Ariel 1

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Ariel 1
Thor Delta with Ariel 1 (Apr. 26, 1962).jpg
Launch of Ariel 1 on a Thor-Delta rocket
Mission type Ionospheric
Operator SERC
Harvard designation 1962 Omicron 1
SATCAT № 285
Spacecraft properties
Manufacturer NASA
Launch mass 62 kilograms (137 lb)
Start of mission
Launch date 26 April 1962, 18:00:16 (1962-04-26UTC18:00:16Z) UTC
Rocket Thor DM-19 Delta
Launch site Cape Canaveral LC-17A
End of mission
Decay date 24 May 1976
Orbital parameters
Reference system Geocentric
Regime Low Earth
Perigee 397 kilometres (247 mi)
Apogee 1,202 kilometres (747 mi)
Inclination 53.8 degrees
Period 100.86 minutes
Epoch 14 June 1962[1]

Ariel 1 (also known as UK-1 and S-55), was the first British satellite, and the first satellite in the Ariel programme. Its launch in 1962 made the United Kingdom the third country to operate a satellite, after the Soviet Union and the USA. It was constructed in the United States by NASA, under an agreement reached as the result of political discussions in 1959 and 1960.

Development[edit]

In late 1959, the Science and Engineering Research Council proposed the development of Ariel 1 to NASA, following an offer made by the United States at a meeting of the Committee on Space Research to provide assistance to other countries with the development and launch of scientific spacecraft. By early the following year the two countries had decided upon terms for the programme's scope and which organisations would be responsible for which parts of the programme.

Construction of the satellite occurred at the Goddard Space Flight Center. SERC provided the experiments, conducted operations, and later analysed and interpreted the results. Six experiments were carried aboard the satellite. Five of these examined the relationship between two types of solar radiation and changes in the Earth's ionosphere. They took advantage of techniques developed in the Skylark programme.

Launch, Operation, Orbit[edit]

Ariel 1 was launched aboard an American Thor-Delta rocket from Launch Complex 17A at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, at 18:00:16 GMT on 26 April 1962. Ariel 1 was among several satellites inadvertently damaged or destroyed by the Starfish Prime high-altitude nuclear test on July 9, 1962, and subsequent radiation belt. It decayed from orbit on 24 April 1976.

References[edit]

  1. ^ McDowell, Jonathan. "Satellite Catalog". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 6 December 2013.