Arianta arbustorum

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Arianta arbustorum
Snail on fence.jpg
Arianta arbustorum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Heterobranchia

clade Euthyneura
clade Panpulmonata
clade Eupulmonata
clade Stylommatophora
informal group Sigmurethra

Superfamily: Helicoidea
Family: Helicidae
Subfamily: Ariantinae
Genus: Arianta
Species: A. arbustorum
Binomial name
Arianta arbustorum
Linnaeus, 1758[1]
Synonyms

Helix arbustorum Linnaeus, 1758

Arianta arbustorum is a medium-sized species of land snail, sometimes known as the "copse snail", a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Helicidae.

Subspecies[edit]

Several subspecies are recognized by some authors:

  • Arianta arbustorum alpicola Férussac, 1821
  • Arianta arbustorum arbustorum
  • Arianta arbustorum canigonensis
  • Arianta arbustorum picea
  • Arianta arbustorum pseudorudis
  • Arianta arbustorum repellini
  • Arianta arbustorum styriaca
  • Arianta arbustorum vareliensis

Distribution[edit]

This species is native to Europe:

Arianta arbustorum is introduced to North America, but is only known from Canada, where established populations are known from Newfoundland, New Brunswick, Ontario,[5] and Prince Edward Island.[6]

This species has not yet become established in the USA, but it is considered to represent a potentially serious threat as a pest, an invasive species which could negatively affect agriculture, natural ecosystems, human health or commerce. Therefore it has been suggested that this species be given top national quarantine significance in the USA.[7]

Description[edit]

apertural view of the shell of Arianta arbustorum (top left); lateral view (top right); apical view (bottom left) and umbilical view (bottom right)

The shell is usually brown with numerous pale yellowish rows of spots and usually with a brown band above the periphery, occasionally yellowish, reddish or with greenish hue, weakly striated and with fine spiral lines on the upper side.[2] The shell has 5-5.5 convex whorls with deep suture.[2] The last whorl is slightly descending near the aperture.[2] The aperture is with prominent white lip inside.[2] The apertural margin is reflected.[2] Umbilicus is entirely covered by the reflected columellar margin.[2]

The width of the shell is 18–25 mm.[2] The height of the shell is 12–22 mm.[2] Dimensions are locally variable.[2]

The shell shape is globular in most present-day populations, but originally is believed to have been depressed in the Pleistocene, before lowlands were invaded and shells became globular, re-invading mountain regions except some isolated spots among glaciers.[2]

The animal is usually black.[2]

Life cycle[edit]

Arianta arbustorum lives in forests and open habitats of any kind.[2] It requires humidity.[2] It lives also in disturbed habitats (not in Ireland where it is restricted to old native woodland).[2] It may locally tolerate non-calcareous substrate, in north Scotland also on sandhills.[2] In the Alps up to 2700 m, in Britain 1200 m, in Bulgaria 1500 m.[2]

It feeds on green herbs, dead animals and faeces.[2]

If snails hatched more than 50 m distant from each other, they are considered isolated since they would not move more than 25 m (neighbourhood area 32–50 m), usually they move about 7–12 m in a year, mostly along water currents.[2]

drawing of love dart of Arianta arbustorum

This species of snail makes and uses calcareous love darts during mating. Reproduction is usually after copulation, but self-fertilization is also possible.[2] The size of the egg is 3.2 mm.[8] Maturity is reached after 2–4 years.[2] The maximum age up to 14 years.[2]

Angiostrongylus vasorum has successfully experimentally infected this snail.[9]

References[edit]

This article incorporates public domain text from the reference.[2]

  1. ^ Linnaeus C. (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. pp. [1-4], 1-824. Holmiae. (Salvius).
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak Species summary for Arianta arbustorum. AnimalBase, last modified 25 August 2010, accessed 8 October 2010.
  3. ^ (Dutch) Arianta arbustorum — Anemoon
  4. ^ New snail found in the Faroe Islands
  5. ^ McAlpine, D.F., Schueler, F.W., Maunder, J.E., Noseworthy, R.G., & Sollows, M.C. 2009. Establishment and persistence of the copse snail, Arianta arbustorum (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda: Helicidae) in Canada. The Nautilus 123(1):14-18.
  6. ^ McAlpine, D.F., & R.G. Forsyth. 2014. Occurrence of the Copse Snail, Arianta arbustorum (Helicidae) on Prince Edward Island: an addition to the North American range of a purported potential pest. Northeastern Naturalist 21(1):N5–N7.
  7. ^ Cowie R. H., Dillon R. T., Robinson D. G. & Smith J. W. (2009). "Alien non-marine snails and slugs of priority quarantine importance in the United States: A preliminary risk assessment". American Malacological Bulletin 27: 113-132. PDF.
  8. ^ Heller J.: Life History Strategies. in Barker G. M. (ed.): The biology of terrestrial molluscs. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK, 2001, ISBN 0-85199-318-4. 1-146, cited page: 428.
  9. ^ Conboy G. A. (30 May 2000) "Canine Angiostrongylosis (French Heartworm)". In: Bowman D. D. (Ed.) Companion and Exotic Animal Parasitology. International Veterinary Information Service. Accessed 24 November 2009.

External links[edit]