Armani - Arman
|Religion||Levantine Relegion (Hadad) was the supreme deity|
|-||Unknown-c. 2290 BC||Rid-Adad|
|Historical era||Bronze Age|
|-||Disestablished||c. 2290 BC|
|Today part of||Syria|
|Part of a series on the|
|History of Syria|
|Halaf culture, Natufian culture|
|Halaf, Abu Hureyra, Aswad|
|Amorites, Aramaeans, Canaanites|
|Ebla, Yamhad, Mari, Ugarit|
|Bronze Age collapse|
|County of Edessa|
|Principality of Antioch|
|County of Tripoli|
(Arab Kingdom of Syria)
|State of Syria|
|Republic of Syria|
Armani, Arman or Armi, was an important Bronze Age city-kingdom during the late third millennium BC located in northern Syria, identified with the city of Aleppo. Aleppo was the capital of the independent kingdom closely related to Ebla, known as Armi to Ebla and Arman or Armani to the Akkadians.
Knowledge about Armi comes from the Ebla tablets and while most historians identify Armi with Aleppo, German historian Adelheid Otto believes Armi to be the modern Tell Bazi a citadel on the bank of the Euphrates 60 kilometers south of Jarabulus
Relations with Ebla
Armi was the most quoted city in Ebla texts Giovanni Pettinato describes Armi as Ebla's alter ego, however the relations between the two cities is complicated, for it wasn't always peaceful, the texts of Ebla mentions gifts exchange between the kings but it also mentions wars between the two kingdoms.
The relations between the two kingdoms is ambiguous as revealed by the readings of Ebla Tablets which is an ongoing work, many Eblan merchants were active in Armi and viceversa, but despite intensive commercial exchanges, it seems that the relations deteriorated during the reign of Eblan king Irkab-Damu successor Isar-Damu and his powerful viziers, Ebrium (for long he was thought to be a king of Ebla but he was discovered to be a vizier of Ebla) waged a war against Armi in his ninth year as vizier, the texts mentions that the battle Happened near a town called Batin (it could be located in northeastern Aleppo), and that a messenger arrived in Ebla with news about the defeating of Armi.
Ebrium son and successor as vizier Ibbi-Sipish conducted a military campaign in his third year against the city Bagara, the scribe which describes the campaign quotes a military expedition against Armi while speaking about the campaign against Bagara, which might means that Bagara belonged to Armi.
Ibbi-Sipish conducted more military actions against Armi, several other texts of his mentions his campaigns against the kingdom, for example he received linen textiles for one of these campaigns.
the complicated relations between Ebla and Armi is very similar to the relations between Ebla and Mari, the eblan texts mentions two interdynastic marriages with the son of the king of Nagar and that of Kish, but despite very close relations between Ebla and Armi an interdynastic marriage is never attested.
During its last years, Ebla in alliance with Nagar and Kish conducted a great military expedition against Armi and occupied it, Ibbi-Sipish son Enzi-Malik resided in Armi, but it seems that the occupation didn't last long as Naram-Sin of Akkad mentions that he captured the king Of Armi when he sacked the city.
Fall to Akkad
The kingdom was destroyed by the Akkadian Empire king Sargon of Akkad who claims to have destroyed both Ebla and Arman, so does his grandson Naram-Sin who gives a long description about his siege of armani, his destruction of its walls and the capturing of its king Rid-Adad.
Government and Importance
Armi was a vassal kingdom for Ebla, it had its own kings, it worked as a trade center and Trading intermediary for Ebla, the kingdom had a religious Importance, The main temple of the storm god Hadad was located on the citadel hill in the center of the city, and the city was known as the city of Hadad .
- Wayne Horowitz, Mesopotamian Cosmic Geography, Eisenbrauns 1998, ISBN 0-931464-99-4
- Paolo Matthiae,Nicoló Marchetti. Ebla and its Landscape: Early State Formation in the Ancient Near East. p. 501.
- Pettinato, Giovanni (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991) Ebla, a new look at history p.135
- Paolo Matthiae,Licia Romano. 6 ICAANE. p. 482.
- Paolo Matthiae,Licia Romano. 6 ICAANE. p. 485.
- Cyrus Herzl Gordon,Gary Rendsburg,Nathan H. Winter. Eblaitica: Essays on the Ebla Archives and Eblaite Language, Volume 4. p. 218.
- Paolo Matthiae,Licia Romano. 6 ICAANE. p. 484.
- Paolo Matthiae,Licia Romano. 6 ICAANE. p. 486.
- William J. Hamblin. Warfare in the Ancient Near East to 1600 BC. p. 220.
- John David Hawkins. Inscriptions of the Iron Age: Part 1. p. 388.
- Cyrus Herzl Gordon,Gary Rendsburg,Nathan H. Winter. Eblaitica: Essays on the Ebla Archives and Eblaite Language, Volume 4. p. 130.
- Trevor Bryce. Ancient Syria: A Three Thousand Year History. p. 111.