Arette

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Arette
Town hall
Town hall
Coat of arms of Arette
Coat of arms
Arette is located in France
Arette
Arette
Coordinates: 43°05′46″N 0°42′56″W / 43.0961°N 0.7156°W / 43.0961; -0.7156Coordinates: 43°05′46″N 0°42′56″W / 43.0961°N 0.7156°W / 43.0961; -0.7156
Country France
Region Aquitaine
Department Pyrénées-Atlantiques
Arrondissement Oloron-Sainte-Marie
Canton Aramits
Intercommunality Vallée de Barétous
Government
 • Mayor (2001–2020) Pierre Casabonne
Area1 92.23 km2 (35.61 sq mi)
Population (2009)2 1,121
 • Density 12/km2 (31/sq mi)
INSEE/Postal code 64040 / 64570
Elevation 292–2,315 m (958–7,595 ft)

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Arette (Areta in Occitan) is a French commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Aquitaine region of southwestern France. It is located in the arrondissement of Oloron-Sainte-Marie and is one of the six communes of the canton of Aramits: the other five being Ance, Aramits (commune), Féas, Issor, and Lanne-en-Barétous.

Arette Village.
The War Memorial.
The Primary School.
Arette Church.
The fronton.

Geography[edit]

Arrete is located some 15 km south by south-west of Oloron-Sainte-Marie and some 4 km south-east of Aramits. It lies close to both the French Basque region and borders Spain in the south. It is within the borders of Béarn, one of the traditional French provinces.

Access to the commune is by French rail SNCF to Pau, and a short bus ride to Arrete. Less scenic is the automobile route: D918 road from Lanne-en-Barétous in the north-west coming south-east to the village then continuing east to Issor. The D132 goes south from the village down the length of the commune following a tortuous mountain route before exiting the southern border of the commune over the Col de la Pierre St Martin (1,760m), which is also the border with Spain, and becoming the Spanish NA-137 which continues to Isaba. The D341 also goes south-east from the village then south, connecting with the D241 at the Col de Labays (1,351m) going east to join the E7 highway south of Sarrance, then continuing along the south-western border to join the D441 south of the commune. The D133 also goes north from the village to Aramits.[1]

Bus Route 848 of the Intercity Network of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (Transports 64) links Arette to Oloron-Sainte-Marie.

Arette is a very large commune and has a land area of 92 km2. It is also mountainous (the La Pierre Saint-Martin ski resort is within its borders, for example) and its highest peak is the 2,315 m Soum Couy, which is situated not far from the 2,504 m Pic d'Anie, the highest peak in the western Pyrenees. From Pic d'Anie the mountain range extends downwards for approximately 20 km, forming both sides of the Aspe valley to the north-west. The Vert d'Arette (a tributary of the Vert) flows through this valley. The ancient village (also named Arette) from which the commune extends is located at an altitude of 316 m in the valley of Barétous, which lies between the aforementioned Aspe valley, to its east, and the Basque province of Soule, to its west.

Hydrography[edit]

Located in the Drainage basin of the Adour, the commune is the source of numerous tributaries of the Vert which is itself a tributary of Gave d'Oloron. The largest tributary flowing through the commune is the Vert d'Arrette however many other streams flow north towards the Vert including: the Abat Daurèye and its tributary, the Banu Erreka (accompanied by the Ruisseau de Aurèye); Ibarcis Erreka; the Lancy;[2] the Ruisseau de Gurré and its tributary the Ruisseau de Lagaretche; the Ruisseau de Hournères and its tributary, the Ouettone; the Ruisseau de Légorre and its tributary, the Cassiau de Ber; the streams of Nécore,[2] Soulayets,[2] Talu Gros, and Virgou with the tributary of the latter, the Arrigau[2] (accompanied itself in the commune by the Bachère).

The Gave de Lourdios, a tributary of the Gave d'Aspe, and its tributaries, the Arric and the Moulia (and their tributaries, Casteigt Erreka and the Ruisseau de Poussious) also pass through the commune. The Gave de Sainte-Engrâce, a tributary of the Saison, and its tributary, the Montcholako Erreka also flow in the territory of the commune.

