Deportation of Armenian intellectuals on 24 April 1915

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Deportation of Armenian intellectuals
Part of the Armenian Genocide
April24Victims.jpg
Some of the Armenian intellectuals who were detained, deported, and killed in 1915.
1st row: Krikor Zohrab, Daniel Varoujan, Rupen Zartarian, Ardashes Harutunian, Siamanto
2nd row: Ruben Sevak, Dikran Chökürian, Diran Kelekian, Tlgadintsi, and Erukhan
Location Ottoman Empire
Date 24 April 1915
Target Notables of the Armenian community of Constantinople
Attack type
Deportation and eventual murder
Deaths 2,345 (arrested on and within weeks after 24 April; eventually mostly killed)[1]
Perpetrators Committee of Union and Progress (Young Turks)

The deportation of Armenian intellectuals, sometimes known as Red Sunday (Armenian: Կարմիր կիրակի Garmir giragi), was an event during the Armenian Genocide in which leaders of the Armenian community of the Ottoman capital, Constantinople (today Istanbul), and later other locations were arrested and moved to two holding centers near Ankara. The order to do so was given by Minister of the Interior Talaat Pasha on 24 April 1915, the day before the Allied landings at Gallipoli. On that night, the first wave of 235 to 270 Armenian intellectuals of Constantinople were arrested. Eventually, the total number of arrests and deportations amounted to 2,345. With the adoption of the Tehcir Law on 29 May 1915, these detainees were later relocated within the Ottoman Empire and most of them were killed. A few, such as Vrtanes Papazian and Komitas, were saved through intervention.

To commemorate the victims of the Armenian Genocide, 24 April is observed as Genocide Remembrance Day. Most who commemorate the genocide consider 24 April 1915 to be the date on which it began. Genocide Remembrance Day was first observed in 1919 on the four-year anniversary of the events in Constantinople. The Armenian Genocide has since been commemorated annually on the same day, which has become a national holiday in Armenia and the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic and is observed by the Armenian diaspora around the world.

Deportation[edit]

Original copy of Instruction of the Ministry of the Interior on 24 April 1915

Detention[edit]

The Ottoman Minister of the Interior Talaat Pasha gave the detention order on 24 April 1915. The operation commenced at 8 p.m.[2] In Constantinople, the action was led by Bedri Bey, the Chief of Police of Constantinople.[3] On the night of 24–25 April 1915, in a first wave 235 to 270 Armenian leaders of Constantinople, clergymen, physicians, editors, journalists, lawyers, teachers, politicians, and others were arrested upon an instruction of the Ministry of the Interior.[4][5] The differences in number may be explained by the uncertainties of the police as they imprisoned people with the same names.

There were further deportations from the capital. The first task was to identify those imprisoned. They were held for one day in a police station (Ottoman Turkish: Emniyeti Umumiye) and the Central Prison. A second wave brought the figure to between 500 and 600.[4][6][7][8]

By the end of August 1915, about 150 Armenians with Russian citizenship were deported from Constantinople to holding centers.[9] A few of the detained, including writer Alexander Panossian (1859–1919), were released the same weekend before even being transferred to Anatolia.[10] In total, it is estimated that 2,345 Armenian notables were detained and eventually deported,[1][11] most of whom were not nationalists and did not have any political affiliations.[1]

Holding centers[edit]

Deportation of Armenian intellectuals on 24 April 1915 is located in Turkey
Çankırı
Çankırı
Ayaş
Ayaş
Constantinople
Constantinople
Deir ez-Zor
Deir ez-Zor
Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
Magnify-clip.png
Key locations

After the passage of Tehcir Law on 29 May 1915, Armenians left at the two holding centers were deported to Ottoman Syria. Most of the arrested were transferred from Central Prison over Saray Burnu by steamer No. 67 of the Şirket company to the Haydarpaşa train station. After waiting for ten hours, they were sent by special train in the direction of Ankara the next day. The entire convoy consisted of 220 Armenians.[12] An Armenian train conductor got a list of names of the deportees. It was handed over to the Armenian Patriarch of Constantinople, Zaven Der Yeghiayan, who immediately tried in vain to save as many deportees as possible. The only foreign ambassador to help him in his efforts was US ambassador Henry Morgenthau.[13] After a train journey of 20 hours, the deportees got off in Sincanköy (near Ankara) Tuesday noon. At the station Ibrahim, the director of the Central Prison of Constantinople, did the triage. The deportees were divided into two groups.

