|This article relies on references to primary sources. (December 2009)|
Arieh Ben-Naim (Hebrew: אריה בן-נאים)(Jerusalem, 11 July 1934) is a professor of physical chemistry in the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. He has made major contributions over 40 years to the theory of the structure of water, aqueous solutions and hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions. He is mainly concerned with theoretical and experimental aspects of the general theory of liquids and solutions. In recent years, he has advocated the use of information theory to better understand and advance statistical mechanics and thermodynamics.
Contributions to the theory of liquids
Books written by Arieh Ben-Naim on the theory of liquids:
- Water and Aqueuous Solutions: An introduction to molecular theory (1974) (out of print)
- Hydrophobic Interactions (1980)
- Molecular Theory of Solutions (2006) 
- Molecular Theory of Water and Aqueous Solutions: Understanding Water (2009) 
- Entropy and the Second Law: Interpretation and Miss-Interpretations (2012) 
Contributions in statistical mechanics in terms of information theory
Arieh Ben-Naim is a modern antagonist of the term entropy. He advocates abandoning the word entropy altogether, and replacing it with missing information. He also indicates that the Kelvin temperature scale artificially introduces the units of thermodynamic entropy. Because this temperature scale was introduced before the atomic, microscopic nature of matter was widely accepted, the Boltzmann constant was necessary. S=kBlog(W) could be expressed simply as S = log(W) if the energy units for temperature kBT were used.
An example of the insight that information theory can bring to statistical mechanics is the rederivation of the Sackur-Tetrode equation. It results from stacking the missing information due to 4 terms: positional uncertainty, momenta uncertainty, quantum mechanical uncertainty principle and the indistinguishability of the particles.
Books written by Arieh Ben-Naim on entropy and statistical mechanics include:
- Entropy Demystified: The Second Law Reduced to Plain Common Sense (2008) 
- A farewell to entropy: statistical thermodynamics based on information (2008) 
- Discover Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics (2010) 
- Arieh Ben-Naim. "Hydrophobic Interactions" (1980) ISBN 978-0-306-40222-7
- Arieh Ben-Naim. "Molecular Theory of Solutions " (2006) ISBN 978-0-19-929970-6
- Arieh Ben-Naim. "Molecular Theory of Water and Aqueous Solutions: Understanding Water" (2009) ISBN 978-981-283-760-8
- Arieh Ben-Naim. "Entropy and the Second Law: Interpretation and Misss-Interpretationsss" (2012) ISBN 978-9-814-40755-7
- Arieh Ben-Naim. "Entropy demystified. The second law reduced to plain common sense." (2008) ISBN 978-981-283-225-2
- "A farewell to entropy: statistical thermodynamics based on information." (2008) ISBN 978-981-270-707-9
- Arieh Ben-Naim "Discover Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics" (2010) ISBN 978-981-4299-75-6