Armenia–Israel relations are bilateral relations between Armenia and Israel. Since independence, Armenia has received support from Israel and today remains one of its major trade partners. During the period of 1993-2007 Armenia was covered from the Embassy of Israel in Georgia. Since 2007 the residence of the Embassy moved to Jerusalem. On October 2010 Shmuel Meirom was appointed as Ambassador of Israel in Armenia. In 1996 Mr. Tsolak Momjian was appointed as Honorary Consul of Armenia in Jerusalem. On 2012 Mr. Armen Melkonian was appointed as Ambassador of Armenia to Israel with residence in Cairo. On October 2012 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Republic of Armenia to Israel Mr. Armen Melkonyan presented his credentials to the Israeli President Shimon Perez.
The Armenians and the Jews have been often compared in both academic and non-academic literature since at least early 20th century, often in the context of the Armenian Genocide and the Holocaust, which along with the Rwandan Genocide are considered among the most notorious genocides of the 20th century. Historians, journalists, political experts have pointed out a number of similarities between the two ethnic groups: the wide dispersion around the world, the relatively small size, the former lack of statehood, the fact that both countries are largely surrounded by Muslim and mainly hostile countries, their influential lobby in the United States, and even their success in chess.
Armenian community in Israel
The Armenian community has been resident in the Levant for two millennia. According to Yoav Loeff, a professor of Armenian language and history at the Hebrew University, the Armenian presence in Jerusalem dates back to 301 AD. The community remained relatively small until World War I, when Armenians fled to Israel to escape the Armenian genocide.
The first contacts between the Armenians and the Jews date back to the antiquity. Tigranes the Great, under whom Armenia reached its greatest extent, deported thousands of Jews into Armenia in 1st century BC. Israel itself is home to the Armenian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem. Today, there is only a small, mostly Russified Jewish community of 800 in Armenia still remaining.
Armenians have had a presence in Israel for centuries. The Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem was founded in 638. It is located in the Armenian Quarter, the smallest of the four quarters of the Old City of Jerusalem. According to a 2006 study, 790 Armenians live in the Old City alone.
One of the earliest mentions of the Armenians and the Jews is in the 1723 book Travels through Europe, Asia, and into parts of Africa by French traveler Aubry de La Motraye, where the author writes that the Armenians and Jews are "reckon'd more honest" compared to the Greeks in the Ottoman Empire.
Roughly 25,000 resided in the former British Mandate of Palestine by the time of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, but the majority fled the area in the ensuing violence. After the establishment of the State of Israel, most of the remaining Armenian community took up Israeli citizenship and settled in the Old City's Armenian Quarter.
Israel supported Azerbaijan in the Nagorno-Karabakh War against Armenia in the early 1990s. According to the Journal of Turkish Weekly, "Turkey's and Israel's good relations with Georgia and Azerbaijan cause conspiracy theories in Yerevan, and the radical Armenians argue that the Jews play the main role in this 'anti-Armenian great strategy'."
In 2004, a private TV company named ALM owned by Tigran Karapetyan has "used the platform to air views that portrayed Jews as an unsavory race bent on dominating Armenia and the wider world." In 2005, Armen Avetisyan, the leader of a small radical nationalist party, Armenian Aryan Union, was arrested on charges of inciting ethnic hatred. The Holocaust memorial in a Yerevan park was vandalized in 2004.
During her visit to Armenia in 2012, the Israeli Minister of Agriculture Orit Noked stated, "We are like each other with our history, character, with our small number of population and having communities abroad."
