|• Body||Arcot Municipality|
|Elevation||160 m (520 ft)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Telephone code||91 4172|
|Vehicle registration||TN 23, TN 73|
|Lok Sabha constituency||Arakkonam|
|Civic agency||Arcot Municipality|
Arcot is a town and suburb of Vellore city in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. Located on the southern banks of Palar River at , the city straddles a highly strategic trade route between Chennai and Bangalore, between the Mysore Ghat and the Javadi Hills - (Javvadhu malai). Its population in 1991 was 45,205; the surrounding area had a population of 114,760. The famous sweet Makkan Peda originated from Arcot and still holds forte. Arcot is also famous for biryani, the delicious rice-based traditional food.
The town's strategic location has led to it being repeatedly contested and prompted the construction of a formidable fortress. The Nawabdom of the Carnatic was established by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, who in 1692 appointed Zulfiqar Ali Khan as the first Nawab of the Carnatic. In 1740, the Maratha forces came down upon Arcot. They attacked the Nawab, Dost Ali in the pass of Damalcherry. In the war that followed, Dost Ali, one of his sons Hasan Ali, and a number of prominent persons lost their lives. This initial success at once enhanced Maratha prestige in the south. From Damalcherry the Marathas proceeded to Arcot. It surrendered to them without much resistance. Chanda Saheb and his son were arrested and sent to Nagpur. In 1751, The English captured the town during the conflict between the United Kingdom and France for control of South India. English successfully held it with only 500 men against the French and the Nawab, resisting for 56 days (23 September to 14 November 1751). The enemy army eventually dissolved and its leader, Chanda Shahib, was killed. Mohammed Ali Khan Walajah took over as Nawab, effectively serving as a vassal of the British. His successors soon ran up enormous debts at the hands of English speculators. In 1801, the town was annexed by the British East India Company.
In the 20th century, Arcot declined in importance and was incorporated into Vellore District. Arcot has the tomb of famous 18th-century Sufi Saint - Tipu Mastan Aulia. The story goes that from the blessings of Tipu Mastan Aulia, Hyder Ali had a son Tippu Sultan of Mysore whom he appropriately named after the saint.
In Kaspa, Sri Vaikuntha Varadharaja Perumal Temple is suituated. The speciality of this temple is that its only temple where Lord Vishnu statue is erected in middle with Sri Devi and Bamadevi at its sides. This type of posture of Lord Perumal is only present in this temple. More over the three Statues are designed using a Single Stone. This temple has been built under the Pallava era.
Arcot Municipality was constituted in 1959 has Third Grade Municipality and subsequently upgraded to second Grade Municipality in 1973 and very Recently form July 1998 it has been upgraded to I Grade Municipality. The selected council with 30 members and Chair person (Men) are functioning from 25.10.2006.
The first grade commissioner is working as Executive Authority of the Municipal administration with the Regional Director of Municipal Administration, Vellore and Collector of Vellore District and overall control by the Commissioner of Municipal Administration are functioning administrative Head of this Urban local body. Arcot Town has 7.49 Sq.k.m area with a population of 49,953 as per 2001 census. The Municipal office is situated nearly 1/4 km east from bus stand. Arcot town is an historical Town with monuments and forts once Ruled by Arcot Navab. The town is located on the southern bank of Palar river easily accessible from the capital of Tamil Nadu. Chennai with in the distance of 120 km and district headquarters with in the distance of 25 km.
Arcot has been developing as a commercial centre for long time as it is connected to Chennai and Vellore by the National Highways-46 Ranipet to Krishnagiri Road,(Arani to chennai) passing through this town. Arcot is famous for the course Rice variety called "Arcot Kicheli" and this several Rice mills and Paddy mundy's were established. Besides this Tourist see nick beauty namely "Delhi Gate" and "Green stone Mosque" with in the Town. This Generates floating population to this Town.
Its name is commonly believed to have been derived from the Tamil words aaru (River) + kaadu (Forest). However, arkkaTu meant 'a forest of fig trees'. Jainism was flourishing in this part of Tamil Land who were otherwise known as Arugar most probably corrupted form of Arhants or the perfected souls. The word Arugar is found in many ancient literary works and places dominant with arugars were related to them viz Arakonam, Arumbakkam, Aruvur, etc. Not far away from present day Arcot (Anglicized form of Aarkaadu) there is a place called Arungundram. Hence Arcot or Aarkaadu would have derived its name from Arugarkaadu.
