Ardahan

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Ardahan
Municipality
Ardahan.JPG
Ardahan is located in Turkey
Ardahan
Ardahan
Coordinates: 41°06′40″N 42°42′08″E / 41.11111°N 42.70222°E / 41.11111; 42.70222Coordinates: 41°06′40″N 42°42′08″E / 41.11111°N 42.70222°E / 41.11111; 42.70222
Country Turkey
Province Ardahan
Government
 • Mayor Faruk Köksoy (AKP)
Area[1]
 • District 1,191.37 km2 (459.99 sq mi)
Population (2012)[2]
 • Urban 19,075
 • District 41,770
 • District density 35/km2 (91/sq mi)
Website www.ardahan.bel.tr

Ardahan (Armenian: Արդահան; Georgian: არტაანი) is a city in northeastern Turkey, near the Georgian border.

History[edit]

Ancient and medieval[edit]

The first surviving record about this region is attributed to Strabo, who calls it Gogarene (perhaps derived from Gugark') and mentions that it was a part of the Kingdom of Armenia.[3][4] From the ninth to eleventh centuries, Ardahan served as an important transit point for goods arriving from the Abbasid Caliphate and departing to the regions around the Black Sea. During the eighth to eleventh centuries the city was in the hands of the Bagrationi princes of Artanuj and Tao-Klarjeti. According to the Arab historian Yahya of Antioch, the Byzantines razed Ardahan and slaughtered its population in 1021.[4] The Mongols took hold of the city in the 1230s but the Georgian princes of Samtskhe-Saatabago were able to recapture it in 1266.

The principality of Samtskhe-Saatabago was annexed by the Ottoman Empire in 1555 and Ardahan was included into the sanjak of Ardahan (an overall part of the vilayet of Akhaltsikhe).[5] The Ottomans constructed a substantial fortress at Ardahan. The Turkish traveler Evliya Chelebi visited Ardahan in the 1640s and gave the following description: "The fortress of Ardahan sits atop an inaccessible cliff. It is square-shaped and sturdy....This fortress has a cold climate and, because of this, there are no gardens or orchards. Fruits arrive from the fortress at Ajara and Tortum."[6]

Modern[edit]

Prior to the outbreak of the 1828-1829 Russo-Turkish war, Ardahan was recorded to have had 400 households, the great majority of them Armenian.[4] Many of them later immigrated to the Russian Empire. The town passed into the hands of Russia following the 1877-1878 Russo-Turkish War and was made a part of the Kars Oblast. The majority of the town was made up of Armenians, while other ethnic groups included Georgians, Pontic Greeks, Jews, Russians, Kurds and Yazidis.[4][5] The town flourished economically under Russian rule, exporting fruits, smoked lamb meat, wheat and wood. New roads were constructed, linking Ardahan to Akhalkalak, Kars and Oltu. On December 25, 1914, in the early months of the First World War, the Ottoman army occupied Ardahan and massacred many of its Armenian, Pontic Greek, and Georgian inhabitants.[5] The Russians, with the help of Armenian and Pontic Greek militias, captured the town on January 3, 1915, allowing some of the original inhabitants who had fled to return.

As Russian forces withdrew from the front following the October Revolution, a small Armenian volunteer force took up positions to defend the town from the approaching Ottoman Army. On March 6, 1918 the Ottoman army, along with the help of the town's Muslims, overwhelmed Ardahan's Armenian garrison and retook the town. The British occupied Ardahan after the end of the First World War and eventually handed control over it to the First Republic of Armenia. When the Turkish Nationalists captured Ardahan in November 1920, the town's remaining Armenians, Pontic Greeks, and Georgians fled to Armenia, northern Greece, and Georgia.[5] The Treaty of Moscow, signed the following year between the Soviets and the Turks, confirmed Ardahan as a part of Turkish territory.

In 1960, Ardahan's population stood at 7,228 and was populated by both Kurds and Turks.[4]

Demographics[edit]

Year Total Ethnic groups
1886[7] 778 Turks 403 (51.8%), Russians 172 (22.1%), Armenians 141 (18.1%),
1897[8] 4,142 Russians 1,331 (32.1%), Armenians 1,315 (31.7%), Turks 746 (18%)
1960[9] 7,228
1970[9] 13,399
1980[9] 14,912
1990[10] 16,761
2000[9] 17,274
2010[9] 16,251

Villages[edit]

Life in Ardahan[edit]

Ardahan is one of the small provincial capitals in Turkey and was until 1993 a small town in the province of Kars. In 1993 the district was made a province, with Ardahan as its regional capital. This resulted in new investment in government buildings and services, but life in mountains that spend half the year under snow is still a struggle.

Kars Kafkas University has an institute in Ardahan. There is also a substantial military presence in the town. The army no longer occupies the Ottoman fortress and it is accessible to visitors. The civil servants, academics, and military officers stationed in Ardahan help to support the local economy. These people have their own clubs and guest houses, as in many Turkish towns.

The region is renowned for its hard yellow kaşar cheese, its cattle markets, and its geese. Province is also home to various infrequent and endangered wildlife, such bears, wolves and chamois.


