Arctic policy of Canada
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The Arctic policy of Canada refers to the foreign policy of Canada in regards to the Arctic region and to Canada's domestic policy towards its Arctic territories. This includes the devolution of powers to the territories. Canada's arctic policy includes the plans and provisions of these regional governments. It encompasses the exercise of sovereignty, social and economic development, the protection of the environment, and the improving and devolving of governance.
Canada, along with the 7 other Arctic nations, is a member of the Arctic Council. On August 23, 2012, Prime Minister Stephen Harper announced that Nunavut MP Leona Aglukkaq will serve as chair of the Arctic Council when Canada assumes the Chairmanship from Sweden in May, 2013.
Along with its mainland in the upper regions of the North American continent, Canada claims sovereignty over the related continental shelf and the Arctic Archipelago. It considers the waters between the islands of the Archipelago to be Canadian inland waters. The United States considers those waters to be international in domain.
Canada has more Arctic land mass than any other country. This land is included within the administrative regions of Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and Yukon. Approximately 120,000 Canadians live in the Arctic.
Government interest in the North began with the British explorations of Frobisher and Davis in the 1500s and the 1670 Hudson Bay Company (HBC) charter. The HBC charter gave the company title to Rupert's Land, the watershed of Hudson Bay. In 1821, the rest of the present-day Northwest Territories and Nunavut south of the arctic coast was added to the charter. Then, in 1870, the Hudson Bay Company transferred title to its lands to Canada. Thus, the new dominion acquired sovereignty over all of what is now northern Canada except for the arctic islands. This northern mainland sovereignty has never been questioned.
In 1880 the British government transferred to Canada the rest of its possessions in the Arctic, including "all Islands adjacent to any such Territories" whether discovered by British or foreigners, or not yet discovered.
Further historical information related to Canadian arctic policy can be found in the sections which follow.
Definition of Arctic 
The term "Arctic" varies in its usage. It can be defined as north of the Arctic Circle (66° 33'N). Alternatively, it can be defined as the region where the average temperature for the warmest month (July) is below 10 °C (50 °F); the northernmost tree line roughly follows the isotherm at the boundary of this region. Socially and politically, the Arctic region includes the northern territories of the eight Arctic states, although by natural science definitions much of this territory is considered subarctic.
Using these components, he calculated regional values whereby he subdivided Canada into Near North, Middle North, Far North and Extreme North.
A large part of Canada is in the Arctic region. Administratively this is split between the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and Yukon. About 120,000 Canadians live in the Arctic. This compares with the other countries' Arctic regions as follows:
- Russia – 2,000,000
- USA – 722,718 (includes entire population of Alaska, most which is below the Arctic Circle)
- Norway – 469,000
- Iceland – 313,000
- Sweden – 250,000
- Finland – 184,000
- Canada – 120,000
- Denmark - 108,000 (Greenland and Faeroe Islands)
Note: The statistic given for Iceland refers to its entire population. However Iceland is almost entirely sub-Arctic, as are the Faeroe Islands.
The Inuit 
The Inuit are Aboriginal peoples originating in the Canadian Arctic and other polar nations. The word Inuit means "people" in Inuktitut, the language of the Inuit. In the Canadian 1996 census, 41 000 persons identified themselves as Inuit. The great majority of these live north of the 50th parallel.
In Nunavut, 84% of the population are Inuit. Sixty-two per cent of the Inuit live in Nunavut and in the Northwest Territories, 21% in northern Quebec (Nunavik) and 10% in Labrador (Nunatsiavut). Canada contains 15 communities of more than 1 000 Inuit.
The Arctic Archipelago 
Canadian sovereignty over the lands of the Arctic Archipelago is no longer disputed.
From 1898-1902 Otto Sverdrup explored in the high arctic. He discovered the islands of Axel Heiberg, Ellef Ringnes and Amund Ringnes, known as Sverdrup Islands, and claimed them for Norway. He was the first person known to have set foot on them. Norway retained territorial interests in the islands until 1930 when it formally recognized the sovereignty of Britain (Canada) over them.
Historically, occupation of the land has been considered important in establishing sovereignty. This led to a variety of initiatives of the Canadian government. From 1953-1955, eighty-seven Inuit were moved by the Government of Canada to the High Arctic. In the 1990s this relocation became a point of controversial scrutiny. The government's motives seems to have included this need to occupy the land.
The waterways, including the Northwest Passage, within the Archipelago remain in dispute. Canada considers them internal waters while the United States considers them international waters.
Arctic Circle 
The eight northern countries listed above all have territory within the Arctic Circle. Several of these make conflicting claims of sovereignty. The United States and Canada do not agree on their boundaries in the Beaufort Sea. Canada and Denmark both claim the small Hans Island off of Greenland. Russia, Denmark and Canada all claim common sections of the Lomonosov ridge.