Arcot is the principal market for the surrounding agricultural area. It also has a viable local weaving industry, ground nut oil industry, VGS paddy and rice mill & finance. Arcot is also most famous for edible oil production. Mainly focusing on Groundnut and Gingelly oil production. More number of Oil expellers are available in and around Arcot. Certain cast of people are more dominant and involved in this edible oil business.
The people who lived in the Arcot region especially in and near the temple town of Tiruvannamalai, belonged to a clan called the Arcots. The Nawabs fought with and ruled over them for a long period. With the establishment of the Danish Missionary Society, many of these Arcots converted Christians. The Danish Missionary Society (DMS, currently Dan Mission) established many schools and hospitals. The first missionary of the DMS was a German Rev. C.C.E. Ochs. He started his first Mission station, Bethanien, at Melpattambakkam in South Arcot in 1861. Now all its activities have been transferred to the nearby town Nellikuppam.
The second mission station of DMS was opened at Tirukkoyilur in 1869 by Rev. P. Andersen and was called "Siloam". Siloam church was consecrated on the 10th of October, 1886 and on the same day the first Indian pastors were ordained and more than 30 persons were baptized. A week later a church was consecrated in an outstation, Sengalmedu. The beautiful church in Pop ham's Broadway in Madras was built in 1892.
Saron, a third mission station of DMS, was opened in 1882 and situated just outside the town Tiruvannamalai. In 1898 a mission station was built in the town. From 1905 it was called "Carmel." The fourth mission station in the Arcot District, "Bethesda," in Kallakurichi was built in 1893 by Rev. A. Larsen. Later DMS started mission stations at Panruti, Vriddhachalam, Devanampatnam, Darisanapuram, and Servaroj Hills, etc. In 1913 a church constitution was inaugurated. This church is serving the Tamil-speaking population in the districts of South and North Arcot, Tamil Nadu. Mayana Kollai is celebrated here. People paint themselves and appear as gods having goat flesh in their mouths and drumsticks in their hands. They walk over the bazaar street towards the burial ground. Eassayanoor Valavanoor. Ramzan and Bakrid festivals celebrate in grand mannar
Arcot is located at  It has an average elevation of 164 metres (538 ft)..
As of the census of India 2001, Arcot had a population of 49,953 comprising 24,995 males and 24,958 females, making the sex ratio (number of females per thousand males) of the town to 999. A total of 5,753 people were under six years of age and the child sex ratio (number of females per thousand males under six years of age) stood at 942. The town had an average literacy of 83.34%, higher than the national average of 59.5%. A total of 5,831 comprising 13.19% of the population belonged to Scheduled Castes (SC) and 175 comprising 0.4% of the population belonged to Scheduled tribes (ST). There were are total of 11,009 households in the town. As of 2001, Arcot had a total of 17,283 main workers: 84 cultivators, 213 agricultural labourers, 2,150 in house hold industries and 14,836 other workers. There was a total of 499 marginal workers: 3 marginal cultivators, 33 marginal agricultural labourers, 126 marginal workers in household industries and 337 other marginal workers.
The main mode of transport is by bus since it is economical, and well connected by road. A national highway and two state highways pass through Arcot. There are frequent buses to almost all parts of Tamil Nadu. Buses depart every 15 minutes from Arcot to Chennai and there are also buses to Hosur, Bangalore, Tirupathi, Pondicherry (Puducherry). There are lot of private bus operators as well, who provide services on local and short-distance routes. The nearest railway station to Arcot is Walaja Road, which is around 7 km from Arcot. There are buses (Route 202) Between Arani and Chennai very frequently and also straight bus (Route 123) between Arcot and Chennai. The local bus from Arcot to Vellore is route no.7.
The nearest railway station is walajah Road station 6 km from the town lying between Arakkonam and Vellore-Katpadi Junction 30 km. The new broad gauge line from Tindivanam to Nagari via Walajah Road Junction will pass through Arcot. It will function within one year.
- Without knowing the actual meaning of the name of a village ArkkaTu (Arcot), the Sanskrit scholars translated it Sataranyam, which literally means six forests, whereas the Tamil word arkkaTu literally means a forest of fig trees. See Prof. M. Varadarajan, "A History of Tamil literature", (Translated from Tamil by E. Sa. Viswanathan), Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi, 1988, p.1- 17
- Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Arcot
- "Primary census abstract 2001". Directorate of Census Operations – Tamil Nadu. 2001. Retrieved 2012-12-29.
- "List of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies". Tamil Nadu. Election Commission of India. Archived from the original on 31 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-08.