Aristotelia chilensis

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Maqui
Maqui chileno.jpg
Maqui Tree with fruits
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Oxalidales
Family: Elaeocarpaceae
Genus: Aristotelia
Species: A. chilensis
Binomial name
Aristotelia chilensis
(Molina) Stuntz
Synonyms
  • Cornus chilensis Molina
  • Aristotelia macqui L'Hér.

Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui or Chilean Wineberry) is a species of the Elaeocarpaceae family native to the Valdivian temperate rainforests of Chile and adjacent regions of southern Argentina. Maqui is sparsely cultivated.[1]

Description[edit]

Tree[edit]

Maqui is a small dioecious tree reaching 4–5 m in height and is evergreen. Its divided trunk has a smooth bark. The branches are abundant, thin and flexible. The leaves are simple, opposite, hanging, oval-lanceolate, with serrated edges, naked and coriaceous. The leaf venation is well visible and the leaf stalk is strong red. In the beginning of spring, the tree sheds the old cohort. The old cohort is used as a carbonhydrate source to form the new leaves and flowers.[2]

Flowers and berries[edit]

Maqui flowers at the end of spring. The white flowers are unisexual and small. They yield a small edible fruit. A tree at the age of seven years produces up to 10 kg berries per year.[3] The small, purple-black berries are approximately 4–6 mm in diameter and contain 4-8 angled seeds.[3] With a taste similar to blackberries, maqui is also known as the Chilean wineberry, and locally in Spanish as maqui or maque.[4]

Wild maqui[edit]

The main area of wild maqui can be found in the Chilean forests. It includes the Coquimbo and Aysén regions and is 170,000 hectares in total area.[5] The average area yield is about 220 kg per hectare annually, with estimated yield of only 90 tons due to its remote access and difficulty for transportation.[3]

Harvesting[edit]

The berries are collected from December to March each year by families, mainly Mapuche who collect their harvest near the Andes Mountains.[3] The process involves collecting the side branches of trees, shaking them to separate the berries, and then employing a mechanical process to separate berries from leaves. The stored fruits are sold in local markets, with prices ranging from US $0.65-1.50 per 100 grams.[3]

Seed distribution[edit]

Maqui berries are a favored food for birds at the end of summer. Deforestation of the Valdivian temperate rainforests in Chile suppresses seed dispersal by birds and leads to inbreeding depression.[6]

Cultivated maqui[edit]

Maqui is planted in home gardens and is not grown on an orchard scale. Most of the fruits on the market come from the wild.[1]

Agronomy[edit]

Maqui is frost sensitive and fairly tolerant of maritime exposure. It prefers a well-drained soil in full sun with a protection against cold drying winds. The soil should be slightly acidic with moderate fertility.[7]

Maqui can be planted in USDA- zone 8 to 12. It is cultivated in Spain and in milder, moister areas of Britain where winter frosts reduce plant stock, stimulating growth of more shoots in spring.[8]

Propagation[edit]

The seeds germinate without cold stratification. In zones with the possible appearance of frost, it is recommended to sow in spring in a greenhouse. The plants are planted in autumn into individual pots if they are grown enough. The pots are still in the greenhouse for the first winter.

After the last expected frost in spring, the plants can be planted out into their final positions. In their first winter outdoors, a frost protection is required.[9] For further propagation, a vegetal reproduction is possible: cuttings of wood with a length of 15 to 30 cm can be planted into pots. These cuttings normally root and can be planted out in the following spring.[10]

Uses[edit]

Maqui berries are used for food and dietary supplements, mainly due to interest for color and anthocyanin content. The berries are raw, dried or processed into jam, juice, an astringent or as an ingredient in processed foods or beverages.[11]

In traditional medicine, maqui extract may be used to treat diarrhea,[12] inflammation, or fever.[13]

Anthocyanin research[edit]

Only limited polyphenol research has been completed on the maqui berry showing its anthocyanin content to include eight glucoside pigments of delphinidin and cyanidin, the principal anthocyanin being delphinidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucoside (34% of total anthocyanins).[14] The average total anthocyanin content was 138 mg per 100 g of fresh fruit (212 mg per 100g of dry fruit),[14] ranking maqui low among berries for anthocyanin content (see Anthocyanins#Occurrence for tabulated content data). One study found that anthocyanins are also present in maqui leaves.[15]