Armenians in Israel are ethnic Armenians with Israeli citizenship. There are currently 3,000 Armenians living in Israel, including 1,000 in Jerusalem's Armenian Quarter. Around one thousand Armenian-Israelis have Israeli citizenship, residing mainly in Jerusalem, Tel Aviv Jaffa and Haifa. Additionally "The Institute of African and Asian Studies" at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem established a chair of Armenian Studies programme, specialising in the study of the Armenian language, literature, history and culture as well as the Armenian Genocide. Jewish Virtual Library describes Jerusalem's Armenian Quarter as follows:
Unlike other Quarters in the Old City, the Armenian Quarter is well preserved. The St. James Convent is a complex of several churches with open spaces and gardens covered with a variety of greenery. The Patriarchate building next door is an impressive structure consisting of the Patriarch's residence, gold embossed throne room and several offices. Behind its main gate, the convent contains priest's quarters, a library building, a museum, printing press, elementary and high schools and residences, youth and social clubs and residential shelters for the poor and employees of the Patriarchate. Currently the Theological Seminary is located outside the convent across the street from the main gate.
Much of Jerusalem's artistic heritage has been influenced by Armenian ceramics and tile-painting.
Jews in Armenia
Prior to the 1996 discovery of a medieval Jewish cemetery, it was believed that there had been no Jewish presence in Armenia before modern times. A team of Armenian and Israeli historians and archaeologists excavated the site of the original discovery and managed to find 64 more graves. It was ultimately determined that the Jewish community of Armenia dated back to at least the 13th century. Bishop Mkrtchyan, who first discovered the cemetery, commented, "At a time when you can't imagine that a country... in Europe either helped create or didn't destroy a Jewish settlement... It is fantastic how they could gather cultural, architectural symbolism of Jewish Armenians... and they were connected, and built one of the strongest kingdoms during time of Mongols."
Subsequently, historians conjectured that the first Jews arrived in Armenia shortly after the destruction of the first Holy Temple in Jerusalem. They lived relatively peacefully alongside the Armenian Christians and continue to do so, with anti-Semitic incidents being a rarity. Many immigrated to Israel following the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, and 2002 estimations place the number of ethnic Jews living in Armenia at below 1,000.
Since independence, Armenia has received support from Israel and today remains one of its major trade partners. According to the CIA World Factbook, Armenia receives 4.8% of its imports from Israel while Israel receives 7.1% of Armenia's exports.
Israel and Armenia have maintained diplomatic relations since the latter's independence from the Soviet Union in 1992. From 1993 to 2007, the Armenian embassy to Israel was located in Georgia, though Tsolak Momjian was appointed as Honorary Consul of Armenia in Jerusalem in 1996. The embassy was eventually moved to Jerusalem.
There have been several high-level official visits to Israel by Armenians in the last several years. In January 2000, former Armenian President Robert Kocharyan traveled to Israel and met with high-ranking Israeli officials, including former Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak. The two sides pledged to strengthen relations and signed agreements on health and bilateral investment. In 2003, the Catholicos of All Armenian Karekin II visited Chief Rabbi of Israel Yona Metzger who accepted an invitation by Karekin to visit Armenia.
|December 1994||Israel||Armenian Minister of Forign Affairs Vahan Papazian visits|
|February 1995||Israel||President Robert Kocharyan of the Republic of Armenia visits|
|October 1998||Israel||Armenian Minister of Forign Affairs Vardan Oskanian visits|
|January 2000||Jerusalem||Armenian President Robert Kocharyan meets with Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, President Ezer Weizman, Speaker of the Knesset Avraham Burg, Minister of Interior Natan Sharansky, and Mayor of Jerusalem Ehud Olmert|
|November 2005||Yerevan||Israel's chief rabbi Yona Metzger visits Armenia and declares that the Israeli Jewish community recognizes the Armenian Genocide|
|August 2011||Yerevan||Israeli diplomats headed by Foreign Ministry official Pinchas Avivi and Armenian diplomats headed by Deputy Foreign Minister Arman Kirakosian meet to discuss the relationship between their countries|
|April 2012||Yerevan||Israeli Agriculture Minister Orit Noked meets with Armenian Prime Minister Tigran Sargsyan and Agriculture Minister Sergo Karapetian|
|July 2013||Yerevan||Armenian President Serzh Sargsyan meets with Yair Auron, an Israeli historian who specializes in genocide studies|
Holocaust and Armenian genocide
Yad Vashem, the Holocaust Memorial in Israel, has paid tribute to 10 Armenians as Righteous Among the Nations for risking their lives during the Holocaust to rescue Jews. However, Israel has yet to recognize the Armenian Genocide, and the Armenian community in Jerusalem has vocalized that it believes this is due to fear of jeopardizing diplomatic relations with Turkey. It is suggested by Yair Auron that Israel doesn't want to hurt its relations with Turkey and wants to retain the "uniqueness" of the Holocaust. Recognition of the genocide became a subject of debate in the years following Armenia's independence, with Israeli politicians, rabbis, and the country's Armenian community calling on Israel to formally do so. At the same time, Turkey has warned of harming ties with Israel if Israel or the United States recognizes the killings as genocide. As of 2008, there has been an ongoing debate regarding recognition in the Knesset with Turkey lobbying hard to prevent it. According to The Jerusalem Post, "many Israelis are eager for their country to recognize the genocide".
