Arena Corinthians

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Arena Corinthians
Arena Corinthians Logo.jpg
Arena de Itaquera (2014) - 2.jpg
3D Model
Full name Arena Corinthians
Location Av. Miguel Inácio Curi, 111
São Paulo, Brazil[1]
Coordinates 23°32′44″S 46°28′24″W / 23.545531°S 46.473373°W / -23.545531; -46.473373Coordinates: 23°32′44″S 46°28′24″W / 23.545531°S 46.473373°W / -23.545531; -46.473373
Type Stadium
Genre(s) Sporting Events
Broke ground 30 May 2011[2]
Built 30 May 2011 – 15 April 2014[3]
Opened 10 May 2014
Owner Corinthians
Operator Corinthians
Surface Perennial Ryegrass with Artificial Fibres (Desso GrassMaster)[4]
Scoreboard Four high-resolution 30 by 7.5 metres (32.8 by 8.2 yd) LED screens[5]
Construction cost R$ 965 Million[6]
US$ 435 million
EU€ 319 million
Architect Aníbal Coutinho[7]
Project manager Andrés Sánchez[8]
Structural engineer Werner Sobek[9]
Services engineer Frederico Barbosa[10]
Main contractors Odebrecht
Capacity 46,116 [11]
66,200 (FIFA World Cup 2014)[12]
Executive suites 89 [1]
Record attendance 63,267 (Netherlands – Argentina, 9 July 2014)[13]
Field size 105 by 68 metres (115 by 74 yd)[14]
Field shape rectangular
Public transit access Corinthians-Itaquera
Website Arena Corinthians
Tenants
Corinthians, FIFA World Cup 2014

The Arena Corinthians is a sports stadium located in São Paulo, Brazil and owned, operated, and used by Sport Club Corinthians Paulista. It has a seating capacity of 46,116,[11] making it the fifth-largest stadium used by teams in the top tier of the Brazilian League and the eleventh-largest in Brazil.[15]

During the 2014 FIFA World Cup, the stadium was known as Arena de São Paulo.[16] It hosted six matches, including the opening match on 12 June 2014.[17] Because of a requirement for it to have at least 65,000 seats for the World Cup opening match,[18] temporary seats were added to the stadium for the tournament.[12][19] The temporary seats started to be removed shortly after the last World Cup match.[20]

History[edit]

Background[edit]

In 1980, Corinthians was planning to build a new 201,304-capacity stadium, as their own Alfredo Shürig Stadium held fewer than 14,000 people and city's Pacaembu Stadium had to be shared with other teams.[21] Plans to build a new stadium required a large area. The club's president Vicente Matheus asked for a concession from São Paulo's mayor Olavo Setúbal in the Itaquera region, east of the city centre. The mayor accepted the request 10 November 1978[22] and a concession for 90 years was granted on 26 December 1978 for a 197,095.14 square metres (2,121,514.4 sq ft) property.[23] The area was owned at the time by COHAB, an agency for public housing controlled by the São Paulo City government.[23][24] The original plan was to built the stadium in three to five years.[22] The concession was renewed in 1988 for 90 years, with the condition that any construction made in the area would revert to the city at no cost.[25] However, funding was not obtained and other alternatives were considered, such as a concession for the Pacaembu Stadium[26] and demolishing the Alfredo Schürig Stadium making room for another.[27][28][29]

On 31 August 2010, Corinthians announced the construction of the stadium with an estimated cost of R$335 million and an expected gross revenue of R$100 million per year.[30] The original plans allow for an expansion to 70,000 seats.[31] The club expected to get financing from BNDES and sell the naming rights for the stadium to pay for the construction costs.[32] The main architect of the project was Aníbal Coutinho; he was assisted by Antônio Paulo Cordeiro[1] from Coutinho, Diegues, Cordeiro (DDG),[33] partnering with Werner Sobek, who rendered structural engineering services.[34] The stadium was planned to be completed by March 2013.[35]

FIFA World Cup 2014 hosting[edit]

Host City Poster
Geraldo Alckmin, Ronaldo and Gilberto Kassab on the day Arena Corinthians was chosen to host the opening match of FIFA World Cup 2014

Accenture estimated that the World Cup opening would bring R$30.75 Billion over 10 years to the city's economy; the study's results encouraged Brazil to site the opening match in São Paulo.[36][37] A study from Fundação Getúlio Vargas estimated R$1 Billion in revenue during the World Cup, as 290 thousand tourists were expected for the event.[38] After Morumbi Stadium was deemed unsuitable by FIFA, the Local World Cup Committee looked for alternatives and set on offering Arena Corinthians to host the opening game; FIFA accepted the suggestion and confirmed the decision on 10 October 2011.[39] Hosting the opening game required modifications to the project that raised the cost from the original R$335 million to R$1.07 billion to accommodate FIFA's requirements. Cuts in equipment, furniture and construction costs reduced the cost.[40] Because of FIFA's agreements with Brazil, none of the construction work related to the World Cup was taxed by the Federal Government; the final price agreed upon was R$820 million.[41]

