Aretha Franklin

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Aretha Franklin
Aretha Franklin.png
Franklin photographed in July 1967
Background information
Birth name Aretha Louise Franklin
Born (1942-03-25) March 25, 1942 (age 72)
Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.
Origin Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
Genres R&B, soul, jazz, gospel, pop
Occupation(s) Singer, songwriter
Instruments Vocals, piano
Years active 1956–present
Labels J.V.B. (1956-1960)
Columbia (1961-1966)
Atlantic (1967-1980)
Arista (1980-2004)
RCA (2011 to present)
Associated acts Sweet Inspirations, Carolyn Franklin, Erma Franklin, Cissy Houston, Whitney Houston, George Benson, George Michael, Michael McDonald, Eurythmics, Luther Vandross, Lauryn Hill, Céline Dion, Patti Labelle

Aretha Louise Franklin (born March 25, 1942) is an American singer and musician. Franklin began her career singing gospel at her father, minister C. L. Franklin's church as a child. In 1960, at age 18, Franklin embarked on a secular career, recording for Columbia Records only achieving modest success. Following her signing to Atlantic Records in 1967, Franklin achieved commercial acclaim and success with songs such as "Respect", "(You Make Me Feel Like) A Natural Woman" and "Think". These hits and more helped her to gain the title The Queen of Soul by the end of the 1960s decade.

Franklin eventually recorded a total of 112 charted singles on Billboard, including 77 Hot 100 entries, 17 top ten pop singles, 100 R&B entries and twenty number-one R&B singles, becoming the most charted female artist in the chart's history. Franklin also recorded acclaimed albums such as I Never Loved a Man the Way I Love You, Lady Soul, Young, Gifted & Black and Amazing Grace before experiencing problems with her record company by the mid-1970s. After her father was shot in 1979, Franklin left Atlantic and signed with Arista Records, finding success with a cameo appearance in the film, The Blues Brothers and with the albums, Jump to It and Who's Zoomin' Who?. In 1998, Franklin won international acclaim for singing the opera aria, "Nessun Dorma", at the Grammys of that year replacing Luciano Pavarotti. Later that same year, she scored her final Top 40 recording with "A Rose Is Still a Rose".

Franklin has won a total of 18 Grammy Awards and is one of the best-selling female artists of all time, having sold over 75 million records worldwide.[1] Franklin has been honored throughout her career including a 1987 induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, in which she became the first female performer to be inducted. She was inducted to the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2005. In August 2012, Franklin was inducted into the GMA Gospel Music Hall of Fame.[2] Franklin is listed in at least two all-time lists on Rolling Stone magazine, including the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time, in which she placed number 9, and the 100 Greatest Singers of All Time in which she placed number 1.[3][4]

Early life[edit]

Franklin's birthplace at 406 Lucy Ave. in Memphis, Tennessee.[5]

Aretha Louise Franklin was born in Memphis, Tennessee, the daughter of Barbara (née) Siggers and Clarence LaVaughn Franklin. Her father, who went by the nickname, "C. L.", was an itinerant preacher originally from Shelby, Mississippi, while her mother was an accomplished piano player and vocalist.[6] Alongside Franklin, her parents had three other children while both C. L. and Barbara had children from outside their marriage. The family relocated to Buffalo, New York when Franklin was two. Prior to her fifth birthday, C. L. Franklin permanently relocated the family to Detroit, Michigan where he founded the Baptist church, New Bethel. Franklin's parents had a troubled marriage due to stories of C. L. Franklin's philandering and in 1948, they separated, with Barbara relocating back to Buffalo with her son, Vaughn, from a previous relationship.