In the summer of 2011 the Knesset held its first open discussion on the matter. By a unanimous vote of 20-0, Israel's Parliament approved referring the subject to the Education Committee for more extensive deliberation. Israel's Speaker of Knesset told an Israel-based Armenian action committee that he intends to introduce an annual parliamentary session to mark the Armenian Genocide.
Ambassador Morgenthau's Story (1918), one of the major primary sources discussing the Armenian Genocide, was written by Henry Morgenthau, Sr., an American Jew. Similarly, The Forty Days of Musa Dagh (1933), one of the best-known novels about the Genocide, was written by Franz Werfel, an Austrian Jew. Raphael Lemkin, a Polish Jewish lawyer, coined the concept of Genocide as a crime against humanity, basing it on the Armenian experience.
In 2001, Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres described the Armenian Genocide as "meaningless." In response, historian and genocide expert Israel Charny accused Peres of going "beyond a moral boundary that no Jew should allow himself to trespass." In his letter to Peres, Charny stated:
|“||It seems that because of your wishes to advance very important relations with Turkey, you have been prepared to circumvent the subject of the Armenian genocide in 1915–1920 ... it may be that in your broad perspective of the needs of the state of Israel, it is your obligation to circumvent and desist from bringing up the subject with Turkey, but, as a Jew and an Israeli, I am ashamed of the extent to which you have now entered into the range of actual denial of the Armenian genocide, comparable to denials of the Holocaust.||”|
In 2008, Yosef Shagal, former Israeli parliamentarian from far-right Yisrael Beiteinu in an interview to Azerbaijan media stated: "I find it is deeply offensive, and even blasphemous to compare the Holocaust of European Jewry during the Second World War with the mass extermination of the Armenian people during the First World War. Jews were killed because they were Jews, but Armenians provoked Turkey and should blame themselves."
The Knesset failed to vote for the Armenian Genocide bill in 2011. Knesset Speaker Reuven Rivlin, among its supporters, stated "It is my duty as a Jew and Israeli to recognize the tragedies of other peoples."
Notables of mixed Armenian-Jewish descent
- Levon Aronian (Jewish father, Armenian mother), Armenian chess grandmaster
- Yelena Bonner (Armenian father, Jewish mother), Soviet and Russian human rights activist
- Sergei Dovlatov (half-Jewish father, Armenian mother), Soviet journalist and writer
- Garry Kasparov (Jewish father, Armenian mother), Soviet and Russian chess grandmaster, considered by many the greatest chess player
- Yevgeny Petrosyan (Armenian father, Jewish mother), Russian comedian
- Aram Saroyan (Armenian father, Jewish mother), American poet (son of William Saroyan and Carol Grace)
- Richard Shepard (Jewish father, Armenian mother), American film and television director
- Jackie Speier (Jewish father, Armenian mother), US Congresswoman from California
- Michael Vartan (Armenian, Bulgarian, and Hungarian father, Jewish mother), French-American film and television actor
- Zurab Zhvania (Georgian father, mixed Jewish-Armenian mother), Georgian politician
- (French) Turabian, Aram. La France: les Arméniens et les juifs (France: The Armenians and the Jews). 1938
- Mazian, Florence (1990). Why genocide?: the Armenian and Jewish experiences in perspective. Ames: Iowa State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8138-0143-8.