A new contract was signed on 19 July 2011 with Odebrecht; R$400 million of the total would be financed by BNDES and the remaining R$420 million would come from tax credits granted by the City.[42] A 2007 law stated the tax credits could be used by any company that established itself in the Eastern region of the city, providing a credit of R$0.60 per R$1.00 invested.[43] A new law was passed by the city legislature to deal specifically with this stadium and reduce the incentives, linking the concession of the credits to hosting the World Cup opening match and limiting the total amount of credits to R$420 million.[44] The concession was justified by the expectation that the stadium will generate R$950 million in city taxes during the six years after its opening. R$530 million in excess of the tax credits were given.[36] The financing contract with BNDES was signed on 29 November 2013, under their ProCopas Arenas World Cup program. Caixa Econômica Federal is the distributing agent.[45]

The estimated construction cost did not include the R$38.1 million required for adding temporary bleachers,[46][47] which were removed after the World Cup was over.[20] They were set on one of the sides and on the north and south ends.[48] The addition of the bleachers would raise the stadium's capacity up to 72,000 seats, but would necessitate the relocation of VIP areas and television equipment[48] reducing capacity.[12] Corinthians paid for additional temporary infrastructure required exclusively for the World Cup, which was estimated to cost between R$60 million and 100 million.[6]

The World Cup brought more than 500,000 tourists and an estimated R$ 1 billion in revenue to the city.[49]

Project costs and revenue[edit]

The stadium eventually cost R$965 million, 15% more than originally estimated. The two-year delay in receiving BNDES funds caused an increase of R$108 million to the cost because of the difference in interest between loans taken from regular banks and from the government agency. Temporary structures were included in the total cost, currently estimated to be R$77 million. After the sale of the tax credits received, Corinthians will have to pay between R$700 and R$750 million spread over 12 years.[6] Aníbal Coutinho projected the stadium to generate R$150 million per year.[50] Andres Sanchez expects revenue to reach R$200 million per year and expenses to be up to R$35 million per year. Revenue will come from ticket sales and commercial properties in the arena, especially corporate conventions, fairs and events.[6] On 25 August 2013, Andres said that out of 16 naming rights properties, he had already secured seven buyers, although no deals had yet been formalised.[51] The club plans to sell the stadium naming rights for R$400 million for 20 years.[6]

Construction[edit]

Arena Corinthians - December 2012

The stadium was delivered to Corinthians on 15 April 2014. Modifications for hosting the World Cup were still underway until the club handed the arena to FIFA for the competition on 20 May 2014.[3] The peak number of workers on site was 2,300, recorded on November 2012.[10] The enterprise generated 26 thousand jobs during its construction.[52]

Renovations[edit]

Rendering of Arena Corinthians after renovations

After the World Cup, Corinthians is preparing the stadium for their use; they consider it is 92% ready for their use just after the tournament.[53] It is expected to be completely retrofitted by February 2015.[54] The estimated cost is R$20 million.[55] One of the largest changes will be the construction of large balconies and the installation of scoreboards behind the goals where the temporary seating installed for the FIFA World Cup stands.[56]

Landscaping[edit]

The west side will have a large,tree-lined, pedestrian mall with a reflecting pool and new illumination.[57] The reflecting pools will also work as a performance fountain, providing splash and spectacle at programmed moments during stadium events.[58] Around the complex, granite flooring will have stripes evocative of the club's second uniform, in synchronisation with the external illumination. There will be benches and large gardens; the media centre will be housed in one of them.[57] The landscaping was designed by John Loomis, who headed the Burj Khalifa project. Lighting was projected by the American firm T. Kondos.[57]

Stadium firsts[edit]

Rivellino (between Vampeta and Alessandro) scored the first goal at the inaugural match at Arena Corinthians

The first event held in the arena was a Ivete Sangalo show for 3,000, celebrating the club's 103rd anniversary on 29 September 2013.[59] The first public football matches at the stadium consisted of friendlies between former Corinthians' players on 10 May 2014.More than 100 players played at the event.[60][61]

The first goal of the new stadium was scored by Rivellino shooting a penalty kick suffered by Palhinha. Rivellino shot at his own goal because all the players on the pitch insisted that the first goal at the Arena was his. The kick went past Ronaldo.[61] The first competitive game was a 2014 Campeonato Brasileiro Série A match between Corinthians and Figueirense on 18 May 2014.[62] The first international match was the opening match for the FIFA World Cup 2014 between Brazil and Croatia on 12 June 2014.[63]

International events[edit]

2014 FIFA World Cup[edit]

Temporary Seating and Scoreboard on the South End for the World Cup

The stadium was one of the venues for the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Because of FIFA rules, it was called Arena de São Paulo during the tournament. The stadium hosted the opening ceremony followed by the opening match between Brazil and Croatia, three other group stage matches, a Round 16 match and a semi-final. Due to the request of at least 65,000 seats for the World Cup opening match,[18] temporary seats were added to the stadium for the tournament, although the final usable capacity only reached 62,200 for the opening match.[12][19]

The addition of temporary seats implied that screens for the World Cup had to be rented specially for the event,[64] because the original screens were too large to be used with the temporary seating installed.[65][66] FIFA requires screens smaller than the originally projected, with a 90 square metres (970 sq ft) area.[67] Because subsequent matches had lower VIP and press demands, 4,000 more seats were added, raising the capacity to 66,200.[12]

