May 25, 1898|
New York, New York, U.S.
|Died||December 10, 1990
Los Angeles, California
|Alma mater||Columbia University (B.A., 1919; M.D., 1921)|
|Known for||Occidental Petroleum|
|Spouse(s)||Olga Vadina Von Root (1927-1943; divorced; 1 child)
Angela Carey Zevely (?-1954; divorced)
Frances Barrett Tolman (1956-1989; her death)
Armand Hammer (May 21, 1898 – December 10, 1990) was an American business manager and owner, most closely associated with Occidental Petroleum, a company he ran for decades, though he was known as well for his art collection, his philanthropy, and for his close ties to the Soviet Union.
Hammer's business interests around the world and his "citizen diplomacy" helped him cultivate a wide network of friends and acquaintances.
He appeared frequently on television, commenting on international relations or agitating for research into a cure for cancer. As of 2008, he has been the subject of five biographies — in 1975 (Considine, authorized biography), 1985 (Bryson, coffee table book), Weinberg 1989, Blumay 1992, and Epstein 1996 — and two autobiographies (1932 and a best seller in 1987). His art collection and his philanthropic projects were the subject of numerous publications as well.
Hammer was born in New York City, to Ukrainian-born Jewish immigrants Julius and Rose (Lipshitz) Hammer. His father came to the United States from Odessa in the Russian Empire (today Ukraine) in 1875, and settled in The Bronx, where he ran a general medical practice and five drugstores.
Hammer sometimes claimed that his father had named him after a character, Armand Duval, in La Dame aux Camélias, a novel by Alexandre Dumas, fils. In fact, according to multiple biographers, Hammer was named after the "arm and hammer" graphic symbol of the Socialist Labor Party of America (SLP), in which his father, a committed socialist, had a leadership role at one time. (After the Russian Revolution, a part of the SLP under Julius' leadership split off to become a founding element of the Communist Party USA.) Later in his life, Hammer confirmed that this was the origin of his given name.
Hammer attended Morris High School, Columbia College (B.A., 1919) where he was a member of the Zeta Beta Tau fraternity, and then attended medical school at Columbia (M.D., 1921). When his father was sentenced to prison as he entered medical school, he and his brothers took Allied Drug, the family business, to new heights, reselling equipment they had bought at depressed prices at the end of World War I. According to Hammer, his first business success was in 1919, manufacturing and selling a ginger extract which legally contained high levels of alcohol. This was extremely popular during prohibition, and the company had $1 million in sales that year.
Years in the Soviet Union
In 1921, while waiting for his internship to begin at Bellevue Hospital, Hammer went to the Soviet Union for a trip that lasted until late 1930. Although his career in medicine was cut short, he relished being referred to as "Dr. Hammer". Hammer's intentions in the 1921 trip have been debated since. He has claimed that he originally intended to recoup $150,000 in debts for drugs shipped during the Allied intervention, but was soon moved by a capitalistic and philanthropic interest in selling wheat to the then-starving Russians. In his passport application, Hammer stated that he intended to visit only western Europe. J. Edgar Hoover in the Justice Department knew this was false, but Hammer was allowed to travel anyway. A skeptical U.S. government watched him through this trip, and for the rest of his life.
After graduating from medical school, Hammer extended earlier entrepreneurial ventures with a successful business importing many goods from and exporting pharmaceuticals to the newly formed Soviet Union, together with his younger brother Victor. According to Hammer, on his initial trip, he took $60,000 in medical supplies to aid in a typhus epidemic, and made a deal with Lenin for furs and caviars in exchange for a shipment of surplus American wheat. He moved to the USSR in the 1920s to oversee these operations, especially his large business manufacturing and exporting pens and pencils.
According to Alexander Barmine, who was assigned by the Central Committee to run the Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga company to compete with Hammer, the stationery concession was actually granted to Dr. Julius Hammer. According to Barmine the party spent five million gold rubles on stationery supplies made in factories controlled by Julius Hammer and other concessionaires making them rich. The Soviets were eventually able to duplicate certain items such as typewriter parts and pens and end those concessions but were never able to match the quality of Hammer's pencils so that concession became permanent according to Barmine.
After returning to the U.S., Hammer entered into a diverse array of business, art, cultural, and humanitarian endeavors, including investing in various U.S. oil production efforts. These oil investments were later parlayed into control of Occidental Petroleum. Throughout his life he continued personal and business dealings with the Soviet Union, despite the Cold War. In later years he lobbied and traveled extensively at great personal expense, working for peace between the United States and the Communist countries of the world, including ferrying physicians and supplies into the Soviet Union to help Chernobyl survivors.
