The name Tano is a Spanish borrowing of an older Arizona Tewa autonym tʰáánu tééwa. Tano is often encountered in the anthropological literature referring to the ancestors of the Arizona Tewa before they relocated to Hopi territory. The name Hano, similarly, is a borrowing of tʰáánu into Hopi as hááno, háánòwɨ, which was then Anglicized. Hano in English also refers to Tewa Village, one of the main Arizona Tewa settlements. Other historical names include Tamos, Tamones, Atmues, Tanos, Thanos, Tagnos, Janos. Tewa is the preferred autonym (over Hano, Tano, and Hopi-Tewa).
The Arizona Tewa are related to the Tewa communities living in the Rio Grande Valley, such as Santa Clara and San Juan. Contrary to popular belief, the Tewa came to Hopi as a means of protection for the Hopi people from neighboring, raiding tribes such as the Navajo and Apaches. The main settlements are Tewa Village (Hano) and Polacca which are located in Navajo County, Arizona (55 miles north of Winslow). A smaller community is based in Keams Canyon Hopi governmental center.
The long contact with Hopi peoples has led to similarities in social structure with their kinship system and their organization to clans being almost identical with the Hopi (the other Tanoan Pueblo groups do not have clans). However, the Tewa dual moiety has been preserved.
Many Arizona Tewa are trilingual in Tewa, Hopi, and English. Some speakers also speak Spanish and/or Navajo. Arizona Tewa is a variety of the Tewa language of Tanoan family and has been influenced by Hopi (which is an unrelated Uto-Aztecan language). Arizona Tewa and the forms of Rio Grande Tewa in New Mexico are mutually intelligible with difficulty.
What is remarkable about this speech community is that the influence of the Hopi language on Arizona Tewa is extremely small in terms of vocabulary. Arizona Tewa speakers, although they are trilingual, maintain a strict separation of the languages (see also Code-switching: Example). These attitudes of linguistic purism may be compared with other Tewa speech communities in New Mexico where there has been very little borrowing from Spanish even though the Tewa and Spanish have had long periods of contact and the Tewa were also bilingual in Tewa and Spanish.
Traditionally, the Arizona Tewa were translators for Hopi leaders and thus also had command of Spanish and Navajo. This contrasts with the Hopi who generally can not speak Tewa (although they may have limited proficiency in Navajo).
- Nampeyo, potter
- Fannie Nampeyo, potter, daughter of Nampeyo
- Elva Nampeyo, potter, granddaughter of Nampeyo
- Dextra Quotskuyva, potter, great-granddaughter of Nampeyo
- Encyclopedia of North American Indians: Pueblo Languages
- Encyclopedia of North American Indians: Pueblo, Rio Grande
- Dozier, Edward P. (1951). "Resistance to acculturation and assimilation in an Indian pueblo". American Anthropologist 53 (1): 56–66.
- Dozier, Edward P. (1954). The Hopi-Tewa of Arizona. Berkeley: University of California.
- Dozier, Edward P. (1956a). "Two examples of linguistic acculturation: The Yaqui of Sonora and Arizona and the Tewa of New Mexico". Language 32 (1): 146–157.
- Dozier, Edward P. (1956b). "The role of the Hopi-Tewa migration legend in reinforcing cultural patterns and prescribing social behavior". The Journal of American Folklore 69 (272): 176–180.
- Dozier, Edward P. (1960). "The pueblos of the south-western United States". The Journal of Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 90 (1): 146–160.
- Dozier, Edward P. (1966). Hano: A Tewa Indian Community in Arizona. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.
- Kroskrity, Paul V. (2000). Language ideologies in the expression and representation of Arizona Tewa identity. In P. V. Kroskrity (Ed.), Regimes of language: Ideologies, polities, and identities (pp. 329–359). Santa Fe: School of American Research Press.
- Stanislawski, Michael B. (1979). Hopi-Tewa. In A. Ortiz (Ed.), Southwest (pp. 587–602). W. C. Sturtevant (Ed.), Handbook of North American Indians (Vol. 9). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.