Climate[edit]

Ardahan has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dfb), bordering subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification Dfc), with warm and brief summers with cool nights and very cold winters. Like in other parts of Eastern Anatolia, climate turn subarctic on the hillsides. Major cities have been situated on lower and sheltered locations in the course of history for milder climatic conditions, therefore the city has less characteristics of subarctic climate compared to the surrounding region. Winters are very snowy with snow cover lasting from late October to mid April. Although sometimes it snows in September and May, it usually doesn't remain on the ground for much. On rare occasions it can even snow in summer months, especially early and late summer, such as the August 2013 incident. However strong snowfall recorded even in July in the past. Average annual temperaure is 3.5 °C (38 °F). There are average 14 nights below −30 °C (−22.0 °F) in a year. And there is one night below −40 °C (−40.0 °F) in 14 years in average. The highest recorded temperature was 35 °C (95.0 °F) on 29 August 1998. The lowest recorded temperature was −50.3 °C (−58.5 °F) on 14 January 1941. Average low January temperature since 1960s is −17.1 °C (1.2 °F). However, temperatures may drop −50 °C (−58.0 °F) in very rare occasions.

Climate data for Ardahan (1960-2012 normals), extremes 1925-present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 8.2
(46.8)
10.5
(50.9)
18.4
(65.1)
25.0
(77)
26.0
(78.8)
29.0
(84.2)
34.3
(93.7)
35.0
(95)
30.6
(87.1)
26.0
(78.8)
18.2
(64.8)
14.3
(57.7)
35
(95)
Average high °C (°F) −5.2
(22.6)
−3.6
(25.5)
2.2
(36)
10.6
(51.1)
16.0
(60.8)
20.0
(68)
23.9
(75)
24.4
(75.9)
20.7
(69.3)
14.4
(57.9)
6.4
(43.5)
−2.0
(28.4)
10.65
(51.17)
Daily mean °C (°F) −11.4
(11.5)
−10.1
(13.8)
−3.6
(25.5)
4.4
(39.9)
9.4
(48.9)
12.9
(55.2)
16.3
(61.3)
16.2
(61.2)
12.2
(54)
6.6
(43.9)
−0.1
(31.8)
−7.7
(18.1)
3.76
(38.76)
Average low °C (°F) −17.1
(1.2)
−16.3
(2.7)
−9.4
(15.1)
−1.3
(29.7)
3.0
(37.4)
5.7
(42.3)
8.7
(47.7)
8.3
(46.9)
4.2
(39.6)
−0.2
(31.6)
−5.6
(21.9)
−12.9
(8.8)
−2.74
(27.08)
Record low °C (°F) −50.3
(−58.5)
−47.6
(−53.7)
−39.2
(−38.6)
−28.6
(−19.5)
−16.5
(2.3)
−9.1
(15.6)
−3.3
(26.1)
−7.9
(17.8)
−15.0
(5)
−24.3
(−11.7)
−37.4
(−35.3)
−45.4
(−49.7)
−50.3
(−58.5)
Precipitation mm (inches) 18.6
(0.732)
21.6
(0.85)
30.4
(1.197)
52.1
(2.051)
81.1
(3.193)
91.3
(3.594)
71.0
(2.795)
60.4
(2.378)
34.1
(1.343)
36.6
(1.441)
27.6
(1.087)
22.7
(0.894)
547.5
(21.555)
Avg. precipitation days 9.5 10.1 11.3 14.0 16.8 15.2 11.3 10.6 7.5 9.6 9.1 9.9 134.9
Avg. snowy days 16 13 12 7 3 0 0 0 0.4 5 9 15 80.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 34 76 118 167 216 238 256 243 201 125 55 28 1,757
Source #1: Normals from Turkish State Meteorological Service [1]
Source #2: Extremes[citation needed]

Significant Days[edit]

Local Days of Celebration

  • Freedom Day - 23 February
  • Commemoration day for Çanakkale Victory - 18 March
  • Commemoration day for Air Force Martyrs - 21 March
  • Seljuq Conquest of Ardahan - 24 June
  • Ram Introduction - 10 October

Festivals

  • Festival of Animals and Animal Products - 20 August
  • Traditional Goose Festival - 18 November

International relations[edit]

Twin towns—Sister cities[edit]

Ardahan is twinned with:

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05. 
  2. ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  3. ^ Strabo. Geographica. 11.14.7.
  4. ^ a b c d e (Armenian) «Արդահան» [Ardahan]. Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia. Yerevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1976, vol. ii, p. 7.
  5. ^ a b c d (Armenian) Melkonyan, Ashot. «Արդահան» (Ardahan). Encyclopedia of the Armenian Question. Yerevan: Yerevan State University Press, 1996, p. 54.
  6. ^ (Armenian) Evliya Chelebi. Թուրքական Աղբյուրներ, Էվլիյա Չելեբի (Turkish Sources, Evliya Chelebi). Foreign Sources on Armenia and Armenians: Turkish Sources, Volume 3. Trans. and commentary by Aram Kh. Safrastyan. Yerevan: Oriental Department of Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1967, p. 113.
  7. ^ Свод статистических данных о населении Закавказского края, извлечённых из посемейных списков 1886 года, г. Тифлис, 1893. Available online here
  8. ^ Первая всеобщая перепись населения Российской Империи 1897 г. Распределение населения по родному языку и уездам Российской Империи кроме губерний Европейской России (in Russian). Demoscope Weekly. Retrieved 8 April 2014. 
  9. ^ a b c d e "Ardahan: Nüfus Bilgileri" (in Turkish). Belediyeler Konuşuyor. Retrieved 17 April 2014. 
  10. ^ "Ardahan'ın Tarihçesi" (in Turkish). Ardahan Ticaret İl Müdürlüğü. Retrieved 17 April 2014. Kentin 1990 yılı nüfusu 16,761'dir. 

Further reading[edit]