Fifa World Cup 2014 Opening Ceremony
Date Time (UTC-03) Team #1 Res. Team #2 Round Attendance
12 June 2014 17:00  Brazil 3–1  Croatia Group A 62,103[63]
19 June 2014 16:00  Uruguay 2–1  England Group D 62,575[68]
23 June 2014 13:00  Netherlands 2–0  Chile Group B 62,996[69]
26 June 2014 17:00  South Korea 0–1  Belgium Group H 61,397[70]
1 July 2014 13:00  Argentina 1–0 (a.e.t)   Switzerland Round of 16 63,255[71]
9 July 2014 17:00  Argentina 0–0 (a.e.t) (Penalties: 4–2)  Netherlands Semi-Finals 63,267[13]

2016 Summer Olympics[edit]

Arena Corinthians will be one of the venues of the 2016 Summer Olympics football tournament.[72] It was chosen instead of competitors Morumbi Stadium—the chosen venue before Arena Corinthians was built—[73] and Allianz Parque.[74] Sixteen games will be played in the stadium from 3 to 16 August 2016; they will be divided equally between men's and women's tournaments. Two matches will be played at 17:00 and 21:30 hours on competition days.[75] Twelve matches will be valid for the preliminary stages and four for the quarterfinals. Semifinals and finals will be played in the Maracanã stadium.[75]

Names[edit]

The stadium was called Estádio do Corinthians by Corinthians when it was announced.[30] The name being used on the club's official website is Arena Corinthians.[76] The Brazilian Football Confederation uses the name Arena Corinthians.[62] FIFA refers to the Stadium as Arena de São Paulo during the World Cup, but recognises the name Arena Corinthians.[77] Local media have tried to give it nicknames but none have been widely accepted. Local newspaper Folha[78] refer to Arena Corinthians as Itaquerão; O Estado de S. Paulo uses both the neighbourhood-based nickname and the official name.[79] Rede Record uses Fielzão.[80] The largest media company in Brazil, Rede Globo, uses Arena Corinthians[81] like sports diary Lance!.[82]

The club plans to sell the stadium naming rights for R$400 million for 20 years.[6] A study by Brunoro Sports Business estimated that the value should be R$21 million per year.[83] Companies Petrobras,[84] Ambev,[85] Grupo Petrópolis,[86] Etihad Airways,[87] Qatar Foundation,[87] Caixa Econômica Federal,[88] Emirates Airlines,[89] Bradesco,[90] Telefonica,[91] BMG,[92] Itaú Unibanco,[90] Santander Group,[93] Kalunga[94] and Zurich Insurance Group[95] have all been named as possible buyers, but no deal has been announced yet.

Architecture[edit]

Stadium before Brazil and Croatia, FIFA World Cup 2014

Aníbal Coutinho designed the stadium to be one "that would help the supporters, that would help the team to win matches, I wanted to make the supporters get on the pitch".[80] Aníbal led a team of 25 architects.[51] The complex is in a 197,095.14 square metres (2,121,514.4 sq ft) property.[23] The built up area is 189,000 square metres (2,030,000 sq ft)[1] with 17,500 cubic metres (620,000 cu ft) of concrete.[34] 80% of the structural construction is made of precast elements, 40% manufactured on a 7,500 square metres (81,000 sq ft) plant on-site.[10][96]

The rectangular, 267 by 228 metres (876 by 748 ft), 43 metres (141 ft) tall stadium has two buildings; the main building on the west side and another on the east side.[33] When measurements are taken from the pitch, the east side height is 51 metres (167 ft), the west side is 57 metres (187 ft) and the north and south ends are 15 metres (49 ft) tall. The pitch sits at exactly 777 metres (2,549 ft); Aníbal Coutinho said, "The number 77 is considered lucky for the club. The club is located at 777 São Jorge St. and it brings to mind the 1977 that they won one of their most celebrated championships of all time." (the Campeonato Paulista of 1977).[97]

West and east sectors[edit]

West Building

The west side has a 6,200 square metres (67,000 sq ft) façade.[1] VIP seats, television crew equipment, press and most box seats are in the west building.[33] The glass has been designed with a curvature intended to simulate the visual effect of a ball hitting the net. Special, seamless, 26 metres (85 ft) beams have been developed to support the structure.[98] The geometry consulting company Evolute GmbH developed panelling that rationalised the 5,400 square metres (58,000 sq ft) double-curved freeform glass surface into 855 planar and cylindrical panels, all in hot bent toughened glass.[99] This solution allowed for minimising the number of shapes necessary by 93%, reducing costs considerably.[100] The photo-voltaic glass powers the air conditioning.[101] The complete glass structure is 6,900 square metres (74,000 sq ft) counting the sides; the façade width is 220 metres (720 ft) by 24 metres (79 ft) tall.[102]

The east side of the stadium houses one of the largest video screens of the world,[103] 170 by 20 metres (558 by 66 ft)—3,400 square metres (37,000 sq ft). It has 210,000 individual LEDs; 1,320 custom made luminaires are fitted in 4 metres (13 ft) long glass sheets.[5][98] The screen is manufactured by Osram Traxon and is controlled by a E:cue lighting control.[5] Glass for both façades were provided by Italian company Sunglass SRL,[104] using Asahi Glass Co.'s Planibel Clear glass.[105]

LED video screen on the East Side
East Concourse

External walls are covered by 12,000 square metres (130,000 sq ft)[106] of white Levantina Techlam ceramic tiles,[107][108] A 12 metres (39 ft) Corinthians symbol, constructed from stainless steel and backlint, will be mounted on the south wall of the east side.[33]

