 Syllas
148–149 Unknown
150–151 Ail. Ardys
151–154 Unknown
154–155 Praxagoras
155–156 Popillius Theotimus
156–157 Ail. Kallikrates
157–158 Unknown
158–159 Ti. Aur. Philemon Philades
159–160 Ail. Alexandros
160–161 P. Ailios Hellen ho kai Pl[...]
161–162 Memmios epi bomo
162–163 Ail. Gelos
163–164 Philisteides
164–165 Unknown
165–166 Sextos
166–167 Marcus Valerius Mamertinus Marathonius[82]
167–168 anarchy Rotoff suggests that the absence of an archon for this year, and two of the following four years, was likely due to the Antonine Plague.[83]
168–169 Tineius Ponticus Besaieus
169–170 anarchy
170–171 Tiberius Memmius Phlaccus Marathonius
171–172 anarchy
172–173 Lucius Gellius Xenagoras
173–174 Biesius Peison
174–175 Flavius Harpalianos
175–176 Ar. Epaphroditos
176–177 Claudius Heracleides
177–178 Aischines (?)[84]
178–179 Hegias (?)[85]
179–180 Athenodorus Agrippas Iteaius (?)[86]
180–181 Claudius Demostratus
181–182 Unknown
182–183 Marcus Munatius Maximianus Ouopiscus
183–184 Domitius Aristaius Paionides
184–185 T. Flavius Sosigenes Palleneus
185–186 Philoteimus Arcesidemou Eleousius
186–187 C. Fabius Thisbianus Marathonius
187–188 Ti. Claudius Marcus Appius
Atilius Bradua Regillus Atticus
Son of Herodes Atticus, archon 126/7
188–189 L. Aelius Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Also Roman Emperor
189–190 Menogenes[87]
190–191 C. Peinarius Proclus Agnousius
191–192 Unknown
192–193 C. Helvidius Secundus
193–194 Claudius Dadouchos
194-195 Aur. Philisteides
195-196 Koint[...]
196-197 Flavius Straton
197-198 Xenokles (?)[88]
198–199 T. Fl. Sosigenes Palleneus (?)
199-200 Dionysodoros Eukarpon (?)
200-201 Fl. Eiachchagogos Agruleus (?)
201-202 Agathokles (?)
202–203 [...]mos
203–204 Aurolios Dem[...] (?)
204-205 Domitios Aristaios Paionides (?)
205-206 Gaius Quintus Imertus Marathonius
206-207 Anarchy
207-208 Gaius Kastios Apollonius Streircus
208-209 Fav. Dadouchos Marathonius
209–210 Flavius Diogenes Marathonius
210-211 Pompeios Alexander (?)[89]
211–212 Claudius Fokas Marathonius (?)[89]
212–213 Aurelius Dionysius Acharneus
213–220 Unknown
220–221 Philinus
221–222 Dometius Arabianus Marathonius
222-223 Gaius Quintus Kleon Marathonius
223-224 Hiereus An[...]
224-225 Tiberius Claudius Patroclus
225-226 Le. Dionysodoros
226-227 Mounatios Themison
227–228 G. Pinarios Bassos
228-229 [Maratho]nios Ne(oteros)
229–230 M. Oulpios Eubiotas Leuros
230-231 Mar. Aur. Kalliphron ho kai Phronteinos
231–232 Kasianos
232–233 Unknown
233–234 Kl. Teres
234–235 Epiktetos
235–238 Unknown
238-239 Kasianos Hieroceryx
239-240 Phl. Asklepiades
240–241 Cassianus Philippus Steirieus
241–244 Unknown
244-245 Aur. Laudikianus
245-249 Unknown
249–250 Publius Herennius Dexippus Also archon Basileus?