Contrary to popular notion, Franklin's mother did not abandon her children and Franklin would recall seeing her mother in Buffalo during summertime while Barbara also frequently visited her children in Detroit.[7] Franklin's mother died on March 7, 1952, prior to Franklin's tenth birthday. Several women, including Franklin's grandmother Rachel, and Mahalia Jackson took turns helping with the children at the Franklin home.[8] During this time, Franklin learned how to play piano by ear.[9] Franklin's father's emotionally driven sermons resulted in him being known as the man with the "million-dollar voice" and earning thousands of dollars for sermons in various churches across the country.[10][11] Franklin's celebrity led to his home being visited by various celebrities including gospel musicians Clara Ward, James Cleveland and early Caravans members Albertina Walker and Inez Andrews as well as Martin Luther King, Jr., Jackie Wilson and Sam Cooke.[12][13]

Music career[edit]

Beginnings[edit]

Just after her mother's death, Franklin began singing solos at New Bethel, debuting with the hymn, "Jesus, Be a Fence Around Me".[8][14] Four years later, when Franklin was 14, her father began managing her, bringing her on the road with him during his so-called "gospel caravan" tours for her to perform in various churches.[15] He helped his daughter get signed to her first recording deal with J.V.B. Records, where her first album, Songs of Faith, was issued in 1956. Two singles were released to gospel radio stations including "Never Grow Old" and "Precious Lord, Take My Hand". Franklin sometimes traveled with The Caravans and The Soul Stirrers during this time and developed a crush on Sam Cooke, who was then singing with the Soul Stirrers prior to his secular career.

After turning 18, Franklin confided to her father that she aspired to follow Sam Cooke to record pop music. Serving as her manager, C. L. agreed to the move and helped to produce a two-song demo that soon was brought to the attention of Columbia Records, who agreed to sign her in 1960. Franklin was signed as a "five-percent artist".[16] During this period, Franklin would be coached by choreographer Cholly Atkins to prepare for her pop performances. Before signing with Columbia, Sam Cooke tried to persuade Franklin's father to have his label, RCA sign Franklin. He had also been persuaded by local record label owner Berry Gordy to sign Franklin and her elder sister Erma to his Tamla label. Franklin's father felt the label was not established enough yet. Franklin's first Columbia single, "Today I Sing the Blues",[17] was issued in September 1960 and later reached the top ten of the Hot Rhythm & Blues Sellers chart.

Initial success[edit]

In January 1961, Columbia issued Franklin's debut album, Aretha: With The Ray Bryant Combo. The album featured her first single to chart the Billboard Hot 100, "Won't Be Long", which also peaked at number 7 on the R&B chart. Mostly produced by Clyde Otis, Franklin's Columbia recordings saw her recording in diverse genres such as standards, vocal jazz, blues, doo-wop and rhythm and blues. Before the year was out, Franklin scored her first top 40 single with her rendition of the standard, "Rock-a-Bye Your Baby with a Dixie Melody", which also included the R&B hit, "Operation Heartbreak", on its b-side. "Rock-a-Bye" became her first international hit, reaching the top 40 in Australia and Canada. By the end of 1961, Franklin was named as a "new-star female vocalist" in Down Beat magazine.[18] In 1962, Columbia issued two more albums, The Electrifying Aretha Franklin and The Tender, the Moving, the Swinging Aretha Franklin, the latter of which charted number 69 on the Billboard Pop LPs chart.

By 1964, Franklin began recording more pop music, reaching the top ten on the R&B chart with the ballad, "Runnin' Out of Fools" in early 1965. She had two R&B charted singles in 1965 and 1966 with the songs "One Step Ahead" and "Cry Like a Baby" while also reaching the Easy Listening charts with the ballads "You Made Me Love You" and "(No, No) I'm Losing You". By the mid-1960s, Franklin was netting $100,000 from countless performances in nightclubs and theaters.[18] Also during that period, Franklin appeared on rock and roll shows such as Hollywood A Go-Go and Shindig!. However, it was argued that Franklin's potential was neglected at the label. Columbia executive John H. Hammond later said he felt Columbia did not understand Franklin's early gospel background and failed to bring that aspect out further during her Columbia period.[17]

Commercial success[edit]

In January 1967, choosing not to renew her Columbia contract after six years with the company, Franklin signed to Atlantic Records. That month, she traveled to Muscle Shoals, Alabama to record at FAME Studios to record the song, "I Never Loved a Man (The Way I Love You)" in front of the musicians of the famed Muscle Shoals Rhythm Section.[17] The song was later issued that February and shot up to number-one on the R&B chart, while also peaking at number nine on the Billboard Hot 100, giving Franklin her first top ten pop single. The song's b-side, "Do Right Woman, Do Right Man", reached the R&B top 40, peaking at number 37. In April, Atlantic issued her frenetic version of Otis Redding's "Respect", which shot to number-one on both the R&B and pop charts and later became her signature song and was later hailed as a civil rights and feminist anthem.[17]

