|Intercommunality||Vallée de Barétous|
|• Mayor (2008–2014)||Pierre Casabonne|
|• Land1||92.23 km2 (35.61 sq mi)|
|• Population2 density||12/km2 (31/sq mi)|
|INSEE/Postal code||64040 / 64570|
|Elevation||292–2,315 m (958–7,595 ft)|
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.
Arette (Areta in Occitan) is a French commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Aquitaine region of southwestern France. It is located in the arrondissement of Oloron-Sainte-Marie and is one of the six communes of the canton of Aramits: the other five being Ance, Aramits (commune), Féas, Issor, and Lanne-en-Barétous.
- 1 Geography
- 2 Toponymy
- 3 History
- 4 Administration
- 5 Demography
- 6 Economy
- 7 Culture and Heritage
- 8 Amenities
- 9 Notable people linked to the commune
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes and references
Arrete is located some 15 km south by south-west of Oloron-Sainte-Marie and some 4 km south-east of Aramits. It lies close to both the French Basque region and borders Spain in the south. It is within the borders of Béarn, one of the traditional French provinces.
Access to the commune is by French rail SNCF to Pau, and a short bus ride to Arrete. Less scenic is the automobile route: D918 road from Lanne-en-Barétous in the north-west coming south-east to the village then continuing east to Issor. The D132 goes south from the village down the length of the commune following a tortuous mountain route before exiting the southern border of the commune over the Col de la Pierre St Martin (1,760m), which is also the border with Spain, and becoming the Spanish NA-137 which continues to Isaba. The D341 also goes south-east from the village then south, connecting with the D241 at the Col de Labays (1,351m) going east to join the E7 highway south of Sarrance, then continuing along the south-western border to join the D441 south of the commune. The D133 also goes north from the village to Aramits.
Bus Route 848 of the Intercity Network of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (Transports 64) links Arette to Oloron-Sainte-Marie.
Arette is a very large commune and has a land area of 92 km2. It is also mountainous (the La Pierre Saint-Martin ski resort is within its borders, for example) and its highest peak is the 2,315 m Soum Couy, which is situated not far from the 2,504 m Pic d'Anie, the highest peak in the western Pyrenees. From Pic d'Anie the mountain range extends downwards for approximately 20 km, forming both sides of the Aspe valley to the north-west. The Vert d'Arette (a tributary of the Vert) flows through this valley. The ancient village (also named Arette) from which the commune extends is located at an altitude of 316 m in the valley of Barétous, which lies between the aforementioned Aspe valley, to its east, and the Basque province of Soule, to its west.
Located in the Drainage basin of the Adour, the commune is the source of numerous tributaries of the Vert which is itself a tributary of Gave d'Oloron. The largest tributary flowing through the commune is the Vert d'Arrette however many other streams flow north towards the Vert including: the Abat Daurèye and its tributary, the Banu Erreka (accompanied by the Ruisseau de Aurèye); Ibarcis Erreka; the Lancy; the Ruisseau de Gurré and its tributary the Ruisseau de Lagaretche; the Ruisseau de Hournères and its tributary, the Ouettone; the Ruisseau de Légorre and its tributary, the Cassiau de Ber; the streams of Nécore, Soulayets, Talu Gros, and Virgou with the tributary of the latter, the Arrigau (accompanied itself in the commune by the Bachère).
The Gave de Lourdios, a tributary of the Gave d'Aspe, and its tributaries, the Arric and the Moulia (and their tributaries, Casteigt Erreka and the Ruisseau de Poussious) also pass through the commune. The Gave de Sainte-Engrâce, a tributary of the Saison, and its tributary, the Montcholako Erreka also flow in the territory of the commune.