251–252 Kornelianos
252–262 Unknown
262–263 L. Phla. Philostratos
263-264 Unknown
264–265[90] Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus Also Roman Emperor
c. 275 Tit. Phl. Mondon
between 300
& 330
Constantine the Great[91]
between 300
& 350
Hegeias
end 4th
century
Phaidros
386-387 Hermogenes
between 425
& 450
Theagenes
484-485 Nikagoras

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Adkins, Lesley and Roy A. Handbook to Life in Ancient Greece New York: Oxford University Press 1997 ISBN 0-19-512491-X
  • Aristotle's Athenian Constitution
  • Develin, Robert Athenian officials, 684-321 B.C.. Cambridge: University Press, 2003. ISBN 9780521328807
  • Dinsmoor, William Bell The Archons of Athens in the Hellenistic Age. Cambridge, 1931 (1966 reprint)
  • Dinsmoor, William Bell The Athenian Archon List in the Light of Recent Discoveries. Columbia University Press, 1939 (1974 reprint, ISBN 0-8371-4735-2)
  • Fox, Robin Lane The Classical World: An Epic History from Homer to Hadrian New York: Basic Books 2006 ISBN 0-465-02496-3
  • Hamel, Debra Athenian Generals: Military Authority in the Classical Period. Koninklijke Brill NV, 1998.
  • Graindor, Paul Chronologie des archontes athéniens sous l'Empire, Brussels, 1922 (Mémoires de l'Académie de Belgique, 4°, 1921),
  • Lacey, W. K. The Family in Classical Greece Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press 1968
  • Owens, Ron Justice and the Political Reforms of Solon, Eponymous Archon at Athens, 594–593 BC. Australian National University, 2000.

References[edit]

  1. ^ At first the chief of the city was only a priest. "The charge of the public sacrifices of the city belongs according to religious custom, not to special priests, but to those men who derive their dignity from the hearth, and who are here called kings, elsewhere Prytaneis, and again archons." (Aristotle, Politics, VIII.5)
  2. ^ Michael Rostovtseff, Greece, passim.
  3. ^ "The Athenian archons when they entered upon their duties ascended to the Acropolis wearing crowns of myrtles, and offered a sacrifice to the titular, divinity of the town. It was also customary for them to wear crowns of foliage when they exercised their functions. And it is certain that the crown, which became and which still remains the emblem of power, was then only a religious symbol, an exterior sign, which accompanied prayer and sacrifice. Amongst the nine archons, the second archon, the one called the King, was the representative of the high priestly function of the old Kings, but each of his colleagues had some priestly duty to fulfill, some sacrifice to offer to the gods. ("Gustave Ducoudray, The history of ancient civilization: a handbook, 1889 pg 129)
  4. ^ Gods, Heroes and Tyrants: Greek Chronology in Chaos By Emmet John Sweeney.
  5. ^ Green, Peter (2009). "Diodorus Siculus on the Third Sacred War". In Marincola, John. A Companion to Greek and Roman Historiography. Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World 2. Oxford, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons. p. 364. ISBN 9780470766286. 
  6. ^ Fox The Classical World p. 122
  7. ^ Lacey The Family in Ancient Greece p. 139-145
  8. ^ Adkins Handbook to Life in Ancient Greece p. 35-36
  9. ^ Aristotle Constitution of Athens, 3
  10. ^ The son of Codrus was lame, which was why his brother Neileus would not let him rule, but the Delphian oracle bestowed the kingdom upon Medon. For more see Pausanias, Description of Greece, 7. 2. 1.
  11. ^ Constitution of Athens and Related Texts – Page 70
  12. ^ John Blair, Blair's Chronological and Historical Tables: From the Creation to the Present Time, with Additions and Corrections from the Most Authentic Writers, Including the Computation of St. Paul, as Connecting the Period from the Exode to the Temple. London: Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, 1844. pg. 27
  13. ^ John Lemprière, A Classical Dictionary pg. 183
  14. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, Volume 3 – Page 64. (cf. "The successors of Codrus were Medon (son of Codrus), Acastus (son of Medon), Archippus (son of Acastus), Thersippus (son of Archippus), Phorbas (son of Thersippus), Megacles (son of Phorbas), Diognetus (son of Megacles), Pherecles (son of Diognetus), Ariphron (son of Pherecles), Thespieus (son of Ariphron), Agamestor (son of Thespieus), Aeschylus (son of Agamestor), Alcmaeon. All these, according to the common tradition, held the archonship for life. After Alcmaeon the tenure of the office was made decennial. The first decennial archon was Charops, the second was Aesimides, and the third was Clidicus. See Eusebius, Chronic. vol. 1. pp. 185–190, ed. Schone.")
  15. ^ Michael Russell, A Connection of Sacred and Profane History, Pg 355
  16. ^ See Historicity of the Iliad.