Franklin's debut Atlantic album, I Never Loved a Man the Way I Love You, also became commercially successful, later going gold. Franklin scored two more top ten singles in 1967 including "Baby I Love You" and "(You Make Me Feel Like A) Natural Woman". Franklin's rapport with producer Jerry Wexler helped in the creation of the majority of Franklin's peak recordings with Atlantic. In 1968, she issued the top-selling albums, Lady Soul and Aretha Now, which included some of Franklin's most popular hit singles including "Chain of Fools", "Ain't No Way", "Think" and "I Say a Little Prayer". In February 1968, Franklin earned the first two of her Grammys including the debut category for Best Female R&B Vocal Performance.[19] On February 16, 1968, Franklin was honored with a day in her honor and was greeted by longtime friend Martin Luther King, Jr. who gave her the SCLC Drum Beat Award for Musicians just two months prior to his death.[20][21][22] In June 1968, she appeared on the cover of Time magazine.[23]

"Respect" was a huge hit for Franklin, it became a signature song for her.

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Franklin's success expanded during the early 1970s in which she recorded top ten singles such as "Spanish Harlem", "Rock Steady" and "Day Dreaming" as well as the acclaimed albums, Spirit in the Dark, Young, Gifted & Black and her gospel album, Amazing Grace, which sold over two million copies. In 1971, Franklin became the first R&B performer to headline Fillmore West, later recording the live album, Aretha Live at Fillmore West.[24] Franklin's career began experiencing issues while recording the album, Hey Now Hey (The Other Side of the Sky), which featured production from Quincy Jones. Despite the success of the single, "Angel", the album bombed upon its release in 1973. Franklin continued having R&B success with songs such as "Until You Come Back to Me" and "I'm in Love" but by 1975, her albums and songs were failing to become a success. After Jerry Wexler left Atlantic for Warner Bros. Records in 1976, Franklin worked on the soundtrack to the film, "Sparkle", with Curtis Mayfield. The album yielded Franklin's final top 40 hit of the decade, "Something He Can Feel", which also peaked at number-one on the R&B chart. Franklin's follow-up albums for Atlantic including Sweet Passion, Almighty Fire and La Diva bombed on the charts and in 1979, Franklin opted to leave the company.

Later years[edit]

Franklin performing on April 21, 2007, at the Nokia Theater in Dallas, Texas

In 1980, Franklin signed with Clive Davis' Arista Records and that same year gave a command performance at the Royal Albert Hall in front of Queen Elizabeth. Franklin also made an acclaimed guest role as a waitress in the comedy musical, The Blues Brothers. Franklin's first Arista album, Aretha, featured the #3 R&B hit, "United Together" and her Grammy-nominated cover of Otis Redding's "I Can't Turn You Loose". The follow-up, 1981's Love All the Hurt Away, included her famed duet of the title track with George Benson while the album also included her Grammy-winning cover of Sam & Dave's "Hold On, I'm Comin'". Franklin returned to the Gold standard - for the first time in seven years - with the album, Jump to It. Its title track was her first top 40 single on the pop charts in six years.

In 1985, inspired by her desire to have a "younger sound" in her music, her fourth Arista album, Who's Zoomin' Who, became her first album to be certified platinum, after selling well over a million copies, thanks to the hits, "Freeway of Love", the title track and "Sisters Are Doing It for Themselves".[25] The following year's Aretha album nearly matched this success with the hit singles "Jumpin' Jack Flash", "Jimmy Lee" and "I Knew You Were Waiting for Me", her international number-one duet with George Michael. During that period, Franklin provided vocals to the theme songs of the shows, A Different World and Together.[26] In 1987, she issued her third gospel album, One Lord, One Faith, One Baptism, which was recorded at her late father's New Bethel church, followed by Through the Storm in 1989. Franklin's 1991 album, What You See is What You Sweat, flopped on the charts. Franklin returned to the charts in 1993 with the dance song "A Deeper Love" and returned to the top 40 with the song "Willing to Forgive" in 1994.