Places and Hamlets[3][edit]

  • Abat d’Ibarry
  • Adam
  • Gouffre d’Ahuzthéguia
  • Ambielle
  • Ambile
  • Cabane d’Ance
  • Apons
  • Pont de l’Araille
  • Gouffre de l’Arbre Sec
  • Pas d’Arlas[2]
  • L’Arre de Bas
  • Arrègle[2]
  • Arritsens
  • Aspit
  • Aurasse
  • Pont d’Aurèye[2]
  • Cabane d’Auriste
  • Ayesten
  • Barbé
  • Le Pas des Basques
  • Bayrès[2]
  • Bécari
  • Bélatch Paoussaguia
  • Bellegarde
  • Bellocq
  • Bernardicou
  • Bersacalongue
  • Ancien Moulin de Bignau
  • Col de Bissouritto (995 metres)[2]
  • Bitailloué
  • Bonnehe
  • Bonneu
  • Bordehore
  • Col de Boticotch
  • Bois de Bouchet[2]
  • Bourdès
  • Bourdet
  • Les Bourrugues
  • Burs
  • Coume de Cagastié
  • Cam dét Ragutio
  • Camgros
  • Camou
  • Candau
  • Capdelabat
  • Capdeville
  • Pas de Caque
  • Casabonne
  • Casamayou
  • Casaurang
  • Casaux
  • La Casette
  • Cassiau
  • Castagne (Two places)
  • Cataplous
  • Cerciat
  • Château-Forez
  • Pédaing de Chousse[2]
  • Plateau de la Chousse[2]
  • Col de Cissaugue or Nécore[2]
  • Pont de Cissaugue
  • Costemale[2]
  • Costes
  • Coudure
  • Couillarsut
  • Cabane du Coup
  • Couretcoup
  • Courétot
  • Les Courréges[2]
  • Cousturé
  • Coutchet de Lacq
  • Coutchet dets Crapes
  • L’Arre de Soum Couy
  • La Croix du Berger
  • Croix des Contrebandiers
  • Davancens
  • Domecq
  • Fontaine Dorbe
  • Source de l’Ermite
  • Cabane d’Escuret de Bas
  • Cabanes d’Escuret
  • Esperabens
  • Pas des Estes
  • Estournès
  • Estratte[2]
  • Cabane de Féas
  • Pont du Fort
  • Frinchaboy
  • Gabarrat
  • Col de Garbas[2]
  • Gesta
  • Goaillardeu
  • Guilhers (Sheds and fountain)[2]
  • Guren
  • Cap de Gurré (ruins)
  • Handu
  • Source d’Harrigagna
  • Hondagneu
  • Grange Hondagneu
  • Houillis
  • Houndane (spring)
  • Pont du Hourat
  • Houratate
  • Hourcate
  • Hournères[2]
  • Hum
  • Borde de Hum
  • Ibarry - Coigt de Hecore
  • Granges d’Irasts
  • Coume d’Issaux
  • Cabane d’Issort
  • Jantet
  • Labarthe
  • Labatrère
  • Cabanes de Labays
  • Col de Labays (1,351m)
  • Laborde
  • Laclouque
  • Lacoume
  • Laculère
  • Lagarde
  • Lagaretche[2]
  • Lagrave
  • Lahore
  • Pas de Lamayou
  • Lancy
  • Lapeyre
  • Coume de Larrayet
  • Larricq
  • Croix de Larricq
  • Le pont Larron[2]
  • Camp de Larruga
  • Lassalle
  • Bois de Lèche[2]
  • Lèchéko Zingla
  • Légorre d’Ibarry[2]
  • Lembeyou
  • Gouffre Lépineux
  • Mail de Lerre
  • Létone
  • Pas de la Leugue
  • Libarde
  • Col de Lie (601m)
  • Lilles
  • Longis
  • Lourdios d'Arette
  • La Lousère
  • Lucq
  • Col de Mahourat
  • Le Mail blanc
  • Les Malices
  • Cayolar de Mantchola or Cabane d’Etchébar[2]
  • Pas de Massaré
  • Massaugues
  • Coume Mayou
  • Maysou
  • Mesplou
  • Bois de Métouret
  • Mirassou
  • Mirassou Bas
  • Mirassou Haut
  • Moulia
  • La Mouline
  • Moura
  • Nario
  • Nouqué
  • Noutary
  • Noye
  • Oron
  • Cabane d’Oumarre
  • Bois de l’Oumbre-del-Hourcq
  • Gouffre de l’Ours
  • Pagnon
  • Pédaing
  • Pélou
  • Les Pernes
  • Cabane de la Pernotte (ruins)[2]
  • Pescamou[2]
  • Borde des Peyres
  • Peyret
  • Arette La Pierre Saint-Martin
  • Col de la Pierre St Martin
  • L’Arre Planère
  • Pouey
  • Poursuca
  • Le Pourtet[2]
  • Prat
  • Granges de Prat
  • La Puyade
  • Rachet
  • Roucam
  • Pène Rouye
  • Sainte-Gracie
  • Saint-Marty
  • Salanove
  • Salet
  • Salies
  • Sarrelangue
  • Saudiat
  • Plateau de Séguitte
  • Pas de Single
  • Bois de Soudet
  • Cabanes de Soudet
  • Soulaing[2]
  • Soubies
  • Soubirou
  • Soulé
  • Borde de Soulé
  • Sous Pène
  • Superville
  • Col de Suscousse[2] or Garatéko L’époua
  • Talou
  • Talou d’Arnaune
  • Talou de Bouc
  • Tamarpouey[2]
  • Tapie
  • Col de Taules
  • Braca de Termy[2]
  • Le Terrail
  • Gouffre La Tête Sauvage
  • Tourette
  • Tourumy (harnessed spring)
  • Col de Tremeil[2]
  • Camp d’Urdette
  • Zélukobortha (chasm)