The public circulates using 10 escalators, 15 lifts,[1] two ramps and 13 staircases.[97] 59 concession stands are available,[1] as is an auditorium for 360 people [51] and a 25,000 square metres (270,000 sq ft) convention center under the west building.[80] A museum dedicated to Corinthians will be set up in the east building.[109]

Interior design is designed by Gensler.[110] There are six changing rooms. Home team changing rooms occupy 1,300 square metres (14,000 sq ft), with jacuzzis,cryotherapy and a private area for the coach. The warm-up area has seating for 86 VIP ticket holders, and is separated by soundproof glass.[51][111] All the public areas have air conditioning and are finished in marble, granite or top tier ceramic tile.[111]

Stadium before Uruguay and England, FIFA World Cup 2014

Seating[edit]

West side seating

There are 46,116 seats.[11] The stadium has 6,000 second tier covered seating and 10,000 VIP seats.[112] 89 luxury boxes accommodate 1,414 spectators. Distributed on the West building's 5th and 6th floors, 87% have 12 seats, 10% between 21 and 33 seats and 4 units more than 70 seats.[113] The largest units will cover more than 470 square metres (5,100 sq ft).[114] The lowest ring of bleachers encircle the entire arena. It holds 10,500 seats on each side and 6,000 behind the goals, for a total of 33,000 places.[115]

The distance between the first row of seating and the field is 9 metres (30 ft) on all sides.[33] General seating is provided by Bluecube³ using an exclusive design based on the Integra model.[116] There are four different finishes, ranging from straight chairs without arms to stuffed chairs in leather. Most seats are white. Business level and box seats are finished in black leather and made by Poltrona Frau.[117] The 600 seats have laser-engraved club crests.[118]

Roof[edit]

The underside of the roof is lined by a membrane.

Werner Sobek designed the roof,[34] which is held in place by 48 75 metres (246 ft)-long trusses.[119] The west and east sides are joined by two identical structures that have a free span of 170 metres (560 ft).[120] The total east-west roof length is 245.75 metres (806.3 ft).[121] Aníbal Coutinho intended to bring a paulistano flair to the construction using structures that resemble the São Paulo Museum of Art, a symbol of the city.[114] The height of the roof and weight of the trusses required the use of the largest crawler crane available in Latin America.[122] The steel beams together weigh 4,000 tons.[123]

The roof has four layers. On the underside is a layer of corrugated steel sheets. Above them, thermal and acoustic insulation is provided by Polyisocyanurate sheets. A layer of plasterboard is above it.[124] Finally, the entire roof is covered with 40,000 square metres (430,000 sq ft)[125] of Firestone Ultraply TPO.[126] On the underside, a flexible membrane covers the structure.[127] This final layer helps to collect rainwater for reuse in other areas of the stadium.[124]

The structure was redesigned to duplicate the current noise level supporters create during games. Measurements taken on Pacaembu show that sound levels reach a peak of 113dB when goals are scored.[128] 4,500 square metres (48,000 sq ft) of glass will be installed on the end closest to the pitch of the west and east roofing.[129] The entire structure measures 32,300 square metres (348,000 sq ft)[130] and weights 6,500 tons.[121]

Scoreboards[edit]

Osram will install four scoreboards in the stadium, on the north and south ends, above the bleachers.[131] They will be set in pairs, with one facing the pitch and one facing outside. Each screen is 225 square metres (2,420 sq ft) and measures 30 by 7.5 metres (98 by 25 ft).[98] The inside-facing screen will have a 7mm dot pitch and the outside-facing screens will have a 20mm dot pitch.[66] 3,500 flat panel televisions are installed throughout the stadium, individually or as video walls,[132] comprising 3,100 stations.[131]

Lighting[edit]

Reflectors lit during Corinthians vs Figueirense

The pitch lighting is going to use 352 Osram Siteco 2000-Watt Metal-halide[5] 6000K multivapour lamps, guaranteeing over 90% colour fidelity.[133] The 5,000 lux lighting is completely uniform and is 50% brighter than FIFA's recommendation.[129] Osram provides lighting for the entire complex.[5]

Pitch[edit]

Pitch, viewed from the west side
Reserve benches used during the World Cup

The field has recommended FIFA dimensions[134] of 105 by 68 metres (115 by 74 yd).[14] It was prepared by World Sports in partnership with Desso.[134] The field is made up of Perennial Ryegrass, which is grown directly at the site. The original idea was to use black grass to avoid the colours of Palmeiras—Corinthians' biggest rivals—but it was proved to be technically impossible and the club chose to use grass with a darker hue.[135] To improve fixation, the grass is intertwined with 22 million artificial fibres.[136] Ultraviolet lights are used nightly to ensure that all parts of the pitch will receive equal lighting;[137] the field is exposed to only two hours of direct sunlight per day.[138]

World Sports uses a blend of three cultivars from DLF-Trifolium, Ph.D. Ryegrass Perenne,[139] from Oregon, US.[140] DLF states that this grass has strong cold and wear tolerance and is disease resistant, combined with fast growth rate. The hue is 8.7 on a scale of 1 to 9, where 9 is dark green.[141] The choice of using ryegrass instead of the most common and usually recommended Bermuda brought advantages like having longitudinal roots, avoiding the cleats to tangle with them, and resistance to yellowing. It also brought challenges; ryegrass is native to cooler climates and needs temperatures of 23 °C (73 °F) for optimum growth. Because the temperature in São Paulo rarely falls below 14 °C (57 °F), a heating system is not used.[142] A cooling systempushes cold water through 40,000 metres (130,000 ft) of drainage pipes, reducing the grass roots temperature to 6 °C (43 °F).[140][143] The grass is mowed to between 2.2 centimetres (0.87 in) and 2.5 centimetres (0.98 in).[138]