  17. ^ Herodotus 2.53.
  18. ^ George Crabb, Universal Historical Dictionary pg. 91
  19. ^ According to Diodorus Siculus (of the 1st century BC).
  20. ^ Blair, Chronological and Historical Tables pg. 30
  21. ^ Herodotus, George Rawlinson, Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson, Sir John Gardner Wilkinson. The History of Herodotus: A New English Version, Ed. with Copious Notes and Appendices, Illustrating the History and Geography of Herodotus, from the Most Recent Sources of Information; and Embodying the Chief Results, Historical and Ethnographical, which Have Been Obtained in the Progress of Cuneiform and Hieroglyphical Discovery, Volume 3. Appleton, 1882. Pg 316
  22. ^ Evelyn Abbott. A Skeleton Outline of Greek History: Chronologically Arranged. Pg 27.
  23. ^ The Roman Antiquities, Volume 1. By Dionysius (Halicarnassensis). pg 162.
  24. ^ History of Ancient and Modern Greece. By John Frost. Pg 35
  25. ^ According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus
  26. ^ Pausanias's Description of Greece, Volume 3 By Pausanias. Pg 64
  27. ^ Henry-Fines Clinton. Fasti Hellenici, the Civil and Literary Chronology of Greece, from the Earliest Accounts to the Death of Augustus. University Press, 1834 pg 241, Pg 166
  28. ^ Nicolas Lenglet Dufresnoy. Chronological Tables of Universal History: Sacred and Profane, Ecclesiastical and Civil; from the Creation of the World, to the Year One Thousand Seven Hundred and Forty-three. With a Preliminary Discourse on the Short Method of Studying History; and a Catalogue of Books Necessary for that Purpose; with Some Remarks on Them, Volume 1. A. Millar, 1762. Pg 124
  29. ^ John Blair. Blair's Chronological and Historical Tables: From the Creation to the Present Time, with Additions and Corrections from the Most Authentic Writers, Including the Computation of St. Paul, as Connecting the Period from the Exode to the Temple. Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, Paternoster Row., 1844. Pg 38
  30. ^ Blair's Chronological and Historical Tables. Pg 39
  31. ^ Unless otherwise indicated, the names and dates of archons down to 481/0 BC are taken from T. J. Cadoux, "The Athenian Archons from Kreon to Hypsichides", Journal of Hellenic Studies, 68 (1948), pp. 70-123
  32. ^ Cadoux, "Athenian Archons", p. 88
  33. ^ a b Cadoux notes "We cannot be sure that it was the same man who held the second archonship, nor, if we held that it was, do we know anything of the circumstances under which this happened. Nor, again, do we know if this man or men belonged to the Philaid family." ("Athenian Archons", p. 90)
  34. ^ Cadoux notes this entry is based on a very obscure surviving passage of Hippys of Rhegion which is very obscure; Hippys states one Epainetos was king at Athens in the 36th Olympiad. However, this statement is full of mistakes which makes Cadooux suspicious of this passage. ("Athenian Archons", p. 91)
  35. ^ a b c d e Per one surviving fragment of the Athenian Archon list. Donald W. Bradeen, "The Fifth-Century Archon List", Hesperia, 32 (1963), pp. 187-208
  36. ^ Cadoux, "Athenian Archons", p. 103
  37. ^ So Cadoux and Samuel; Benjamin D. Merrit notes the name could be read "Onetorides". (Merrit, "Greek inscriptions, 14-27", Hesperia, 8 (1939), p 60)
  38. ^ This identification has been questioned by Matthew P. J. Dillon, "Was Kleisthenes of Pleisthenes Archon at Athens in 525 BC?", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 155 (2006), pp. 91-107
  39. ^ Herodotus, books V and VI: Terpsichore and Erato By Herodotus. Pg 10
  40. ^ But he adds, "It seems gratuitous to invent a third Miltiades-presumably from another family; and there are no solid chronological grounds for rejecting either of the two Philaids." (Cadoux, "Athenian Archons", p. 110)
  41. ^ See Cadoux, "Athenian Archons", pp. 111f
  42. ^ Alan Samuel is doubtful this archon existed, claiming this is based on Eustathius' misunderstanding his source, which provides the date Pindar died, not when he was born. Samuel, Greek and Roman Chronology (Muenchen: Beck'sche, 1972), p. 204
  43. ^ Cadoux suspects this is a corruption of the archon's real name. ("Athenian Archons", p. 116)
  44. ^ Added from Samuel, Greek and Roman Chronology, p. 205
  45. ^ Nine archons were appointed by lot by the tribes from 500 nominees chosen by the demes and that this was the method in the Archonship of Telesinus. See also the Areopagite constitution.