- (Russian) Varzhapetyan, Vardvan (1995). Армяне и евреи: цифры, даты, имена [Armenians and Jews: numbers, dates, names]. Yerevan: NOY.
- Melson, Robert (1996). Revolution and Genocide: On the Origins of the Armenian Genocide and the Holocaust. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-51991-3.
- Hovannisian, Richard G.; Myers, David N. (1999). Enlightenment and diaspora: the Armenian and Jewish cases. Atlanta: Scholars Press. ISBN 978-0-7885-0604-8.
- Auron, Yair (2000). The Banality of Indifference: Zionism and the Armenian Genocide. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4128-4468-0.
- Kieser, Hans-Lukas; Schaller, Dominik J. (2002). Der Völkermord an den Armeniern und die Shoah / The Armenian genocide and the Shoah. Zürich: Chronos Verlag. ISBN 978-3-0340-0561-6.
- Laçiner, Sedat; Kaya, İbrahim (2003). The Armenian Issue and the Jews. Ankara: Ankara University Publishing House. ISBN 978-975-92445-3-8.
- Mandel, Maud S. (2003). In the Aftermath of Genocide: Armenians and Jews in Twentieth-Century France. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-3121-6.
- Güçlü, Yücel (2012). The Holocaust and the Armenian case in comparative perspective. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America. ISBN 978-0-7618-5782-2.
- (German) Sofer, Leo: Armenier und Juden. Zeitschrift für Demographie und Statistik der Juden, Jg 3 (1907) Nr 5, S. 65-69.
- (German) Weissenberg, Samuel. "Armenier und Juden." Sonderabdruck aus dem Archiv für Anthropologie Braunschweig 13, no. 4 (1914), 383-387.
- Nadel-Golobič, Eleonora. "Armenians and Jews in Medieval Lvov. Their Role in Oriental Trade 1400–1600", Cahiers du Monde russe et soviétique, Vol. 20, No. 3/4 (Jul. - Dec., 1979), pp. 345–388, École des hautes études en sciences sociales, Paris
- Charny, Israel W. "The Turks, Armenians and Jews." The Book of the International Conference on the Holocaust and Genocide: Book One. The Conference Program and Crisis. 1983.
- Dekmejian, R. Hrair. "Determinants of genocide: Armenians and Jews as case studies." The Armenian genocide in perspective (1986): 92-94.
- Dadrian, Vahakn N. "The Convergent Aspects of the Armenian and Jewish Cases of Genocide. A Reinterpretation of the Concept of Holocaust." Holocaust and Genocide Studies 3.2 (1988): 151-169
- (German) Heinsohn, G. "Armenier und Juden als Testfall für die Streichung von drei Jahrhunderten durch Heribert Illig" Ethik und Sozialwissenschaften: Streitforum für Erwägungskultur (EuS) 8.4 (1997): 490.
- (French) Cohen, Raya. "Le génocide arménien dans la mémoire collective juive." Les cahiers du judaïsme 3 (1998): 113-122.
- Dadrian, Vahakn N. "Historical and Legal Interconnections between the Armenian Genocide and the Jewish Holocaust: From Impunity to Retributive Justice, The." Yale J. Int'l L. 23 (1998): 503
- (German) Schmidinger, Thomas (2005). ""Der Armenier ist wie der Jude, außerhalb seiner Heimat ein Parasit" Zum Genozid an der armenischen Bevölkerung des Osmanischen Reiches". University of Vienna.