Politically, Hammer was a staunch supporter of the Republican party. He boosted Richard Nixon's presidential campaign with $54,000 in campaign contributions. He pled guilty on charges that one of these donations had been made illegally and received probation and a $3000 fine, but was later pardoned by Republican U.S. President George H. W. Bush.
He was a collector of Impressionist and Post-Impressionist paintings. His personal donation forms the core of the permanent collection of the UCLA Hammer Museum in Los Angeles, California. Together with his brother Victor, he was the owner of the famed "Hammer Galleries" in New York City.
Hammer was a philanthropist, supporting causes related to education, medicine, and the arts. Among his legacies is the Armand Hammer United World College of the American West (now generally called the UWC-USA, part of the United World Colleges). By the time of his death, Hammer had won the Soviet Union's Order of Friendship of Peoples, the U.S. National Medal of Arts (1987), France's Legion of Honor, Italy's Grand Order of Merit, Sweden's Royal Order of the Polar Star, Austria's Knight Commander's Cross, Pakistan's Hilal-i-Quaid-Azam Peace Award, Israel's Leadership Award, Venezuela's Order of Andrés Bello, Mexico's National Recognition Award, Bulgaria's Jubilee Medal, and Belgium's Order of the Crown. Hammer hungered for a Nobel Peace Prize, and was repeatedly nominated for one, including by Menachem Begin, but never won.
In 1986, Forbes Magazine estimated his net worth at $200 million.
Hammer's association with the Gore family
Occidental's coal interests were represented for many years by attorney and former U.S. Senator Albert Arnold Gore, Sr., among others. Gore, who had a longtime close friendship with Hammer, became the head of the subsidiary Island Creek Coal Company, upon his election loss in the Senate. Much of Occidental's coal and phosphate production was in Tennessee, the state Gore represented in the Senate, and Gore owned shares in the company. Former Vice President Albert Arnold Gore, Jr. received much criticism from environmentalists, when the shares passed to the estate after the death of Albert Gore Sr., and Albert Gore Jr. was a son and the executor of the estate. Albert Gore Jr. did not exercise control over the shares, which were eventually sold when the estate closed.
Hammer was very fond of Albert Gore Jr., and in 1984 under Hammer's guidance Gore Jr. sought Tennessee's senate office previously held by Howard Baker. Hammer supposedly promised Gore Sr. that he could make his son the president of the United States. It was under Hammer's encouragement and support that Gore Jr. sought the Democratic Party presidential nomination in 1988.
Hammer died of bone marrow cancer in December 1990, aged 92 in Los Angeles, and was buried in Westwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery, across the street from his Occidental building on Wilshire Boulevard.
Hammer was the middle child of three boys. He had close relationships, including business relationships, with his brothers, Harry and Victor Hammer, throughout their lives. He married three times, first in 1927, to a Russian actress, Olga Von Root, the daughter of a czarist general. In 1943, he was married to Angela Zevely. In 1956, he married the wealthy widow Frances Barrett, and they remained married until her death in 1989. He had only one child, a son named Julian Armand Hammer, by his first wife. Hammer's grandson is businessman Michael Armand Hammer and his great-grandson is actor Armie Hammer.
Arm & Hammer
In the 1980s Hammer owned a considerable amount of stock in Church and Dwight, the company that manufactures Arm & Hammer products; he also served on its board of directors. But the Arm & Hammer company's brand name did not originate with Armand Hammer. It was in use some 31 years before Hammer was born.
- Dark Side of Power: The Real Armand Hammer, by Carl Blumay, Simon & Schuster, November 1992, ISBN 978-0-671-70053-9
- Biographical Dictionary of American Business Leaders (pp. 533–36), by John N. Ingham, Greenwood Press, 1983, ISBN 0-313-23908-8
- Hammer: Odyssey of an Entrepreneur (book review)
- The Remarkable Life of Dr. Armand Hammer by Bob Considine
- The Secret History of Armand Hammer by Edward Jay Epstein
- Hammer by Armand Hammer with Neil Lyndon
- Armand Hammer. The Untold Story by Steve Weinberg
- Armand Hammer, The Untold Story by Steve Weinberg, p. 16
- The Armand Hammer Collection: Four Centuries of Masterpieces, published by the Armand Hammer Foundation in multiple editions (eventually becoming five centuries of masterpieces), sometimes in conjunction with museums where the collection was displayed.