The drainage system has two operating modes; gravitational and vacuum-enhanced (ISASS).[142] The vacuum draining system can handle up to 400,000 litres (88,000 imp gal) per hour, improving oxygen levels in the rooting system and cooling the pitch, even during matches.[144] This is equivalent to 56 millimetres (2.2 in) of rain drained in one hour.[145] The irrigation system has individual sprinkler controls,[146] which are controlled by a computerised system. The system comprises 48 sprinklers—twice the minimum FIFA recommendation.[142]

Information technology and communications[edit]

Auditorium where press conferences are held

The stadium will have wi-fi and 4G LTE in all its sectors.[147] Using smartphones, the public will be able to access game statistics and watch replays that will be published on a website maintained by the stadium crew.[148] A dedicated team will control centrally all the screens and scoreboards. Supporters will be monitored by a computer system connected to hundreds of security cameras. All services are contracted with Sonda IT.[148]

Hospitality and stores[edit]

There are plans for 75 bars—including 13 in the VIP areas—two restaurants and two sport bars in the stadium. All the restaurants and bars are managed by Diverti Arena on a 10-year contract. Diverti is expected to invest R$40 million in the stadium; all the properties will be fully operational in 2015.[149] Other commercial properties inside the stadium complex are two clothing stores and kiosks whose operators have not yet been decided upon.[149]

Reception[edit]

Home team dressing room

The project received awards for the Best Commercial Project and the Grand Prize as the Best Overall Project in Brazil in the largest Corporate Architecture events in Latin America in 2011; it competed against 1,116 projects.[150] Reception by Corinthians supporters was enthusiastic according to a poll, with 83% approval of the stadium. Opposition fans have good approval rates of the stadium.[151] Hundreds of supporters frequently visited the construction site.[50][152]

Transport[edit]

São Paulo Subway, Corinthians Itaquera Station

The stadium is 19 kilometres (12 mi) east of the city centre and 21 kilometres (13 mi) away from the São Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport. The nearest subway station is Corinthians-Itaquera, 500 metres (550 yd) from the stadium. It connects to a railway station with the same name. The Artur Alvim subway station is 800 metres (2,600 ft) away. If all the stadium's users boarded trains to leave it, the stadium would be empty in 30 minutes.[153] Created for World Cup matches, an express train connects Luz and the Corinthians-Itaquera CPTM Station, making the trip in 17 minutes.[154] Due to its success, the service was extended to local matches, renamed to 'Expresso Corinthians'.[155] The metro and train stations can accommodate 114,000 passengers per hour.[156] Each metro train can carry 1,600 passengers; trains depart at 85-second intervals.[157]

The site has 1,620 covered parking spaces and 929 open air parking spaces,[1] with another 2,214 spaces provided by a shopping mall nearby.[158] There are 61 bus routes that stop close to Arena Corinthians.[159]

Other uses[edit]

Corinthians does not plan to host concerts or other sport events in the stadium because the use for non-football events can destroy the pitch and football ticket sales will compensate for the loss of revenue.[160] The club plans to use the structure to host conventions and trade shows, and to promote tours of the stadium.[161] A 2,500 square metres (27,000 sq ft) convention centre will be located under the west building.[80]

In popular culture[edit]

Arena Corinthians as depicted on The Simpsons

EA Sports added all 12 venues used at the 2014 FIFA World Cup, including the Arena Corinthians, to the 2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil video game.

The Arena Corinthians is featured on "You Don't Have to Live Like a Referee", the sixteenth episode of the 25th season of the American animated sitcom The Simpsons, and the 546th episode of the series. Homer Simpson acts as a FIFA World Cup 2014 referee in a game played at Arena Corinthians.

The second episode of Discovery Channel`s three-episode series Building the World Cup is dedicated to Arena Corinthians.[162][163]

Controversies[edit]

The circumstances in which Arena Corinthians was chosen as the World Cup stadium for São Paulo, and the resources used for its construction, have been criticised.

World Cup hosts[edit]

Jose Serra, governor of São Paulo in 2007, planned to bring the opening game to his state—specifically to the Morumbi Stadium—as soon as Brazil was confirmed as the host nation of FIFA World Cup 2014.[164] Mayor Gilberto Kassab supported the option of Morumbi and was assured that president Luis Inácio da Silva wanted the same.[165] Unhappy with Morumbi, FIFA's secretary general Jérôme Valcke said the Morumbi Stadium could not host the opening game and was the worst among the 12 venues presented to FIFA. He recommended that the city should build a new stadium. FIFA technicians stated that the maximum capacity of the current structure would be 46,000 spectators—below the FIFA minimum of 60,000. São Paulo Futebol Clube's director João Paulo de Jesus Lopes said this was "a lie".[166] FIFA's president Sepp Blatter stated that Morumbi could not host the opening game or semifinals without an extensive renovations plan.[167]