- (Armenian) Marutyan, Harutyun (2011). "Հայոց ցեղասպանության և հրեաների Հոլոքոստի հիշողության կառուցվածքային առանձնահատկությունները [The structural features of the memory of the Jewish Holocaust and the Armenian Genocide]". Patma-Banasirakan Handes (Yerevan: Armenian National Academy of Sciences) (2): 24–46. ISSN 0135-0536.
- Taub, Ryan. "Diasporic Identity in Armenian American and Jewish American Literatures". University of Florida.
- Ben-Rafael, Eliezer (2009). "A Special Double Session: Homeland and hostland: Armenians and Jews compared". Uppsala, Sweden: Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study in the Social Sciences. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
- Ben-Rafael, Eliezer (11–14 June 2009). "Hostland and Homeland: Armenians and Jews Compared". Yerevan: International Institute of Sociology. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
- "Bilateral Relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Armenia. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
- Chernamorian, Artiom (May 11, 2012). "Armenia Already Has An Ambassador In Israel". Friends of Armenia. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
- Cashman, Greer (October 17, 2012). "New Egyptian envoy: We're committed to peace". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
- Sanjian, Ara. "Richard Hovannisian and David Myers, Enlightenment and Diaspora: The Armenian and Jewish Cases (book review in English)", Haigazian Armenological Review, vol. 21 (2001), pp. 405–410. See here "This is not the first attempt, of course, to compare certain aspects of Armenian and Jewish history. Previous comparative endeavors, however, had mostly dealt with the Armenian Genocide of 1915 in relation to the Jewish Holocaust of the Second World War."
- "Armenia". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 12 August 2013. "The fate and modes of existence of the Armenians have been compared in some essential features to those of the Jews."
- Jones, Adam (2013). Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction. Routledge. p. 268. ISBN 978-1-134-25981-6.
- Burns, John F. (14 June 1982). "William Saroyan's long journey from Fresno to his ancestral land". New York Times. Retrieved 16 August 2013. "In common with Jews and other scattered peoples, the Armenians have fostered a pride that goes beyond their mountainous corner of the transCaucasus, not much bigger than Vermont, which is all that remains of an empire that ranked with Byzantium and Persia in the ancient world."
- Keller, Bill (11 September 1988). "Armenia and Its Neighbors Only Diverge". New York Times. Retrieved 16 August 2013. "Like the Israelis, the Armenians are united by a vivid sense of victimization, stemming from the 1915 Turkish massacre of 1.5 million Armenians. Armenians are brought up on this story of genocide, and have a feeling of being surrounded by actual or potential enemies - the Islamic Azerbaijan, Iran and Turkey."
- Specter, Michael (15 July 1994). "Armenians Suffer Painfully in War, But With Pride and Determination". New York Times. Retrieved 16 August 2013. "Like Israel, another small country surrounded by enemies with a hauntingly similar character and history, Armenia puts its single-minded goal -- the rugged mountain enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh, in Azerbaijan -- ahead of everything."
- Edmonds, David (18 November 2009). "The lion and the tiger". Prospect. Retrieved 25 August 2013. "The parallels between Jews and Armenians are striking. Both have well-knit diasporas—there are more than three times as many ethnic Armenians living outside the country as inside and remittances are key to sustaining the economy. Both have strong lobby groups in Washington. Both take inordinate pride in the achievements of their ethnic group—singer Cher and tennis player Andre Agassi are two Americans that Armenians claim as their own. Both have histories marked by identity-shaping tragedies. And both Israel and Armenia are small nations and chess giants."
- Gelfond Feldinger, Lauren (June 29, 2013). "'We are third-class citizens,' says Armenian Patriarch of Jerusalem". Haaretz. Retrieved August 8, 2013.
- Advocates on Behalf of Jews in Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic States, and Eurasia: Armenia and Jews
- "Jerusalem - The Old City: The Armenian Quarter". Jewish Virtual Library.