In 1998, Franklin returned to the top 40 with the Lauryn Hill-produced song, "A Rose Is Still a Rose", later issuing the album of the same name, which went gold. That same year, Franklin earned international acclaim for her performance of "Nessun Dorma" at the Grammy Awards. Her final Arista album, So Damn Happy, was released in 2003 and featured the Grammy-winning song, "Wonderful". In 2004, Franklin announced that she was leaving Arista after over 20 years with the label. To complete her Arista obligations, Franklin issued the duets compilation album, Jewels in the Crown: All-Star Duets with the Queen, in 2007. The following year, she issued the holiday album, This Christmas, Aretha, on DMI Records.

Franklin singing at the 2009 inauguration of President Obama

In January 2009, Franklin again made international headlines for performing "My Country 'Tis of Thee" at President Barack Obama's inaugural ceremony with her church hat becoming a popular topic online. In 2010, Franklin accepted an honorary degree from Yale University.[27] In 2011, under her own label, Aretha's Records, she issued the album, Aretha: A Woman Falling Out Of Love. As of 2014, Franklin is now signed under RCA Records and is currently working again with Clive Davis. A new album is in the works with producers Babyface and Danger Mouse planning to work with Franklin.[28]

On September 29, 2014, Franklin performed to a standing ovation, with Cissy Houston as backup, a compilation of Adele's "Rolling in the Deep" and "Ain't No Mountain High Enough" on the Late Show with David Letterman.[29] Franklin's cover of "Rolling in the Deep" will be featured among nine other songs in her first RCA release, Aretha Franklin Sings the Great Diva Classics, which was released on October 21, 2014.

In October 2014 Franklin became the first woman to have 100 songs on Billboard's Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart with the success of her cover of Adele's "Rolling in the Deep", which debuted at number 47 on the chart. [30]

Music style and image[edit]

Franklin has often been described as a great singer and musician due to "vocal flexibility, interpretive intelligence, skillful piano-playing, her ear, her experience."[31] Franklin's voice has been described as being a "powerful mezzo-soprano voice" and has been praised for her arrangements and interpretations of other artists' hit songs.[32] Of describing Franklin's voice as a youngster on her first album, Songs of Faith, released when she was just fourteen, Jerry Wexler explained that Franklin's voice "was not that of a child but rather of an ecstatic hierophant."[33] Franklin's image went through rapid changes throughout her career. During the 1960s, Franklin was known for wearing bouffant hairdos and extravagant dresses that were sometimes surrounded enveloped in either mink fur or feathers. In the 1970s, embracing her roots, Franklin briefly wore the Afro hairdo and wore Afrocentric styled clothing admired by her peers. In the mid-1970s, after dropping weight, Franklin began wearing slinkier attire. By the 1980s, she had settled on wearing nightgowns and extravagant dresses.

Personal life[edit]

Aretha Franklin and William Wilkerson watching Roger Federer at the 2011 US Open.

After being raised in Detroit, Franklin relocated to New York City in the 1960s, where she lived until moving to Los Angeles in the mid-1970s. She eventually settled in Encino, California where she lived until 1982. She then returned to the Detroit suburb of Bloomfield Hills, Michigan to be close to her ailing father and siblings. Franklin maintains a residence there to this day. Following an incident in 1984, she has cited a fear of flying that has prevented her from traveling overseas; she has performed only in North America since then.[34] The mother of four sons, her first child, Clarence was born just after Franklin turned 14.[35] Neither son's father has been identified. While pursuing her career and "hanging out with [friends]", Franklin's grandmother Rachel and sister Erma took turns raising the children.[36] Franklin's third child, Ted White, Jr., was born in 1964 and is known professionally as Teddy Richards. He has provided guitar backing for his mother's band during live concerts.[37]

Franklin has married twice. She married Ted White in 1961, despite objections from her father. After a contentious marriage that involved domestic violence, she divorced White in 1969.[38] She then married her second husband, actor Glynn Turman, on April 11, 1978 at her father's church. By marrying Turman, Franklin became stepmother of Turman's three children from a previous marriage. Franklin and Turman separated in 1982 after Franklin returned to Michigan from California, and they divorced in 1984. At one point, Franklin had plans to walk down the aisle with longtime companion Willie Wilkerson.[39][40] Franklin and Wilkerson had had two previous engagements stretching back to 1988. Franklin eventually called the 2012 engagement off.