Neighbouring communes and villages[1][edit]

Toponymy[edit]

The commune name in béarnais is Arèta (according to the classical norm of Occitan). The name comes from the Basque ar- meaning "stone" and from the locative suffix -eta meaning "stony place".[4]

The following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune.

Name Spelling Date Source Page Origin Description
Arette Areta 1186 Raymond
9
Barcelona Village
Rete 1383 Raymond
9
Luntz
Arete 1385 Raymond
9
Census
Erete 1440 Raymond
9
Barétous
Aretha 1444 Raymond
10
Cour Majour
Eretha 1444 Raymond
10
Cour Majour
Hereta 1538 Raymond
10
Reformation
Saint Pierre d'Arette 1674 Raymond
10
Insinuations
Arrette 1750 Cassini
Arete 1801 Ldh/EHESS/Cassini Bulletin des lois
Arrègle le molii d’Arregle 1385 Raymond
141
Census Farm and a Mill on the Vert d'Arette
Aregle en Baretous 1433 Raymond
141
Notaries
Aregla 1538 Raymond
141
Reformation
Réglé 1863 Raymond
141
Arlas Arlas 1538 Raymond
10
Reformation Mountain on the Spanish border
L'Arrigau lo ariu aperat la Rigau 1538 Raymond
12
Reformation A stream rising in Arette and which joins the Vert at Aramits
L'Arrigas 1863 Raymond
12
Aurèye L'Aureye 1863 Raymond
17
Stream rising in Arette, tributary of the Vert
Bayrès Bayres 1538 Raymond
25
Reformation Farm
Bayres 1863 Raymond
25
Col de Bissourritto Col de Bissourritte 1863 Raymond
32
Mountain Pass
Bois de Bouchet Bouchette 1863 Raymond
34
Wood
La Chousse La Chousse 1863 Raymond
50
Stream rising in Arette, a tributary of the Vert
Costemale Costemale 1863 Raymond
52
Mountain
Les Courréges Les Courréges 1863 Raymond
53
Mountain
Estratte Estrate 1385 Raymond
62
Census Farm
Estrata 1538 Raymond
62
Reformation
Estrate 1863 Raymond
62
Col de Garbas Col de Garbas 1863 Raymond
67
Pass between the communes of Arette and Lanne
Guilhers Le Pas de Guilhers 1863 Raymond
74
Wood between the communes of Arette and Lées-Athas
Hournères Le Hourner 1863 Raymond
80
Stream rising in Arette and joining the Chousse
Lagaretche Lagarretche 1863 Raymond
89
Wood
Le Pont Larron Le Pont Larron 1863 Raymond
95
Bridge named after the former name of the Vert d'Arette: Larron
Lèche La singla de Lexe 1589 Raymond
98
Reformation Mountain and Wood
Légorre d’Ibarry Legorre 1863 Raymond
98
Mountain
Mantchola Le Manchola 1863 Raymond
108
Stream delineating the border between Arette and Sainte-Engrâce before joining the Uhaïtxa
Le Nécore Le Col de Nécore 1863 Raymond
122
Mountain Pass. A stream of the same name rises at the pass and joins the Vert d'Arette in Arette
Pernalatte Pernalatte 1863 Raymond
134
Mountain
La Pernotte La Pernotte 1863 Raymond
134
Stream, tributary of the Chousse
Pescamou Pescamou 1863 Raymond
134
Mountain and Pass on the Spanish frontier
La Pierre Saint-Martin La peyre de Sent-Martin, frontière de Navarre 1589 Raymond
150
Reformation Assembly place for the inhabitants of the Barétous Valley in France and Roncal in Spain
Le Pourtet Pourtet 1863 Raymond
139
Mountain on the Spanish border extending to Arette and Lées-Athas
Le col de Soès Le col de Soès 1863 Raymond
161
Mountain Pass
Soulaing Soulaing 1863 Raymond
163
Mountain between Arette and Osse-en-Aspe and a stream, tributary of the Lourdios
Soulayets Le Soulayet 1863 Raymond
163
Stream that flows through Arette and joins the Vert
Tamarpouey Tamarpoey 1385 Raymond
166
Census Farm
Tamarpoey 1863 Raymond
Le Termy Le Termy 1863 Raymond
167
Stream rising in Arette and joining the Uhaïtxa at Sainte-Engrâce
Trémeil Torrumie 1703 Raymond
168
Regulation Mountain across Arette and Lanne
Tremeilh 1863 Raymond
168