- Neusner, Jacob (1965). A History of the Jews in Babylonia, Volumes 1-5. Brill Archive. p. 27. "Tigranes took a large number of Jews captive, and deported them to Armavir and Vardges on the Ksakh river, which became a great commercial center."
- "Armenia". National Conference on Soviet Jewry. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
- "Jerusalem The Old City The Urban Fabric and Geopolitical Implications". International Peace and Cooperation Center. 2009. p. 43. ISBN 965-7283-16-7. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
- Aubry de La Motraye (1723). A. de La Motraye's Travels through Europe, Asia, and into parts of Africa. London: Printed for the author. p. 189.
- R. Hrair Dekmejian & Hovann H. Simonian. Troubled Waters: The Geopolitics of the Caspian Region, 2003, p. 125 "In addition to commercial links, Israel has given strong backing to Azerbaijan in its conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh, which reportedly has included military assistance."
- Sedat Laçiner, Mehmet Özcan, İhsan Bal. USAK Yearbook of International Politics and Law 2010, Vol. 3, p. 322 "Israel was one of the strategic partners and supporters of Azerbaijan in the Nagorno-Karabakh War with Armenia."
- Bahruz Balayev, The Right to Self-Determination in the South Caucasus: Nagorno Karabakh in Context, Lexington Books, 2013, p. 73 "Israel has supported Azerbaijan in its conflict with Armenia for the enclave of Nagorno Karabakh."
- Laciner, Sedat (2002). "Armenia's Jewish Scepticism and Its Impact on Armenia-Israel Relations". Journal of Turkish Weekly. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
- Danielyan, Emil (26 January 2005). "Armenia: Country's Jews Alarmed Over Nascent Anti-Semitism". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
- "'We are third-class citizens,' says Armenian Patriarch of Jerusalem". Haaretz. 29 June 2012. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
- "Israeli Minister of Agriculture Speaks About Similarities Between Histories of Armenians and Jews". Armenian Mirror-Spectator. 20 April 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
- "Armenia Diaspora (Հայաստան սփյուռք)" (in Armenian).
- "The Armenian Quarter". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
- Borshchevskaya, Anna (February 11, 2013). "Jewish Armenia". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved August 8, 2013.
- "Armenia: History of Jewish Community". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved August 8, 2013.
- "Armenia's Jewish Scepticism and Its Impact on Armenia-Israel Relations". Turkish Weekly. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
- CIA World Factbook: Armenia
- Advocates on Behalf of Jews in Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic States and Eurasia - Armenia
- Ara Abrahamian called to develop Armenia-Israel relations
- "President of Armenia - Visit to Israel". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. January 20, 2000. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
- "Israeli chief rabbi in historic Armenia visit". European Jewish Press. November 24, 2005. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
- Danielyan, Emil (August 23, 2011). "Armenia, Israel Review Tenuous Relationship". Azatutyun. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
- "Israeli Minister Visits Armenia". Asbarez. April 16, 2012. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
- "President Sargsyan receives visiting Israeli historian". Armenia Now. July 18, 2013. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
- Der Mugrdechian, Barlow (December 2000). "Dr. Yair Auron Analyzes Jewish Response to the Armenian Genocide Through New Research". Hye Sharzhoom. California State University, Fresno Center for Armenian Studies. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
- "Israel expresses concern over Turkish-Armenian massacre dispute". The Associated Press. 2007-10-11. Retrieved 2008-02-02.
- "A Turkey-Armenia reconciliat In Chapter 12 of “The Hunger Games 3: Mocking Jay”, ion?". Los Angeles Times. 2008-04-25. Archived from the original on 30 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
- David Smith (2008-04-25). "Armenia's 'Christian holocaust'". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
- Stoil, Rebecca Anna (18 May 2011). "Knesset moves toward recognizing Armenian genocide". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 19 May 2011. "For years, consecutive governments had blocked attempts by MKs to raise the subject of recognizing the genocide out of concern that such recognition could damage relations with Ankara. This year, however, the government did not block the hearing."