- Abat d’Ibarry
- Gouffre d’Ahuzthéguia
- Cabane d’Ance
- Pont de l’Araille
- Gouffre de l’Arbre Sec
- Pas d’Arlas
- L’Arre de Bas
- Pont d’Aurèye
- Cabane d’Auriste
- Le Pas des Basques
- Bélatch Paoussaguia
- Ancien Moulin de Bignau
- Col de Bissouritto (995 metres)
- Col de Boticotch
- Bois de Bouchet
- Les Bourrugues
- Coume de Cagastié
- Cam dét Ragutio
- Pas de Caque
- La Casette
- Castagne (Two places)
- Pédaing de Chousse
- Plateau de la Chousse
- Col de Cissaugue or Nécore
- Pont de Cissaugue
- Cabane du Coup
- Les Courréges
- Coutchet de Lacq
- Coutchet dets Crapes
- L’Arre de Soum Couy
- La Croix du Berger
- Croix des Contrebandiers
- Fontaine Dorbe
- Source de l’Ermite
- Cabane d’Escuret de Bas
- Cabanes d’Escuret
- Pas des Estes
- Cabane de Féas
- Pont du Fort
- Col de Garbas
- Guilhers (Sheds and fountain)
- Cap de Gurré (ruins)
- Source d’Harrigagna
- Grange Hondagneu
- Houndane (spring)
- Pont du Hourat
- Borde de Hum
- Ibarry - Coigt de Hecore
- Granges d’Irasts
- Coume d’Issaux
- Cabane d’Issort
- Cabanes de Labays
- Col de Labays (1,351m)
- Pas de Lamayou
- Coume de Larrayet
- Croix de Larricq
- Le pont Larron
- Camp de Larruga
- Bois de Lèche
- Lèchéko Zingla
- Légorre d’Ibarry
- Gouffre Lépineux
- Mail de Lerre
- Pas de la Leugue
- Col de Lie (601m)
- Lourdios d'Arette
- La Lousère
- Col de Mahourat
- Le Mail blanc
- Les Malices
- Cayolar de Mantchola or Cabane d’Etchébar
- Pas de Massaré
- Coume Mayou
- Bois de Métouret
- Mirassou Bas
- Mirassou Haut
- La Mouline
- Cabane d’Oumarre
- Bois de l’Oumbre-del-Hourcq
- Gouffre de l’Ours
- Les Pernes
- Cabane de la Pernotte (ruins)
- Borde des Peyres
- Arette La Pierre Saint-Martin
- Col de la Pierre St Martin
- L’Arre Planère
- Le Pourtet
- Granges de Prat
- La Puyade
- Pène Rouye
- Plateau de Séguitte
- Pas de Single
- Bois de Soudet
- Cabanes de Soudet
- Borde de Soulé
- Sous Pène
- Col de Suscousse or Garatéko L’époua
- Talou d’Arnaune
- Talou de Bouc
- Col de Taules
- Braca de Termy
- Le Terrail
- Gouffre La Tête Sauvage
- Tourumy (harnessed spring)
- Col de Tremeil
- Camp d’Urdette
- Zélukobortha (chasm)
The name Arette appears in the forms:
- Areta (1186, Titles of Barcelona)
- Rete (1383, Contract of Luntz)
- Arete (1385, Census of Béarn)
- Erete (1440, Titles of the Barétous Valley)
- Aretha and Eretha (1444, Regulations of the Cour Majour of Béarn)
- Hereta (1538, Reformation of Béarn)
- Arette (1674, Insinuations of the Diocese of Oloron)
- Arrette on the Cassini Map at the end of the 18th century)
- Arete (1801, Bulletin des lois).
The name comes from the Basque ar- meaning "stone" and from the locative suffix -eta meaning "stony place".
Arrègle designated a farm and a mill built on the Vert d'Arette river. The name appears in the forms:
- le molii d’Arregle (1385, Census of Béarn)
- Aregle en Baretous (1433, Notaries of Oloron)
- Aregla (1538, Reformation of Béarn)
- Réglé (1863).
Arrigau is hydronym denoting a stream that rises in Arette and joins the Vert at Aramits. It appears in the forms:
- lo ariu aperat la Rigau (1538, Reformation of Béarn)
- l’Arrigas (1863 with different spellings.
In the 19th century, the Col de Bissouritto was called the Col de Bissourritte.
The Bois de Bouchet appeared as Bouchette in 1863. The name already designated a wood.
La Chousse is a hydronym noted by Paul Raymond in 1863 designating a tributary of the Vert which rises in Arette.
Costemale and Les Courrèges are two mountains indicated by Paul Raymond in 1863 in the commune.
Estratte was a farm which appears in the forms:
Hournères is a hydronym cited as Le Hourner in 1863 and denotes a stream that rises in Arette and flows into the Chousse.
Lagaretche appears with the spelling Lagarretche in 1863 and refers to a wood in the commune.
Le Pont Larron is mentioned by the topographical dictionary of 1863 and takes its name from the Vert d'Arrette which was formerly called the Larron.
The name Légorre d'Ibarry denotes a mountain, mentioned in the Topographical Dictionary of Béarn Basque Country as Legorre.
Le Nécore, a tributary of the Vert, was reported by Paul Raymond in 1863 having its source in the Col le Nécore.
La Pernotte is a hydronym denoting a tributary of the Chousse.
Perscamou refers to both a mountain and a pass located on the border with Spain.
Le col de Soès is mentioned by the 1863 dictionary.
The Soulayets is mentioned with the spelling Soulayet in 1863.
Trémeil denotes a mountain in Arette and Lanne, mentioned in the forms:
On 13 August 1967 the village of Arette was 80% destroyed by an earthquake that killed one person. The ruined clock tower of the church indicated the exact time of the earthquake: 11:10 p.m. Seismic waves were felt from Pau to Tarbes and Bayonne.
Quarterly, 1 and 4 Gules with two cows of Or hooved, collared, belled, and horned in Azure one above the other; 2 and 3 Argent with a boar of Sable.
