Aril

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For the Etruscan deity, see Atlas (mythology)#Etruscan Aril. For the Malaysian singer, see Aril (singer/actor).
Not to be confused with aryl, a type of organic chemical radical.
An aril that surrounds the nutmeg seed is used as a spice called mace.

An aril (pronounced /ˈærɪl/), also called an arillus, is any specialized outgrowth from the funiculus (attachment point of the seed) (or hilum) that covers or is attached to the seed. The term is sometimes applied to any fleshy appendage of the seed in flowering plants, such as the mace of the nutmeg seed.[1] The aril is often an edible enticement, encouraging transport by animals and thereby assisting in seed dispersal.[2] Pseudarils are aril-like structures commonly found on the pyrenes of Burseraceae species that develop from the mesocarp of the ovary[3] – the fleshy, edible pericarp splits neatly in two halves, then falling away or being eaten to reveal a brightly coloured pseudaril around the black seed.

The aril may create a fruit-like structure (called a false-fruit). False fruit are found in numerous Angiosperm taxa. The edible flesh of the longan, lychee, ackee and lleuque fruits are highly developed arils surrounding the seed rather than a pericarp layer. Such arils are also found in a few species of gymnosperms, notably the yews and related conifers. Instead of the woody cone typical of most gymnosperms, the reproductive structure of the yew consists of a single seed that becomes surrounded by a fleshy, cup-like covering. This covering is derived from a highly modified cone scale.

Aril development in Taxus[edit]

In the photographs of a European yew (Taxus baccata) below, the aril starts out as a small, green band at the base of the seed, then turns brown to red as it enlarges and surrounds the seed, eventually becoming fleshy and scarlet in color at maturity. The aril is attractive to fruit-eating birds and is non-toxic (all other parts of the yew are toxic), serving therefore to promote dispersal of the yew seed by birds, which digest the fleshy aril as a food source, and pass the seed out in their droppings.

The fleshy aril which surrounds each seed in the yew is a highly modified seed cone scale.

Aril in Dacrycarpus dacrydioides[edit]

The kahikatea tree, Dacrycarpus dacrydioides, is native to New Zealand. In pre-European times the aril of the kahikatea was a food source for Māori. The washed arils were called koroi and were eaten raw.[4][5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Endress, P.K. (1973). "Arils And Aril-Like Structures In Woody Ranales". New Phytologist 72 (5): 1159–1171. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.1973.tb02092.x. 
  2. ^ Fruit and seed production: aspects of development, environmental physiology by C. Marshall, John Grace
  3. ^ Ramos-Ordonez, M. F.; Arizmendi, M. D. C.; Marquez-Guzman, J. (2012). "The fruit of Bursera: Structure, maturation and parthenocarpy". AoB Plants 2012: pls027. doi:10.1093/aobpla/pls027. PMC 3484315. PMID 23115709.  edit
  4. ^ "Dacrycarpus dacrydioides (kahikatea) description". conifers.org. 2011. Retrieved 10 September 2011. 'The small fruit (koroi) are superabundant and highly nutritious. The birds ate them and flocked for miles to do so. 
  5. ^ "Kahikatea, Dacrycarpus". web.auckland.ac.nz. 2011. Retrieved 10 September 2011. The juicy, swollen, red stalk which holds the seed is known as koroi. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Anderson, E. & Owens, J. N. (2003). Analysing the reproductive biology of Taxus: should it be included in Coniferales? Acta Hort. 615: 233–234.