- Lis, Jonathan (31 May 2011). "Knesset Speaker working to boost recognition of Armenian genocide". Haaretz. Retrieved 2 June 2011. "Knesset Speaker Reuven Rivlin said Monday that he wanted to convene an annual parliamentary session of the full Knesset to mark the Armenian genocide of 1915 and 1916 at the hands of the Turks. 'It is my duty as a Jew and Israeli to recognize the tragedies of other peoples,' Rivlin said, speaking to an Israel-based Armenian action committee."
- Bushinsky, Jay (20 August 2004). "The Armenian genocide : Face history's heartbreaking truth". New York Times. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- Yair Auron. The Banality of Denial: Israel and the Armenian Genocide. — Transaction Publishers, 2004. — p. 9:"...when Raphael Lemkin coined the word genocide in 1944 he cited the 1915 annihilation of Armenians as a seminal example of genocide"
- William Schabas. Genocide in international law: the crimes of crimes. — Cambridge University Press, 2000. — p. 25:"Lemkin’s interest in the subject dates to his days as a student at Lvov University, when he intently followed attempts to prosecute the perpetration of the massacres of the Armenians
- A. Dirk Moses. Genocide and settler society: frontier violence and stolen indigenous children in Australian history. — Berghahn Books, 2004. — p. 21:"Indignant that the perpetrators of the Armenian genocide had largely escaped prosecution, Lemkin, who was a young state prosecutor in Poland, began lobbying in the early 1930s for international law to criminalize the destruction of such groups."
- Fisk, Robert (18 April 2001). "Peres stands accused over denial of 'meaningless' Armenian Holocaust". The Independent. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
- (Russian) "Депутат парламента Израиля: "Считаю глубоко оскорбительными и даже богохульственными попытки сравнивать Катастрофу европейского еврейства в годы Второй мировой войны с массовым истреблением армянского народа в годы Первой мировой войны"". Day.Az. 28 March 2008. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
- "Israeli minister calls to recognize Armenian genocide". Reuters. 12 June 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
- Lis, Jonathan (31 May 2011). "Knesset Speaker working to boost recognition of Armenian genocide". Haaretz. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
- Banerjee, Neela (19 October 2007). "Armenian Issue Presents a Dilemma for U.S. Jews". New York Times. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
- Edmonds, David (18 November 2009). "The lion and the tiger". Prospect. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
- Stanley, Alessandra (19 June 2011). "Elena Bonner, Widow of Sakharov, Dies at 88". New York Times. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
- Glad, John (1990). Literature in exile. Durham: Duke University Press. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-8223-0987-1.
- Shefler, Gil (8 April 2013). "UN Watch to bestow Kasparov with human rights accolade". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
- "Garry Kasparov". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
- Bauer, Laurel (12 September 1993). "The Moves Of A Mental Matador". Chicago Tribute. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
- "А всему виной телефон ...". Central Jewish Resource. Retrieved 9 October 2013. "Евгений Петросян, у которого мама еврейка. А вы знаете, что считается не по папе - армянин, а по маме - еврей."
- Arkun, Aram (15 June 2012). "The Two Hollywood Worlds of Richard Shepard". Armenian Mirror-Spectator. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
- "Jackie Speier". J Street. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
- Vartanian, Hrag (1 April 2004). "Michael Vartan: A Face That's Hard To Forget". Armenian General Benevolent Union. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
- Bloom, Nate (3 June 2005). "Celebrity Jews". Jweekly. Retrieved Nov9 October 20137.
- "Georgian Prime Minister Proud His Mother Is Armenian". PanARMENIAN.Net. 10 June 2004. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
- "Jewish Community Mourns Sudden Loss of Georgian Prime Minister". Federation of Jewish Communities of the CIS. 3 February 2005. Retrieved 9 October 2013.