Sources:

Origins:

  • Barcelona: Titles of Barcelona.[6]
  • Luntz:[7]
  • Census: Census of Béarn[8]
  • Barétous: Titles of the Valley of Barétous
  • Cour Majour: Regulations of the Cour Majour[9]
  • Reformation: Reformation of Béarn[10]
  • Insinuations: Insinuations of the Diocese of Oloron[11]
  • Notaries: Notaries of Oloron[12]
  • Regulation: Regulation of Arette[13]

History[edit]

In 1385 there were 87 fires in Arette and it depended on the Bailiwick of Oloron.[2]

On 13 August 1967 the village of Arette was 80% destroyed by an earthquake that killed one person. The ruined clock tower of the church indicated the exact time of the earthquake: 11:10 p.m. Seismic waves were felt from Pau to Tarbes and Bayonne.[14]

Heraldry[edit]

Arms of Arette
Blazon:

Quarterly, 1 and 4 Gules with two cows of Or hooved, collared, belled, and horned in Azure one above the other; 2 and 3 Argent with a boar of Sable.



Administration[edit]

List of Successive Mayors[15]

Mayors from 1942
From To Name Party Position
1942 1952 Michel Lagrave
1952 1989 Jean-Marie Lonne-Peyret
1989 2001 Joseph Arrègle
2001 2020 Pierre Casabonne DVD General Councillor

(Not all data is known)

Inter-communality[edit]

Arette is part of six inter-communal structures:

  • the Community of communes of the Barétous Valley;
  • the SIVU La Verna;
  • the energy association of Pyrénées-Atlantiques;
  • the inter-communal association for study and management of the Drainage basin of the Vert and its tributaries;
  • the joint association for la Pierre Saint-Martin;
  • the joint association for Haut-Béarn.

Twinning[edit]

Arette has twinning associations with:[16]

Demography[edit]

In 2009 the commune had 1,121 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year.[Note 1]

Evolution of the Population (See database)
1793 1800 1806 1821 1831 1836 1841 1846 1851
1,762 1,561 1,826 2,014 2,139 2,176 2,245 2,245 2,218
1856 1861 1866 1872 1876 1881 1886 1891 1896
2,069 2,113 2,078 2,065 1,982 1,990 2,050 1,905 1,851
1901 1906 1911 1921 1926 1931 1936 1946 1954
1,743 1,734 1,761 1,444 1,452 1,404 1,377 1,309 1,171
1962 1968 1975 1982 1990 1999 2006 2009 -
1,189 1,055 1,166 1,117 1,137 1,094 - 1,121 -

Sources : Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 (population without double counting and municipal population from 2006)


Population of Arette

Distribution of Age Groups[edit]

The population of the town is relatively old. The ratio of persons above the age of 60 years (28.8%) is higher than the national average (21.6%) and the departmental average (25.9%). As with national and departmental allocations, the male population of the town is less than the female population (48.1% against 48.4% nationally and 48.2% at the departmental level).

Percentage Distribution of Age Groups in Arette and Pyrénées-Atlantiques Department in 2009

Arette Arette Pyrénées-Atlantiques Pyrénées-Atlantiques
Age Range Men Women Men Women
0 to 14 Years 14.9 15.2 17.4 15.2
15 to 29 Years 13.7 13.4 17.5 15.4
30 to 44 Years 19.2 18.7 20.1 19.0
45 to 59 Years 24.2 23.1 21.3 20.8
60 to 74 Years 17.0 16.1 15.1 16.2
75 to 89 Years 10.7 12.2 8.1 11.9
90 Years+ 0.4 1.2 0.5 1.5

Sources:

Economy[edit]

The economy of the commune is primarily oriented toward agriculture and livestock (cattle and sheep) and logging. The town is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) zone designation of Ossau-iraty.