In laboratory research, maqui extract may have properties affecting ischaemia in reperfusion heart damage.[16] In vitro studies propose that maqui extracts may inhibit adipogenesis, inflammation[17] or LDL oxidation.[18]

History[edit]

The edible fruit was eaten by the Mapuche Indians. Claude Gay documented in 1844 in his "Physical Atlas of History and Politics of Chile" that natives used maqui to prepare chicha which purportedly contributed unusual strength and stamina for warriors. By speculation, the Mapuche Indians used berry leaves, stems, fruit and wine medicinally over generations.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Zoom. "Chilean wineberry". Retrieved 05.11.2012. 
  2. ^ Prado, C. & Damascos, M. (2001). Gas exchange and leaf specific mass of different foliar cohorts of the wintergreen shrub Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) stuntz (Eleocarpaceae) fifteen days before the flowering and the fall of the old cohort. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 44(3), 277-282.
  3. ^ a b c d e Majid, Johari Abdul. "Maqui: Agriculture process". Retrieved 05.11.2012. 
  4. ^ a b Espinosa. "Maqui berry". Retrieved 05.11.2012. 
  5. ^ Nahuelhual, L., Carmona, A., Lara, A., Echeverría, C., & González, M. E. (2012). Land-cover change to forest plantations: Proximate causes and implications for the landscape in south-central Chile. Landscape and Urban Planning, 107(1), 12-20. Elsevier B.V.
  6. ^ Valdivia, C. & Simonetti, J. (2006). Decreased frugivory and seed germination rate do not reduce seedling recruitment rates of Aristotelia chilensis in a fragmented forest. Biodiversity and Conservation, 16(6), 1593-1602.
  7. ^ Huxley, A. (1992). The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening.
  8. ^ Grey-Wilson, C., & Matthews, V. (1983). Gardening on Walls. London.
  9. ^ Bean W. 1981. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
  10. ^ Chittenden, F. (1951) RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. Oxford University Press.
  11. ^ "Chilean plants cultivated in Spain". José Manuel Sánchez de Lorenzo-Cáceres. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  12. ^ Hoffman, A. (1991). Flora silvestre de Chile zona araucana. Santiago: Fundacion Claudio Gay.
  13. ^ Cespedes, C., Alarcon, J., Avila, J., & Nieto, J. (2010). Anti-inflammatory Activity of Aristotelia chilensis Mol. (Stuntz) (Elaeocarpaceae). Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas, 9(27), 127–135.
  14. ^ a b Escribano-Bailón MT, Alcalde-Eon C, Muñoz O, Rivas-Gonzalo JC, Santos-Buelga C (2006). "Anthocyanins in berries of Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz)". Phytochem Anal 17 (1: Jan-Feb): 8–14. doi:10.1002/pca.872. PMID 16454470. 
  15. ^ Suwalsky M, Vargas P, Avello M, Villena F, Sotomayor CP (Nov 2008). "Human erythrocytes are affected in vitro by flavonoids of Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui) leaves". Int J Pharm 363 (1-2): 85–90. doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2008.07.005. PMID 18687390. 
  16. ^ Cespedes, C., El-Hafidi, M., Pavon, N., & Alarcon, J. (2008). Antioxidant and cardioprotective activities of phenolic extracts from fruits of Chilean blackberry Aristotelia chilenesis (Elaeocarpaceae), Maqui. Food Chemistry, 108, 820–829.
  17. ^ Schreckinger, M., Wang, J., Yousef, G., Lila, M., & de Mejia, E. (2010a). Antioxidant capacity and in vitro inhibition of adipogenesis and inflammation by phenolic extracts of Vaccinium floribundum and Aristotelia chilensis" Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58, 8966–8976.
  18. ^ Miranda-Rottmann, S., Aspillaga, A. A., Perez, D. D., Vasquez, L., Martinez, A. L., & Leighton, F. (2002). Juice and phenolic fractions of the berry Aristotelia chilensis inhibit LDL oxidation in vitro and protect human endothelial cells against oxidative stress" Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50(26), 7542–7547.

External links[edit]