Armenian Genocide survivors

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The Armenian Genocide survivors are the Western Armenians who were not killed in the Genocide of 1915. The total number of Armenians who survived the Genocide is 880,000. Most of the Genocide survivors (about 810,000) became refugees outside Turkey, the successor state of the Ottoman Empire.

About 70,000 Armenians remain in Turkey, mostly in Istanbul. This figure does not include an unknown number of assimilated Crypto-Armenians.

Distribution[edit]

The following table shows the distribution of Armenian refugees from Turkey according to Justin McCarthy's Muslims and Minorities book.[1]

Country/region Number of Armenian refugees Main destination centers
Russian Empire
Russia Russian Empire 400,000 Eastern Armenia, Caucasus, Black Sea coast
Middle East
 Syria 100,000 Aleppo, Deir ez Zor
 Lebanon 50,000 Beirut
 Iran 50,000 Tehran
 Egypt 40,000 Cairo, Alexandria
 Iraq 25,000 Baghdad, Mosul, etc.
 Mandatory Palestine and
 Jordan
10,000 Irbid, Jerusalem, Amman, Haifa, etc.
Middle East 275,000
Europe
 Greece 45,000 Athens
 France 30,000 Marseilles
 Bulgaria 20,000 Varna, Plovdiv, Burgas
 Cyprus 2,500 Nicosia, Larnaca
Other European countries 2,000 Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Switzerland, Italy, United Kingdom
Europe 99,500
Other countries
United StatesCanada North America 35,380 Boston, Fresno, Philadelphia, Montebello, etc.
Others countries 1,000 Japan, China, India, Latin America
Other countries 36,380
TOTAL 810,880
The US State Department document of the Armenian population in 1921.

According to the US State Department, there were 817,873 Armenian refugees from Turkey in 1922.[2] However, this figure accounts for Armenians with refugee status throughout the world without a specific time period of origin. The figures were based upon information furnished by the British Embassy, Constantinople, and by the agents of the Near East Relief Society, in 1921. The total given does not include able-bodied Armenians, who are retained by the Kemalists, nor the women and children, - approximately 95,000, - according to the League of Nations – who have been forced to embrace Islam.

According to the same source, among these survivors included those 281,000 Armenians in Turkey in 1921: 150,000 In Constantinople (Istanbul) and 131,000 in Asia Minor.

Eastern Armenia[edit]

There was also an Armenian settlement problem that brought conflict with other ethnic residents. In all, there were over 300,000 embittered and impatient Armenian refugees escaping from the Ottoman Empire which were now the DRA government's responsibility. This proved an insurmountable humanitarian issue. Typhus was a major sickness, because of its effect on children. Conditions in the outlying regions, not necessarily consisting of refugees, weren't any better. The Ottoman governing structure and Russian army had already withdrawn from the region. The Armenian government had neither time nor resources to rebuild the infrastructure. The 393,700 refugees were under their jurisdiction as follows:[citation needed]

Districts Number of refugees
Yerevan 75,000
Ejmiatsin 70,000
Novo-Bayazit (Gavar) 38,000
Daralagyaz (Vayots Dzor) 36,000
Bash-Abaran (Aparan) 35,000
Ashtarak 30,000
Akhta - Yelenovka (Hrazdan - Sevan) 22,000
Bash-Garni (Garni) 15,000
Karakilisa 16,000
Dilijan 13,000
Armenia 350,000

The government of Hovhannes Kachaznuni was faced with a most sobering reality in the winter of 1918-19. The newly formed government was responsible for over half a million Armenian refugees in the Caucasus. It was a long and harsh winter.[3] The homeless masses, lacking food, clothing and medicine, had to endure the elements. Many who survived the exposure and famine succumbed to the ravaging diseases. By the spring of 1919, the typhus epidemic had run its course, the weather improved and the first American Committee for Relief in the Near East shipment of wheat reached Batum. The British army transported the aid to Yerevan. Yet by that time some 150,000 of the refugees had perished. Vratsian puts this figure at around 180,000, or nearly 20% of the entire nascent Republic. A report[by whom?] in early 1919 noted that 65% of the population of Sardarabad, 40% of the population of eight villages near Etchmiadzin and 25% of the population of Ashtarak had died.[citation needed]

Notable survivors[edit]

Documentary films[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ McCarthy, Justin (1983). Muslims and minorities: the population of Ottoman Anatolia and the end of the empire. New York: New York University press,. ISBN 0-87150-963-6. OCLC 9780871509635 
  2. ^ Approximate number of Armenian in the world, November 1922
  3. ^ Hovannisian, Richard G. (1971). The Republic of Armenia: The First Year, 1918-1919, Vol. I. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 126–155. ISBN 0-520-01984-9. 

See also[edit]