  46. ^ Cadoux, "Athenian Archons", p. 119
  47. ^ Unless otherwise noted, archons from 480/79 to 348/7 BC are taken from Alan E. Samuel, Greek and Roman Chronology (Muenchen: Beck'sche, 1972), pp. 206-210.
  48. ^ "Calliades was archon in Athens, and the Romans made Spurius Cassius and Proculus Verginius Tricostus consuls, and the Eleians celebrated the Seventy-fifth Olympiad, that in which Astylus of Syracuse won the 'stadion.' It was in this year that king Xerxes made his campaign against Greece" (Diodorus, 11.1.2)
  49. ^ Alternative spellings are taken from Samuel, Greek and Roman Chronology, pp. 206-210
  50. ^ a b Samuel, Greek and Roman Chronology, p. 207
  51. ^ Classical Philology. Pg 53
  52. ^ The Works of Xenophon: & II and Anabasis. 1890 By Xenophon. Pg 98
  53. ^ Thucydides: Arguments. Peloponnesian War, Book III (cont'd.)-VI By Thucydides. Pg 208
  54. ^ Sophocles: The Oedipus Coloneus. 3d ed. 1900 By Sophocles, Sir Richard Claverhouse Jebb. Pg 4. (cf. Micon was [the Archon of] 402 B.C., Callias of [the Archon of] 406 B.C. Between them came Alexias (405), Pythodorus (404, the Anarchy), and Eucleides (403).)
  55. ^ a b Unless otherwise noted, archons from 347/6 to 301/0 BC are taken from Benjamin D. Meritt, "Athenian Archons 347/6-48/7 B.C.", Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, 26 (1977), pp. 161-191
  56. ^ Samuel, Greek and Roman Chronology, p. 210
  57. ^ Unless otherwise noted, archons from 300/299 to 228/7 BC are taken from Michael J. Osborne, "The Archons of Athens 300/299-228/7", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 171 (2009), pp. 83-99
  58. ^ a b c The order in which these three archons held their office is not yet clear. (Osborne, "Archons of Athens", p. 85 n. 14)
  59. ^ This year is commonly attributed to "Gorgias" based on Plutarch (X Orat. 847D); however, this name may be a corruption of the very rare name "Ourias" archon in 281/0 BC; Gorgias is thus a ghost. (Osborne, "Archons of Athens", p. 87 n. 21)
  60. ^ Osborne notes that Pytharatos "is one of the very few archons of the 3rd century after the 290s to be securely dated on the basis of Olympiads and literary testimony." "Archons of Athens", p. 88 n. 26
  61. ^ a b Osborne, "Archons of Athens", p. 90 n. 29
  62. ^ Voula Bardani and Stephen Tracy, "A New List of Athenian Ephebes and a New Archon of Athens", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 163 (2007), pp. 75-80
  63. ^ Unless otherwise noted, archons from 227/6 to 211/0 BC are taken from Michael Osborne, "The Date of the Athenian Archon Thrasyphon", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 164 (2008), pp. 85-8
  64. ^ Aleshire had placed Hoplon at this year because there was a gap; however, Osborne's latest revision of the Archon list has removed that gap. For further details, see Aleshire, "The Athenian Archon Hoplon", Hesperia, 57 (1988), pp. 253-5
  65. ^ Thrasyphon is commonly dated to 221/0 BC based on a Magnesian inscription that allows his archonship to be dated to the fourth year of Olympiad 139; Osborne has argued that the correlation is not that exact and his archonship could fall in the first year of Olympiad 140. (Osborne, "The Date", pp. 85, 88)
  66. ^ Merrit disagrees, placing Sostratos here and providing a primary source; Osborne provides no supporting evidence for Aeschron here. Merritt, "Athenian Archons", p. 178
  67. ^ Unless otherwise noted, the archons from 209/8 to 201/0 BC are taken from John S. Traill, "A Revision of Hesperia, XLIII, 1974, 'A New Ephebic Inscription from the Athenian Agora'", Hesperia, 45 (1976), pp. 296-303