- Honore Daumier 1808–1879: The Armand Hammer Daumier Collection Incorporating a Collection from George Longstreet, 1981
- Dreams & Promises: The Story of the Armand Hammer United World College : A Critical Analysis, Theodore Lockwood, 1997
- Names of parents
- Epstein, Edward Jay (1998). Dossier: the secret history of Armand Hammer. Orion Business. p. 34. ISBN 0752813862.
- Dossier: The Secret History of Armand Hammer, Edward Jay Epstein, 1996, p. 35
- Armand Hammer, The Untold Story, Steve Weinberg, p. 120
- In his 1996 biography of Hammer, Edward James Epstein cites the 1990s recollections of a woman named Bettye Jane Murphy, who was then claiming to have been a mistress of Hammer's in the 1950s and was suing his estate. She said that Hammer once told her that he had performed the abortion himself and let his father go to jail rather than take the blame.[Epstein p. 46] This story must be balanced against that of the patient's maid, who was present during the procedure and testified during the 1919 grand jury hearing that Julius Hammer was responsible, leading to his indictment. [Weinstein p. 25] Murphy's claim is sometimes cited as evidence that he was a murderer.
- Armand Hammer, The Untold Story, Steve Weinberg, p. 77
- Armand Hammer, The Untold Story, Steve Weinberg, p.43
- Dossier: The Secret History of Armand Hammer, Edward Jay Epstein, 1996, p. 45
- Armand Hammer, The Untold Story, Steve Weinberg, p. 36
- Barmine, Alexander (1945). One Who Survived. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. p. 331.
- Barmine, Alexander (1945). One Who Survived. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. p. 157.
- Barmine, Alexander (1945). One Who Survived. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. p. 158.
- New York Times, "What's New on the Corporate Bookshelf," July 31, 1983 http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E07E0DF1139F932A05754C0A965948260
- Nizer, Lois. Reflections without mirrors.
- Rampe, David (August 15, 1989). "ARMAND HAMMER PARDONED BY BUSH". The New York Times.
- Hammer, Victor J. (1976). Elizabeth Charleston. New York: S & R Hayden. p. 8.
- "The Armand Hammer Collection". UCLA. Retrieved 2008-09-27.[dead link]
- "Hammer Icons". Time Magazine. 1937-08-16. Archived from the original on 17 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-27.
- Dossier – The Secret History of Armand Hammer, Edward Jay Epstein, 1996, p. 8
- "The Unfinished Business of Armand Hammer; After A Lifetime in the Public Eye, He Still Worries About His Place in History", Donald Woutat, Los Angeles Times Magazine, June 7, 1987, p. 8
- Forbes estimate of Hammer's worth
- O'Connor, John J. (January 21, 1988). "TV Reviews; An Update On 'The Cosby Show'". The New York Times. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- "Gore's Oil Money". Archived from the original on 2007-10-14. Retrieved 2007-10-20.
- Frantz, Douglas (2000-03-19). "THE 2000 CAMPAIGN: THE VICE PRESIDENT; Gore Family's Ties to Oil Company Magnate Reap Big Rewards, and a Few Problems". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-10-20.
- "Campaigner's finances Where the presidential hopefuls have invested their fortunes may reveal something about the character of each". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on 15 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-20.
- "Gore may be flawed, but message is sincere". USA Today. 2006-08-16. Retrieved 2007-10-20.
- Edward Jay Epstein, Dossier: The Secret History of Armand Hammer. NY: Orion Business, 1998.
- “Like his father before him, Al Gore Jr.’s political career was lavishly sponsored by Hammer from the moment it began until Hammer died, only two years before Gore Clinton race for the White House in 1992.” Neil Lyndon, Hammer.
- Considine, Bob (1975). The remarkable life of Dr. Armand Hammer. Harper & Row. p. 75. ISBN 0060108363.
- "Reaches Into Her Gypsy Songbag For Tunes To Give To Posterity .". Meriden Daily Journal. 1934-03-06. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
- "Frances Hammer, A Painter, Was 87; Wife of Industrialist, Peter Flint, The New York Times, December 19, 1989
- "Miss Mobley Has Nuptials In Oklahoma". The New York Times. January 13, 1985. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- Arm & Hammer controversy
- Booknotes interview with Edward Jay Epstein on Dossier: The Secret History of Armand Hammer, January 5, 1997.