Franklin's sisters Erma and Carolyn were professional musicians as well and spent years performing background vocals on Franklin's recordings. Following Franklin's divorce from Ted White, her brother Cecil became her manager, and maintained that position until his death from lung cancer on December 26, 1989. Sister Carolyn died the previous year in April of 1988 from breast cancer, while eldest sister Erma passed from throat cancer in September 2002. Franklin's half-brother Vaughn died two months after Erma in late 2002. Half-sister Carl Kelley (née Jennings; born 1940) is still alive at 74. Kelley is C. L. Franklin's daughter by Mildred Jennings, a then 12-year-old congregant of New Salem Baptist Church in Memphis, where C. L. was pastor.[41] Franklin was performing at the Aladdin Hotel in Las Vegas, on June 10, 1979, when her father C. L. was shot twice at point blank range in his Detroit home.[42] After six months at Henry Ford Hospital, still in a state of coma, C.L. was moved back to his home with 24-hour nursing care. Aretha moved back to Detroit in late 1982 to assist with the care of her father, who died at Detroit's New Light Nursing Home on July 27, 1984.[43]

Franklin has been romantically linked to many musicians, including Sam Cooke and Dennis Edwards, formerly of The Temptations. Some of her music business friends have included Dionne Warwick, Mavis Staples, and Cissy Houston, who began singing with Franklin as members of the Sweet Inspirations. Cissy sang background on Franklin's classic hit "Ain't No Way".[44] Franklin first met Cissy's daughter, Whitney, in the early 1970s.[45] She was made Whitney's honorary aunt, and Whitney often referred to her as "Auntie Ree".[46] Whitney died on February 11, 2012.[47] Franklin stated she was surprised by her death.[47] She had initially planned to perform at Houston's memorial service on February 18, but her representative claimed that Franklin suffered a leg spasm and was unable to attend. In response to criticism of her non-attendance, she stated, "God knows I wanted to be there, but I couldn't."[48]

Franklin is a registered Democrat.[49] In 2014, she was granted the honorary degree of Doctor of Arts from Harvard University for her contributions to music.[50]

Weight issues and health problems[edit]

Franklin dealt with weight issues for years. In 1974, she dropped 40 pounds (18 kg) during a crash diet[51] and maintained her new weight until the end of the decade.[52] Franklin again lost the weight in the early 1990s prior to releasing her album What You See Is What You Sweat, then gained it back again a year and a half later. She later admitted to years of "yo-yo" dieting. She lost 85 pounds (39 kg) following her surgery to remove an undisclosed tumor, then admitted later, in 2012, that she had gained some of the weight back.[53] A former chain smoker who struggled with alcoholism, she quit smoking in 1992.[54] Franklin admitted in 1994 that her smoking was "messing with my voice",[55] but after quitting smoking she said later, in 2003, that her weight "ballooned".[56]

In 2010, Franklin canceled a number of concerts after she decided to have surgery for an undisclosed tumor.[53] Discussing the events in 2011, she stated the surgery Franklin had would "add 15 to 20 more years" to her life. She denied that the ailment had anything to do with pancreatic cancer as it was rumored.[57] On May 19, 2011 Aretha Franklin had her comeback show in the Chicago theatre.[58] In May 2013, Franklin canceled two performances to deal with an undisclosed medical treatment.[59] Later in the same month, Franklin canceled three more concerts in June and planned to return to perform in July.[60] However, a July 27 show in Clarkston, Michigan was canceled due to continued medical treatment.[61] In addition, Franklin canceled an appearance at an MLB luncheon in Chicago honoring her commitment to civil rights on an August 24 date.[62] She also canceled a September 21 performance in Atlanta due to her health recovery.[63] During a phone interview with The Associated Press in late August, 2013 Franklin stated that she had a "miraculous" recovery from her undisclosed illness but had to cancel shows and appearances until she was at 100% health, stating she was "85% healed".[64] Aretha has since returned to live performing, including a 2013 Christmas concert at Detroit's Motor City Casino. She launched a multi-city tour beginning the summer of 2014, starting with a June 14 performance in New York at the Radio City Music Hall.[65]

Legacy[edit]

Franklin wipes a tear after being honored with the Presidential Medal of Freedom on November 9, 2005, at the White House. Seated with her are fellow recipients Robert Conquest, left, and Alan Greenspan
A wax sculpture of Franklin on display at Madame Tussauds in New York City.