The Morumbi Stadium failed to provide proof of funding for a R$630 million renovation plan requested by FIFA to secure its status as a Wold Cup venue; the stadium was then excluded from the tournament on 16 June 2010.[168] The Local World Cup Committee suggested to use Arena Corinthians instead. FIFA accepted the suggestion and confirmed the decision on 10 October 2011.[39] Journalist Wagner Vilaron from O Estado de S. Paulo deemed the exclusion of the Morumbi Stadium from the World Cup and the subsequent choice of Arena Corinthians as a venue for the event to be politically charged.[169] After receiving several negative responses from FIFA about the renovation project for Morumbi, then-CBF-president Ricardo Teixeira lost patience with São Paulo Futebol Clube officers; he considered that they were delaying the decision by purposely failing to meet the requirements to force the government to spend money on the construction. São Paulo's opposition to Teixeira in the now defunct Clube dos 13 election—which was won by ruling-side Fábio Koff, aligned with São Paulo's Juvenal Juvêncio—irritated the CBF president. At the same time, an affinity between Teixeira and then-president of Corinthians, Andrés Sanchez—who was chosen as the head of delegation for the national team during the 2010 FIFA World Cup and on the same side on Clube dos 13's election—was noticed.[169]

São Paulo's mayor Gilberto Kassab supported the selection of the Morumbi Stadium and guaranteed that president Luis Inácio da Silva wanted the same; he blamed FIFA for vetoing the selection. He said Corinthians could not influence FIFA and that CBF wanted Morumbi Stadium to host the opening game.[165] The senior management of São Paulo F.C. criticised the chosen stadium and the selection process on numerous occasions after Morumbi Stadium was excluded from the World Cup. President Juvenal Juvencio said the region had no city structures, hospitals or hotels; the only way to enter or leave the area would be to use a fire engine and that there was no way to create a VIP area around the stadium.[170] Juvenal blamed ex-governor José Serra for Morumbi Stadium's deselection.[171] Serra denied the accusations.[172]

Carlos Miguel Aidar, then a candidate for the SPFC presidency, said Arena Corinthians exists because Brazil's president demanded the construction of a new stadium in São Paulo; he also said Corinthians will never repay the loans for the stadium, that Odebrecht was the real owner, that FIFA and the Brazilian government only wanted to make money for construction companies, and that Itaquera was "another world, another country, nobody can get there".[173] Later he visited the Arena by car, recanted his opinion and said the stadium was "marvelous" and could be reached easily.[174]

Public funding allegations[edit]

Vinícius Segalla from UOL said tax credits and BNDES resources are public money and that the concession of those resources to Corinthians are unclear.[175] The federal government dismissed the notion, saying that tax credits are intended to encourage economical growth and work opportunities for the areas surrounding the stadia.[176] The city government said tax credits are not subsidies and the stadium will be a boon to the city, especially the east zone. They also said subsidies given to the Brazilian Grand Prix and Carnaval among others also bring benefits to the city.[177] Public Prosecutor Marcelo Milani contested the validity of tax credits issued by the city and sued then-mayor Gilberto Kassab for R$1.74 billion; the judges said Milani's case was without merit and dismissed it.[178]

Project changes[edit]

The project executed is not the project approved by the city council in 2011. Amendments were made to the final project, which was submitted on 25 July 2013[11] and approved on 13 February 2014.[179]

Construction accidents[edit]

Two people were killed in an accident on 27 November 2013, which destroyed part of the east building.[180] A crane fell while carrying a part of the roof, destroying eight columns of the LED screen and part of an internal slab.[181][182] The structure was not affected because anti-vandalism glass was installed on the east façade.[183] An area of 5,000 square metres (54,000 sq ft) was closed for investigation. Initial hypotheses were human error, crane mechanical failure and unstable ground under the crane.[184] Liebherr said the crane's "black box" data recorder did not record anything on the day of the accident, although it should have done.[185]

As of July 2014, the case has not yet been concluded.[186] Liebherr paid for a study from the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, which concluded that the cause was unstable ground—[187] the same conclusion reached by police experts; based on this, police indicted nine construction workers.[188] Odebrecht refuted the conclusions, and showed a study by private company Geocompany as proof.[187] The final report on the incident will be provided by IPT/University of São Paulo.[189] Crane operations in the stadium were suspended until further notice.[190] All cranes on the site were inspected and approved to continue work 16 days later.[191] The families of the deceased workers received R$2.9 million in compensation.[192]

Another worker died in an accident on the site while working on the temporary seating.[193] Local authorities' initial assessment was that the worker caused the accident by not following the required safety procedures. As of March 2014, an investigation into the death was underway.[194]

References[edit]