Culture and Heritage[edit]

Civil heritage[edit]

The Barétous Museum is located in the commune. It features permanent collections on pastoralism and the Junta Roncal or "Tribute of the Three Cows".

Religious heritage[edit]

The Retable in the church

The former Lay Abbey (17th century)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg is registered as an historical monument.[17]

The Arette Church contains several items that are registered as historical objects:

  • A Chandelier (18th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[18]
  • An Altar and Retable (18th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[19]
  • An Eagle-Lectern (15th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[20]
  • A Statue: Virgin and child (16th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[21]

Environmental heritage[edit]

  • The Soum de Liorry (1,012m)[3]
  • The Biscarroules Peak (1,017m)[3]
  • The Sudou Peak (1,167m)[3]
  • The Légorre Peak(1,359m)[3]
  • The Soum de Soudet(1,542m)[3]
  • The Guilhers Peak(1,597m)[3]
  • The Soum de Leche (1,839m)[3]
  • The Arlas Peak (2,044m)[3] on the Spanish border
  • The Arres d'Anie(2,120m)[3]

There is an arboretum in the east of the commune.[3]

Arette Picture Gallery[edit]

Facilities[edit]

Education[edit]

Arette has a public college: the College of Arette Barétous[22] and a primary school.

Sports and sports facilities[edit]

The Basque pelota Club trains on the village fronton.

The town is located on the route of the 16th stage of the Tour de France 2007 which took place on 25 July. The 218 km route linked Orthez to Gourette - Col d'Aubisque.

The Hill-climbing event, organized since 1984, is listed as a championship of France.

Notable people linked to the commune[edit]

  • Jacques I d'Arette de Béarn-Bonasse, baptized around 1600 in Béarn and died in 1666 in Saint-Castin, was a lord of Bonasse and lay abbot of Arette.
  • Henri Pellisson , Félibrige and member of the Escole Gastoû Febus affiliated to Félibrige (1846-1912), first at the Acadèmia dels Jòcs Florals (Academy of Floral Games) of Toulouse in 1898 for his poem Notre Dame de Sarrance.
  • Renée Massip, born in 1907 at Arette and died in Paris in 2002, he was a French writer, winner of the Prix Interallié in 1963.
  • Pierre Aristouy born on 18 October 1920 at Arette and died on 20 April 1974. A former French rugby player who played with the French team and in the Section Paloise in the position of second line or prop.
  • Paul Ambille, born in 1930 at Béziers and died in 2010 in Arette, was a French painter.
  • Nelson Paillou, president of the CNOSF (French Olympic Committee) lived in Arette.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ At the beginning of the 21st century, the methods of identification have been modified by Law No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002, the so-called "law of local democracy" and in particular Title V "census operations" allows, after a transitional period running from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For communes with a population greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is conducted annually, the entire territory of these communes is taken into account at the end of the period of five years. The first "legal population" after 1999 under this new law came into force in 1 January 2009 and was based on the census of 2006.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Google Maps
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, Paul Raymond, Imprimerie nationale, 1863, Digitised from Lyon Public Library 15 June 2011 (French)
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Géoportail, IGN (French)
  4. ^ a b Michel Grosclaude, Toponymic Dictionary of communes, Béarn, Edicions reclams & Édition Cairn - 2006, 416 pages, ISBN 2-35068-005-3 (French)
  5. ^ Cassini Map 1750 – Arette
  6. ^ Cited by Pierre de Marca, History of Béarn
  7. ^ Contracts retained by Luntz, Notary of Béarn in the Departmental Archives of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (French)
  8. ^ Manuscript from the 14th century - Departmental Archives of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (French)
  9. ^ Cour Majour of Béarn, register manuscripts from the 15th century - Departmental Archives of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (French)
  10. ^ Manuscript from the 16th to 18th centuries - Departmental Archives of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (French)
  11. ^ Manuscripts from the 17th century in the Departmental Archives of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (French)
  12. ^ Notaries of Oloron in the Departmental Archives of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (French)
  13. ^ Communal Archives (French)
  14. ^ Photographs of Arette after the earthquake (French)
  15. ^ List of Mayors of France (French)
  16. ^ National Commission for Decentralised cooperation (French)
  17. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00084315 Lay Abbey (French)
  18. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM64000035 Chandelier (French)
  19. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM64000034 Altar and Retable (French)
  20. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM64000033 Eagle-Lectern (French)
  21. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM64000538 Statue: Virgin and child (French)
  22. ^ College of Arette website (French)