In 1987, Franklin was the first female performer inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.[66] Two years earlier, the Michigan government labeled her voice as a "natural resource".[67] Franklin received her star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 1979. In 1994, she received a medal from the Kennedy Center Honors and that year won the NARAS Lifetime Achievement Award. She won the NARAS Grammy Legend award four years prior. In 1999, she earned the National Medal of Arts. In 2005, she received the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Franklin was inducted to the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2005, becoming the second female performer to be honored after Madonna.

In 2008, she received the MusiCares Person of the Year prior to performing at that year's Grammys. That same year, she was listed in the top 20 of artists on the Billboard Hot 100 all-time top artists list.[68] In 2012, she was inducted to the GMA Gospel Music Hall of Fame. Franklin has been described as "the voice of the civil rights movement, the voice of black America" and a "symbol of black equality".[69][70] She was also listed as number 1 on Rolling Stone's list of the Greatest Singers of All Time.[71] In February 2011, following news of her surgery and recovery, the Grammy Awards paid tribute to the singer with a medley of her classics by singers such as Christina Aguilera, Florence Welch, Jennifer Hudson, Martina McBride and Yolanda Adams.[72]

Academic recognition[edit]

Franklin received an honorary degree from Harvard University.[73]

She has also received other degrees, including honorary doctorates in music from Princeton University, in 2012; Yale University, 2010; the Berklee College of Music, 2006; the New England Conservatory of Music, 1995; and the University of Michigan, 1987. She also received an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters degree from Wayne State University in 1990 and an honorary Doctor of Law degree from Bethune-Cookman College in 1975.[74]

Awards[edit]

Discography[edit]

List of number-one R&B singles[edit]

  1. "I Never Loved a Man (The Way I Love You)" (1967)
  2. "Respect" (1967)
  3. "Baby I Love You" (1967)
  4. "Chain of Fools" (1967)
  5. "(Sweet Sweet Baby) Since You've Been Gone" (1968)
  6. "Think" (1968)
  7. "Share Your Love with Me" (1969)
  8. "Call Me" (1970)
  9. "Don't Play That Song (You Lied)" (1970)
  10. "Bridge Over Troubled Water" (1971)
  11. "Spanish Harlem" (1971)
  12. "Day Dreaming" (1972)
  13. "Angel" (1973)
  14. "Until You Come Back to Me (That's What I'm Gonna Do)" (1973)
  15. "I'm in Love" (1974)
  16. "Something He Can Feel" (1976)
  17. "Break It to Me Gently" (1977)
  18. "Jump to It" (1982)
  19. "Get It Right" (1983)
  20. "Freeway of Love" (1985)