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  129. ^ a b "Arena Corinthians terá iluminação 50% superior à exigida pela Fifa" [Arena Corinthians will have lighting 50% above FIFA standards] (in Portuguese). 2 August 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  130. ^ "Sueño hecho de hormigón, acero y polémica" [Dream made of concrete, steel and controversy] (in Spanish). 19 January 2012. Retrieved 28 June 2013. 
  131. ^ a b "Veja novo vídeo do projeto em torno do Itaquerão" [Watch new video of Arena Corinthians project surroundings] (in Portuguese). 1 November 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  132. ^ "Corinthians tem proposta 'espetacular' para 3.500 telas de TV no Itaquerão" [Corinthians has a 'spectacular' offer for 3,500 TV screens on Arena Corinthians] (in Portuguese). 12 February 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  133. ^ "Corinthians apresenta iluminação moderna para seu estádio" [Corinthians presents modern lighting for his stadium] (in Portuguese). 3 August 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
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  135. ^ "Corinthians customiza Itaquerão e integra história, rivalidade e superstição" [Corinthians customizes Arena Corinthians and integrates history, rivalry and superstition] (in Portuguese). 11 November 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
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  137. ^ "Entre as novidades da Arena, Itaquerão terá até discoteca para torcedores" [Among innovations, Arena Corinthians will have even a disco for supporters] (in Portuguese). 23 December 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  138. ^ a b "Campo do Itaquerão terá instalação de grama sintética e resfriamento" [Arena Corinthians pitch will have synthetic grass and cooling] (in Portuguese). 1 November 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2013. 
  139. ^ "Sementes de grama" [Grass Seeds] (in Portuguese). Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  140. ^ a b "Corinthians investe em gramado do Itaquerão por campo perfeito na Copa" [Corinthians inves on Arena Corinthians pitch for perfect surface on World Cup] (in Portuguese). 14 July 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2013. 
  141. ^ "Perennyal Ryegrass Blend Tech Sheet" (in Portuguese). 30 January 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  142. ^ a b c "Itaquerão vai inovar conceito de gramado para a Copa" [Arena Corinthians will inovate on pitch concepts for World Cup] (in Portuguese). 16 February 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  143. ^ "Máquinas de sistema inédito de resfriamento do gramado chegam à Arena Corinthians" [Machines with never seen before cooling system arrive t Arena Corinthians] (in Portuguese). 31 October 2013. Retrieved 31 October 2013. 
  144. ^ "World Sports apresenta novidade no sistema de drenagem a vácuo" [World Sports shows innovative vacuum draining system] (in Portuguese). 9 May 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  145. ^ "Chapter 4—rainfall and evapotranspiration". Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  146. ^ "World Sports segue inovando na Arena do Corinthians" [World Sports does not stop to innovate on Arena Corinthians] (in Portuguese). 10 June 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  147. ^ "2014 WORLD CUP BRAZIL: COMBA TELECOM TO SUPPLY A FURTHER FOUR STADIUMS WITH 2G/3G/4G LTE TURNKEY WIRELESS SOLUTIONS". 19 November 2013. Retrieved 21 November 2013. 
  148. ^ a b "O Itaquerão é Nuestro, Diz a Chilena Sonda" [Arena Corinthians is ours, say Chilean Sonda] (in Portuguese). 2 May 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2013. 
  149. ^ a b "Corinthians fecha contrato de R$ 40 mi para estádio com empresa alimentícia" [Corinthians signs catering contract that can reach R$ 40 million] (in Portuguese). 21 May 2014. Retrieved 21 May 2014. 
  150. ^ "Itaquerão ganha prêmio de arquitetura" [Arena Corinthians wins architecture prize] (in Portuguese). 6 June 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  151. ^ "Paulistano apoia Itaquerão mas não se importa com abertura, diz Datafolha" [São Paulo people are in favor of Arena Corinthians but do not care about World Cup Opening, says Datafolha] (in Portuguese). 19 August 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  152. ^ "Corintianos visitam Itaquerão e reclamam de punição por morte de torcedor boliviano" [Corinthians fans visited Arena Corinthians complain about Bolivian supporter death related penalties] (in Portuguese). 23 February 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  153. ^ "Metrô e trem vão dar conta de esvaziar Itaquerão em meia hora, diz Alckmin" [Subway and train will be enough to evacuate Arena Corinthians, says Alckmin] (in Portuguese). 21 October 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  154. ^ "'Expresso da Copa' leva 17 minutos do centro ao Itaquerão" ['World Cup Express' takes 17 minutes from downtown to Arena Corinthians] (in Portuguese). 28 November 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
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  159. ^ "Linhas de ônibus que passam perto da estação Corinthians - Itaquera" [Bus service that serves Corinthians-Itaquera station] (in Portuguese). 20 June 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  160. ^ "Recordes de renda fazem Corinthians rechaçar shows em Itaquera" [Record ticket revenue drives Corinthians to refuse shows on Itaquera] (in Portuguese). 18 November 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  161. ^ "Corinthians fecha nova arena para shows e restringe ingressos a sócio-torcedores" [Corinthians denies shows on the new stadium and saves tickets for season ticket holders] (in Portuguese). Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  162. ^ "Building the World Cup". Retrieved 16 May 2014. 
  163. ^ "Episodios" [Episodes] (in Spanish). Retrieved 16 May 2014. 