Policy statements 
In 2007, the three Canadian territorial governments released "A Northern Vision: A Stronger North and a Better Canada". The vision's main themes are sovereignty, circumpolar relations and climate change.
In 2009, the Government of Canada presented Canada's Northern Strategy: Our North, Our Heritage, Our Future. It focused on four objectives:
The Government of Canada has a clear vision for the North, in which:
- self-reliant individuals live in healthy, vital communities, manage their own affairs and shape their own destinies;
- the Northern tradition of respect for the land and the environment is paramount and the principles of responsible and sustainable development anchor all decision-making and action;
- strong, responsible, accountable governments work together for a vibrant, prosperous future for all – a place whose people and governments are significant contributing partners to a dynamic, secure Canadian federation; and
- we patrol and protect our territory through enhanced presence on the land, in the sea and over the skies of the Arctic.
On August 23, 2010, the Prime Minister of Canada, Stephen Harper said that protection of Canada's sovereignty over its northern regions was its number one and "non-negotiable priority" in Arctic policy. Canada has slated $109 million, to be spent before 2014, for research to substantiate extended continental shelf claims in the Arctic region.
Canada's Arctic policy priorities are:
- Exercise Canadian sovereignty,
- Promote economic and social development,
- Protect the arctic environment, and
- Improve and devolve governance.
The exercise of sovereignty 
Canadian claims of sovereignty in the arctic have shifted from the mainland of the north, to the Arctic Archipelago, and most recently to the marine passageways within the Archipelago.
In 1969, the SS Manhattan and, in 1985, the Polar Sea, both United States ships, sparked controversy in Canada by traveling through the waters of the Arctic Archipelago. In the aftermath of both incidents, Canada strengthened its legislation covering such voyages.
The Inuit have been hunters for millennia. As they interacted with Europeans they became trappers and dependent on foreign economic forces.
ArcticNet's Schools on Board program is based out of The Clayton H. Riddell Faculty of Environment, Earth and Resources at the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg, Canada. It helps connect high schools across Canada with those conducting climate change research in the Arctic. They educate young Canadians concerning the challenges and career opportunities in Arctic research. Participating schools send students and teachers to the Arctic, on board the CCGS Amundsen, to do field research with the ArcticNet science team.
Health Care 
Policy concerns include adequate nutrition, suicide rates, toxic pollution, tuberculosis, and adequate housing.
Search and Rescue 
Protection of the environment 
Environmental concerns include global warming, preservation of flora and fauna, shipping traffic, and oil exploration. As a consequence of the SS Manhattan's venture through the Northwest Passage, the Canadian government enacted the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act.
Improving and devolving governance 
Canada has had a paternalistic relationship with its aboriginal peoples in the past. The creation of Nunavut has helped promote self-government.
Scientific Research 
Many Canadian institutions conduct research in the arctic. As part of its arctic policy, in the summer of 2010, the Canadian Government announced plans to build a High Arctic Research Station. This station will be built as an integral part of Canada's Northern Stategy and serves political purposes, such as asserting Canada's sovereignty in the high north, as much as concrete research objectives. Cambridge Bay was chosen after a feasibility study that also included Pond Inlet and Resolute Bay as potential locations. It will be a year-round, multidisciplinary facility exploring the cutting-edge of Arctic science and technology issues; opening is foreseen in 2017. Total costs are as yet unknown, but pre-construction design alone is budgeted at 18 million (Canadian) dollars.
Legal landscape 
Legislation governing arctic policy is expanding due to the opportunities opened up by the melting of arctic summer ice such as natural resource extraction and expedited shipping routes.
See also 
- International initiatives
- Arctic Cooperation and Politics
- Arctic Council
- Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy
- Arctic Ocean Conference
- Arctic Search and Rescue Agreement
- Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act
- Territorial claims in the Arctic
- United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
- Nation states policies
- Arctic policy of European Union
- Arctic policy of Finland
- Arctic policy of Russia
- Arctic policy of the United States
- Arctic policy of China
- Foreign relations of Canada
- Foreign relations of Canada (section Arctic disputes)
- Arctic (section International cooperation and politics)
- Canadian institutions
- Canadian history
- Canadian individuals of influence
- List of people from Nunavut
- Leona Aglukkaq
- Eva Aariak, premier of Nunavut
- Bill Lyall
- Louis-Edmond Hamelin
- Mary Simon
- Carolyn Bennett, Liberal critic on arctic policy
- Vilhjalmur Stefansson, 1879-1962, explorer
- Arctic concepts and terms
- http://www.nunatsiaqonline.ca/stories/article/65674pm_harper_nunavut_mp_aglukkaq_will_chair_the_arctic_council PM Harper: Nunavut MP Leona Aglukkaq will chair the Arctic Council
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