Filmography[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "That’s Dr. Aretha Franklin to you". Call and Post. 2011-11-02. Archived from the original on May 21, 2013. 
  2. ^ "Aretha Franklin inducted into Gospel Music Hall of Fame | Music | Detroit Free Press | freep.com". 
  3. ^ "100 Greatest Singers: Aretha Franklin". Rolling Stone. November 27, 2008. Retrieved May 16, 2013. 
  4. ^ "100 Greatest Artists of All Time". Rolling Stone. Retrieved May 16, 2013. 
  5. ^ "Sister Ree's Scrapbook, An Aretha Franklin Photo Gallery 13". Retrieved November 6, 2010. 
  6. ^ Bego 2010, p. 11.
  7. ^ McAvoy 2002, pp. 19-20.
  8. ^ a b McAvoy 2002, p. 22.
  9. ^ McAvoy 2002, pp. 20-21.
  10. ^ Dobkin 2006, p. 48.
  11. ^ Feiler 2009, p. 248.
  12. ^ "Inez Andrews: A towering gospel artist - Chicago Tribune". Articles.chicagotribune.com. 2012-12-19. Retrieved 2014-03-20. 
  13. ^ Hevesi, Dennis (December 21, 2012). "Inez Andrews, Gospel Singer, Dies at 83". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-03-20. 
  14. ^ Dave Hoekstra (12 May 2011). "Aretha Franklin’s roots of soul". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 18 April 2012. 
  15. ^ Carroll, Jillian (2004). Aretha Franklin. Chicago: Raintree. ISBN 0-7398-7029-7. 
  16. ^ Ebony 1964, p. 88.
  17. ^ a b c d Gilliland, John (1969). "Show 52 – The Soul Reformation: Phase three, soul music at the summit. [Part 8] : UNT Digital Library" (audio). Pop Chronicles. Digital.library.unt.edu. 
  18. ^ a b Ebony 1964, p. 85.
  19. ^ Natalie Cole broke Franklin's "Best Female R&B Vocal Performance" winning streak with her 1975 single "This Will Be (An Everlasting Love)" (which, ironically, was originally offered to Franklin).
  20. ^ Dobkin 2006, p. 5.
  21. ^ Whitaker 2011, p. 315.
  22. ^ Bego 2010, p. 107.
  23. ^ "TIME Magazine Cover: Aretha Franklin". Time. June 28, 1968. Retrieved September 30, 2011. [dead link]
  24. ^ "Aretha Franklin songs". [dead link] – from the Bill Graham archives; requires free login.
  25. ^ Rolling Stone magazine, "Aretha Franklin's New Wave of Pop" by Eliza Graham, page 11.
  26. ^ Patrick Goldstein (18 July 1986). "Writer's Ballad Tapped For Abc-tv Fall Theme". South Florida Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved 18 April 2012. 
  27. ^ Rosenthal, Lauren (May 24, 2010). "Univ. confers 3,243 degrees at 309th Commencement". Yale Daily News. Retrieved November 30, 2010. 
  28. ^ "Q&A: Aretha Franklin talks about Gospelfest and new album". The Washington Post. May 10, 2013. Retrieved May 17, 2013. [dead link]
  29. ^ "Aretha Franklin Gets Standing Ovation from Letterman Audience With Knockout Performance". Showbiz411. September 30, 2014. Retrieved September 30, 2014. 
  30. ^ "Aretha Franklin becomes first woman to join R&B chart's 100 club". Express.co.uk. Retrieved October 18, 2014. 
  31. ^ Dobkin 2006, p. 8.
  32. ^ Whitaker 2011, p. 312.
  33. ^ McMahon 2000, p. 373.
  34. ^ Interview, The Webdy Williams Show, March 2011, YouTube.com, at Minute 2:00, retrieved at 16. August 2011
  35. ^ Nick Salvatore (2005). Singing in a Strange Land: C.L. Franklin, the Black Church, and the Transformation of America. Little Brown. pp. 203–204, 224. ISBN 0-316-16037-7. OCLC 56104283. 
  36. ^ Ebony 1995, p. 32.
  37. ^ "Aretha Franklin gets engaged". NDTV. 3 January 2012. Retrieved 18 April 2012. 
  38. ^ Bego 2010, pp. 125-126.
  39. ^ "Soul singer Aretha Franklin is engaged". CNN. January 2, 2012. 
  40. ^ "Aretha Franklin to get married this summer | Celebrity Buzz | a Chron.com blog". Blog.chron.com. 2012-01-02. Retrieved 2012-05-13. 
  41. ^ Salvatore, Nick, Singing in a Strange Land: C. L. Franklin, the Black Church, and the Transformation of America, Little Brown, 2005, Hardcover ISBN 0-316-16037-7, pp. 61–62
  42. ^ Baltimore Afro-American 1979.