  68. ^ Unless otherwise noted, archons from 201/0 to 160/59 BC are taken from Osborne, "Archons of Athens"
  69. ^ a b Following the arguments of John S. Traill, "The Athenian Archon Pleistainos", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 103 (1994), pp. 109-114
  70. ^ Christian Habicht argues that, based on the flourit of the letter-cutter of inscription did not extend beyond 185 BC, Achaios' archonship occurred earlier and places Epainetos in this year. (Habicht, "The Eponymous Archons", p. 245)
  71. ^ a b Unless otherwise noted, archons from 159/8 to 141/0 BC are taken from Christian Habicht, "The Eponymous Archons of Athens from 159/8 to 141/0 B. C.", Hesperia, 57 (1988), pp. 237-247
  72. ^ a b c d e f g Habicht expresses less certainty about the dates of these seven archones. (Habicht, "The Eponymous Archons", p. 246)
  73. ^ Unless otherwise noted, archons from 139/8 to 61/60 BC are taken from Merrit, "Athenian Archons"
  74. ^ Unless otherwise noted, archons from 60/59 to 10/9 BC are taken from Simone Follet, "Deux inscriptions attiques inédites copiées par l'abbé Michel Fourmont (Parisinus Suppl. gr. 854)", Revue des Études Grecques, 118 (2005). pp. 1-14.
  75. ^ a b c Samuel adds these three names, as well as the next four, citing IG III2 1713 for their presence in the archon list. (Greek and Roman), p. 226
  76. ^ Unless otherwise noted, archons from 8/7 BC to AD 165/6 are taken from Samuel, Greek and Roman, pp. 223-237
  77. ^ R. Neubauer, "Das Archontat des Rhoemetalkas in Athen", Hermes, 10 (1876), pp. 145-152
  78. ^ Or eponymous archon in 41/2.
  79. ^ James H. Oliver, "Greek Inscriptions", Hesperia: The American Excavations in the Athenian Agora: Twenty-First Report, 11 (1942), p. 80
  80. ^ Oliver, "Greek Inscriptions", p. 84
  81. ^ a b Gustav Hirschfeld, "Die Familie des Titus Flavius Aklibiades", 7 (1873), pp. 52-61
  82. ^ Unless otherwise noted, archons from 166/7 to 188/9 are taken from Susan I. Rotoff, "An Athenian Archon List of the Late Second Century after Christ", Hesperia, 44 (1975), pp. 402-8
  83. ^ Rotoff, "An Athenian Archon List", p. 408
  84. ^ Or Aischines could be archon for 178/9 (Rotoff, "Athenian Archon List", p. 407)
  85. ^ Or Hegias could be archon for 177/8 or 179/80 (Rotoff, "Athenian Archon List", p. 407)
  86. ^ Or Athendorus could be archon for 181/2 (Rotoff, "Athenian Archon List", p. 407)
  87. ^ Unless otherwise noted, archons for 189/90 to 484/5 are taken from Samuel, Greek and Roman Chronology, pp. 234-7.
  88. ^ Following the order from 197/8 to 204/5 offered by James A. Notopoulos, "Studies in the Chronology of Athens under the Empire", Hesperia, 18 (1949), pp. 21f. The chief differences between Notopoulos and Samuels here are that Samuels marks 197/8 as unknown, puts the next three archons in the order Dionysodoros - T. Ph. Sosigenes - Xenokles, then omitting [...]mos takes the other four archons Notopoulos distributes from 200/1-202/3 and compresses them into the years 201/2-202/3. Since Notopoulos considers [...]mos to be the only archon in this period whose date is certain, and Samuels provides no reasoning for removing him, Notopoulos has been followed here.
  89. ^ a b Notopulos is uncertain of the order of these two archons during these two years ("Studies in the Chronology", pp. 35, 36), while Samuels leans towards the inverted order (Greek and Roman Chronology, p. 235)
  90. ^ After 265, the record is so fragmentary that "Unknown" is not indicated past this point.
  91. ^ So claimed by James H. Oliver, "Roman Emperors and Athens", Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, 30 (1981), 423