List of Successive Mayors
|2001||2014||Pierre Casabonne||DVD||General Councillor|
(Not all data is known)
Arette is part of six inter-communal structures:
- the Community of communes of the Barétous Valley;
- the SIVU La Verna;
- the energy association of Pyrénées-Atlantiques;
- the inter-communal association for study and management of the Drainage basin of the Vert and its tributaries;
- the joint association for la Pierre Saint-Martin;
- the joint association for Haut-Béarn.
In 2009 the commune had 1,121 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year.[Note 1]
Distribution of Age Groups
The population of the town is relatively old. The ratio of persons above the age of 60 years (28.8%) is higher than the national average (21.6%) and the departmental average (25.9%). As with national and departmental allocations, the male population of the town is less than the female population (48.1% against 48.4% nationally and 48.2% at the departmental level).
Percentage Distribution of Age Groups in Arette and Pyrénées-Atlantiques Department in 2009
|0 to 14 Years||14.9||15.2||17.4||15.2|
|15 to 29 Years||13.7||13.4||17.5||15.4|
|30 to 44 Years||19.2||18.7||20.1||19.0|
|45 to 59 Years||24.2||23.1||21.3||20.8|
|60 to 74 Years||17.0||16.1||15.1||16.2|
|75 to 89 Years||10.7||12.2||8.1||11.9|
- Evolution and Structure of the population of the Commune in 2009, INSEE.
- Evolution and Structure of the population of the Department in 2009, INSEE.
The economy of the commune is primarily oriented toward agriculture and livestock (cattle and sheep) and logging. The town is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) zone designation of Ossau-iraty.
Culture and Heritage
The Barétous Museum is located in the commune. It features permanent collections on pastoralism and the Junta Roncal or "Tribute of the Three Cows".
The Soum de Liorry (1,012m), the Biscarroules Peak (1,017m), and the Sudou Peak (,1167m). The Légorre Peak (1,359m), the Soum de Soudet (1,542m), the Guilhers Peak (1,597m), and the Soum de Leche (1,839m).
Arette has a public college: the College of Arette Barétous and a primary school.
Sports and sports facilities
The Hill-climbing event, organized since 1984, is listed as a championship of France.
- Born in the 17th century
- Jacques I d'Arette de Béarn-Bonasse, baptized around 1600 in Béarn and died in 1666 in Saint-Castin, was a lord of Bonasse and lay abbot of Arette.
- Born in the 19th century
- Henri Pellisson , Félibrige and member of the Escole Gastoû Febus affiliated to Félibrige (1846-1912), first at the Acadèmia dels Jòcs Florals (Academy of Floral Games) of Toulouse in 1898 for his poem Notre Dame de Sarrance.
- Born in the 20th century
- Renée Massip, born in 1907 at Arette and died in Paris in 2002, he was a French writer, winner of the Prix Interallié in 1963.
- Pierre Aristouy born on 18 October 1920 at Arette and died on 20 April 1974. A former French rugby player who played with the French team and in the Section Paloise in the position of second line or prop.
- Paul Ambille, born in 1930 at Béziers and died in 2010 in Arette, was a French painter.
- Nelson Paillou, president of the CNOSF (French Olympic Committee) lived in Arette.
- Col de la Pierre St Martin
- GR 10 footpath
- Vert River
- Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department
Notes and references
- At the beginning of the 21st century, the methods of identification have been modified by Law No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002, the so-called "law of local democracy" and in particular Title V "census operations" allows, after a transitional period running from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For communes with a population greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is conducted annually, the entire territory of these communes is taken into account at the end of the period of five years. The first "legal population" after 1999 under this new law came into force in 1 January 2009 and was based on the census of 2006.
- Google Maps
- Paul Raymond, Topographic Dictionary of Béarn-Basque Country (French)
- Géoportail, consulted on 15 January 2012 (French)
- cited by Pierre de Marca in his History of Béarn (French)
- Luntz, Notary of Béarn, Manuscript of the 14th century - Departmental Archives of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (French)
- Manuscript from 1385 - Departmental Archives of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (French)
- Manuscripts from the 15th century - Departmental Archives of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (French)
- Manuscript of the 16th to 18th centuries - Departmental Archives of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (French)
- Michel Grosclaude, Topographic Dictionary of communes, Béarn, Edicions reclams & Édition Cairn - 2006, ISBN 2 35068 005 3 (French)
- Manuscripts from the 17th century - Departmental Archives of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (French)
- Cassini website (French)
- Notaries of Oloron - Departmental Archives of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (French)
- Archives of the commune (French)
- Photographs of Arette after the earthquake (French)
- List of Mayors of France (French)
- Intercommunality of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Cellule informatique préfecture 64, consulted on 10 January 2012 (French)
- National Commission for Decentralised cooperation (French)
- French Ministry of Culture Notice PA00084315 Lay Abbey (French)
- French Ministry of Culture Notice PM64000035 The church chandelier (French)
- French Ministry of Culture Notice PM64000034 The church Altar and Retable (French)
- French Ministry of Culture Notice PM64000033 The church lectern (French)
- French Ministry of Culture Notice PM64000538 The church statue (French)
- College of Arette website (French)
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