  43. ^ Jet 1984.
  44. ^ Roger Friedman (17 February 2012). "Who Is Cissy Houston? A Primer". Showbiz411. Retrieved 18 April 2012. 
  45. ^ Whitall, Susan. "Aretha Franklin recalls meeting a young Whitney Houston". Aretha Franklin, who will sing at Whitney Houston's funeral Saturday, spoke to Al Roker on the "Today" show Friday morning about the first time she met Houston, as a wide-eyed 8- or 9-year-old. The Detroit News. Retrieved 18 February 2012. [dead link]
  46. ^ Whitall, Susan. "Aretha Franklin recalls meeting a young Whitney Houston". The Queen of Soul corrected one thing about her relationship to Houston. She says she wasn't really Houston's godmother, but a sort of honorary aunt. The Detroit News. Retrieved 18 February 2012. [dead link]
  47. ^ a b "Singer Whitney Houston dies at 48 - CNN.com". CNN. February 12, 2012. 
  48. ^ "Aretha Franklin Talks Turning 70 Years Old , Shares Update On Her Health". Access Hollywood. 
  49. ^ On an ABC promo aired on July 27, 2010, announcing Franklin and Condoleezza Rice's appearing together in concert there was a segment in which Franklin was being interviewed and she said herself, "I am a Democrat".
  50. ^ Ireland, Corydon; Pazzanese, Christina; Powell, Alvin; Walsh, Colleen (May 29, 2014). "Eight to receive honorary degrees". Harvard Gazette. Retrieved May 29, 2014. 
  51. ^ Ebony 1974.
  52. ^ Bego 2010, pp. 162-165.
  53. ^ a b "Aretha Franklin Reveals Tumour Scare". Contact News. 10 January 2012. Retrieved May 26, 2013. 
  54. ^ Bego 2010, p. 305.
  55. ^ Ebony 1995, p. 30.
  56. ^ Jet 2003, pp. 62-63.
  57. ^ "Aretha Franklin Sets The Record Straight On Her Health". Access Hollywood. January 13, 2011. 
  58. ^ Bob Gendron (2011-05-20). "Aretha Franklin sings in Chicago - Chicago Tribune". Articles.chicagotribune.com. Retrieved 2014-03-20. 
  59. ^ Lewis, Randy (May 13, 2013). "Aretha Franklin cancels 2 shows for undisclosed ailment". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 17, 2013. 
  60. ^ "Aretha Franklin taking June off, postponing shows". USA Today. May 22, 2013. Retrieved May 23, 2013. 
  61. ^ "Aretha Franklin cancels hometown show citing treatment". CBSNews.com. July 12, 2013. Retrieved July 12, 2013. 
  62. ^ "Aretha Franklin not attending baseball luncheon". August 19, 2013. Retrieved August 22, 2013. [dead link]
  63. ^ "Aretha Franklin Cancels September Show, Sparking Concerns Over Her Health". August 20, 2013. Retrieved August 22, 2013. 
  64. ^ "The Queen of Soul is on the mend, but from what?". USAToday.com. August 21, 2013. Retrieved August 22, 2013. 
  65. ^ Edna Gundersen, USA TODAY (2014-06-12). "Aretha Franklin happily sheds weight, embraces future". Usatoday.com. Retrieved 2014-08-02. 
  66. ^ Ebony 1995, p. 29.
  67. ^ Bego 2010, p. 238.
  68. ^ The Billboard Hot 100 All-Time Top Artists[dead link]. Billboard.com. Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  69. ^ Dobkin, Matt (2006). I Never Loved A Man The Way I Love You: Aretha Franklin, Respect, and the Making Of A Soul Music Masterpiece. New York: St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 0-312-31828-6. 
  70. ^ Bego, Mark (1989). Aretha Franklin: The Queen Of Soul. New York: St.Martin's Press. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-7090-4053-8. 
  71. ^ "100 Greatest Artists: Aretha Franklin". Rolling Stone. April 20, 2011. Retrieved May 23, 2013. 
  72. ^ Grammy Awards tribute to Aretha Franklin Franklin has been cited as a major influence of singers such as Jennifer Hudson, Jill Scott, and many others.
  73. ^ "Harvard Honorary Degrees". Retrieved 2014-07-20. 
  74. ^ Yesha Callahan (May 29, 2014). "Aretha Franklin Receives Honorary Degree From Harvard University - The Root". The Root. Retrieved October 4, 2014. 

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