  164. ^ "Começa "guerra civil" pela Copa-2014" (in Portuguese). 29 October 2007. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  165. ^ a b "Exclusivo."O apoio do Lula era tudo o que eu precisava para brigar pelo Morumbi", Kassab" [Exclusive."Lula's support was all I needed to fight for Morumbi", says Kassab] (in Portuguese). 8 July 2010. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  166. ^ "Projeto do Morumbi tem erros e pode ficar sem abertura da Copa de 2014, diz jornal" [Morumbi's project has mistakes and may not be the choice to host World Cup's opening, says newspaper] (in Portuguese). 2 June 2009. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  167. ^ "Blatter diz que Morumbi não pode receber jogos importantes em 2014" [Blatter says that Morumbi will not be able to host important matches in 2014] (in Portuguese). 29 September 2009. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  168. ^ "CBF afirma que Morumbi está fora da Copa de 2014" [CBF states that Morumbi is out of World Cup 2014] (in Portuguese). 16 June 2010. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  169. ^ a b "Poder político ajuda Itaquerão contra o Morumbi na Copa de 2014" [Political power helps Arena Corinthians against Morumbi on World Cup 2014] (in Portuguese). Retrieved 1 December 2013. 
  170. ^ "Juvenal Juvêncio detona Itaquera e Fielzão" [Juvenal Juvêncio bashes Itaquera and Arena Corinthians]. 10 October 2010. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  171. ^ "Juvenal: 'Palmeirense Serra tirou Morumbi da Copa'" [Juvenal: 'Palmeiras supporter Serra is the one who excluded Morumbi from the World Cup]. 8 April 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2014. 
  172. ^ "José Serra rebate Juvenal Juvêncio sobre Morumbi: 'Ele não fala coisa com coisa'" [José Serra contests Juvenal Juvêncio about Morumbi: 'He does not make any sense']. 9 April 2014. Retrieved 9 April 2014. 
  173. ^ "Candidato de Juvenal alfineta rival: 'o Corinthians não é dono do estádio, nunca vai pagar'" [Juvenal's candidate teases rival: 'Corinthians does not own the stadium, never will pay']. 26 March 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  174. ^ "Aidar revela visita à Arena Corinthians e, agora, diz ser possível ir a Itaquera" [Aidar visited Arena Corinthians and now says that it is possible to go to Itaquera]. 26 May 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2014. 
  175. ^ "Itaquerão é obra privada da Copa com maior volume de recursos públicos" [Arena Corinthians is the private construction with larger share of State resources] (in Portuguese). 23 June 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2013. 
  176. ^ "Governo brasileiro desmente uso de dinheiro público em estádios da Copa" [Brazilian government denies public money on World Cup stadiums] (in Portuguese). 23 June 2013. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  177. ^ "Esclarecimentos sobre os incentivos da Prefeitura para a construção do Estádio do Corinthians, em Itaquera" [Clarification about City of Sao Paulo incentives for the contruction of Arena Corinthians] (in Portuguese). 22 June 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2014. 
  178. ^ "Ação Arquivada" [Motion Dismissed] (in Portuguese). Retrieved 1 December 2013. 
  179. ^ "Extrato 50ª Reunião Ordinária" [Minutes from the 50th Ordinary Meeting] (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2 February 2014. 
  180. ^ "Acidente nas obras do estádio do Corinthians deixa feridos e um morto" [Accident on Arena Corinthians construction leave wounded and one dead] (in Portuguese). 27 November 2013. Retrieved 27 November 2013. 
  181. ^ "Corinthians evita falar em atraso na entrega do estádio para a Copa" [Corinthians avoids to make statements about delays to the Cup] (in Portuguese). 27 November 2013. Retrieved 27 November 2013. 
  182. ^ "Sao Paulo stadium accident leaves two dead". BBC News. 27 November 2013. Retrieved 28 November 2013. 
  183. ^ "Vidro 'antivândalos' ameniza acidente e 'salva' Copa do Mundo no Itaquerão" ['Antivandal' glass diminished damage and 'saved' World Cup on Arena Corinthians] (in Portuguese). 27 November 2013. Retrieved 27 November 2013. 
  184. ^ "Arquiteto registra em vídeo momento do acidente na Arena Corinthians" [Architect recorded Arena Corinthians accident on video] (in Portuguese). 28 November 2013. Retrieved 28 November 2013. 
  185. ^ "Arena Corinthians: caixa preta do guindaste não registra acidente" [Arena Corinthians: black box does not register accident] (in Portuguese). 28 January 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  186. ^ "Peritos alemães analisam caixa preta do acidente na Arena Corinthians" [German experts analyze black box of Arena Corinthians accident] (in Portuguese). Retrieved 1 December 2013. 
  187. ^ a b "Construtora de estádio corintiano nega afundamento de solo em acidente" [Stadium builders deny terrain erosion on accident] (in Portuguese). 4 April 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2014. 
  188. ^ "Polícia indicia 9 pessoas por queda de guindaste na Arena Corinthians" [Police indicts nine for crane accident at Arena Corinthians] (in Portuguese). 15 July 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2014. 
  189. ^ "Laudo descarta falha no solo em acidente na Arena Corinthians" [Technical report states that terrain erosion was not the reason for accident on Arena Corinthians] (in Portuguese). 16 April 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2014. 
  190. ^ "Ministério do Trabalho embarga atividade com guindastes na Arena" [Work Ministry suspend crane operations on Arena Corinthians] (in Portuguese). Retrieved 1 December 2013. 
  191. ^ "Todos os guindastes voltam a operar na obra da Arena Corinthians, em São Paulo" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 1 December 2013. 
  192. ^ "Odebrecht paga R$ 2,9mi às famílias dos mortos em Itaquera" [Odebrecht pay R$ 2.9 million compensation to families of workers dead on accident] (in Portuguese). 6 April 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  193. ^ "Worker dies in Sao Paulo World Cup stadium accident". Reuters. 29 March 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  194. ^ "Delegado diz que negligência com segurança causou acidente no Itaquerão" [Police officer says that not adhering to safety procedures caused accident on Arena Corinthians] (in Portuguese). 30 March 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Soccer City
Johannesburg
FIFA World Cup
Opening Venue

2014
Succeeded by
Luzhniki Stadium
Moscow