One group was sent to Çankırı (and Çorum between Çankırı and Amasya) and the other to Ayaş. Those separated for Ayaş were transported in carts for a couple of hours further to Ayaş. Almost all of them were killed several months later in gorges near Ankara.[14] Only ten (or 13)[3] deportees of this group were granted permission to return to Constantinople from Ayaş.[n 1] A group of 20 latecomers arrested on 24 April arrived in Çankırı around 7 or 8 May 1915.[15] Roughly 150 political prisoners were detained in Ayaş, and another 150 intellectual prisoners were detained in Çankırı.[16]

Court martial[edit]

Some notables such as Dr. Nazaret Daghavarian and Sarkis Minassian were removed on 5 May from the Ayaş prison and taken under military escort to Diyarbakır along with Harutiun Djangulian, Karekin Khajag, and Rupen Zartarian to appear before a court martial. They were, seemingly, murdered by state-sponsored paramilitary groups led by Cherkes Ahmet, and lieutenants Halil and Nazım, at a locality called Karacaören shortly before arriving to Diyarbakır.[10] Marzbed, another deportee, was dispatched to Kayseri to appear before a court martial on 18 May 1915.[17]

The militants responsible for the murders were tried and executed in Damascus by Djemal Pasha in September 1915; the incident later became the subject of a 1916 investigation by the Ottoman Parliament led by Artin Boshgezenian, the deputy for Aleppo. After Marzbed's release from the court, he worked under a false Ottoman identity for the Germans in Intilli (Amanus railway tunnel). He escaped to Nusaybin, where he fell from a horse and died shortly before the armistice.[17]

Release[edit]

Several prisoners were released with the help of various influential people intervening on their behalf.[18] Five deportees from Çankırı were freed upon the intervention of the United States ambassador Henry Morgenthau.[3] In total, 12 deportees were granted permission to return to Constantinople from Çankırı.[n 2] These were Komitas, Piuzant Kechian, Dr. Vahram Torkomian, Dr. Parsegh Dinanian, Haig Hojasarian, Nshan Kalfayan, Yervant Tolayan, Aram Kalenderian, Noyig Der-Stepanian, Vrtanes Papazian, Karnik Injijian, and Beylerian junior. Four deportees were granted permission to come back from Konya.[n 3] These were Apig Miubahejian, Atamian, Kherbekian, and Nosrigian.[9]

The remaining deportees were under the protection of governor of Ankara Vilayet. Mazhar Bey defied the orders of deportation from Talat Pasha, the Interior Minister.[19] By the end of July 1915, Mazhar was replaced by central committee member Atif Bey.[20]

Survivors[edit]

After the Armistice of Mudros (30 October 1918), several surviving Armenian intellectuals came back to Constantinople, which was under an allied occupation. They started a short, but intense, literary activity that was ended by the Turkish victory in 1923. Those who have written memoirs and books about their accounts during the deportation include Krikor Balakian, Aram Andonian, Yervant Odian, Teotig, and Mikayel Shamtanchyan.[21] Other survivors, such as Komitas, developed serious cases of post-traumatic stress disorder. Komitas underwent 20 years of treatment in mental asylums until his death in 1935.[22]

Day of remembrance[edit]

The official date of remembrance for the Armenian Genocide is 24 April, the day that marked the beginning of the deportation of Armenian intellectuals. The first commemoration, organized by a group of Armenian Genocide survivors, was held in Istanbul in 1919 at the local St. Trinity Armenian church.[23] Many prominent figures in the Armenian community participated in the commemoration. Following its initial commemoration in 1919, the date became the annual day of remembrance for the Armenian Genocide.[23]

Notable deportees[edit]

Below is a list of prominent Armenian intellectuals, community leaders and other public figures that were deported from Constantinople on 24 April 1915, the first wave of the deportations. The list of names are those that have been provided in the Ottoman Archives and various Armenian sources:

Name[n 4] Birth date
and place[n 5]
Fate Political affiliation Occupation Deported to Notes
Abo, SarkisSarkis Abo
Սարգիս Ապօ
Killed Dashnak Teacher Ayaş Armenian from Caucasus, killed in Ankara.[17]
Aghababian, LevonLevon Aghababian
Լեւոն Աղապապեան
1887
from Bitlis
Died Mathematician, headmaster of high schools in Kütahya and Akşehir (1908–14), directed his own school in Kütahya for three years[24] Çankırı Died in 1915.[24]
Aghajanian, HrantHrant Aghajanian
Հրանդ Աղաճանեան
Killed Çankırı Brought to the gallows in Beyazıt Square (Constantinople) on 18 January 1916.[9]
Aghajanian, MihranMihran Aghajanian
Միհրան Աղաճանեան
Killed Banker[17] Ayaş Returned to Constantinople where he was brought to the gallows.[17]
Aghasyan, MihranMihran Aghasyan
Միհրան Աղասեան
1854 in Edirne Killed Poet and musician Der Zor Deported to Der Zor, where he was killed in 1916.[25]
Malumian, KhachaturKhachatur Malumian
Խաչատուր Մալումեան
1865
in Zangezur
Killed Dashnak Dashnak militant, newspaper editor, played a role in organizing an assembly of forces in opposition to the Ottoman Sultan, resulting in the proclamation of the Ottoman Constitution in 1908. Ayaş Removed from the Ayaş prison on 5 May and taken under military escort to Diyarbakır along with Daghavarian, Jangülian, Khajag, Minassian and Zartarian to appear before a court martial there and they were, seemingly, murdered by state-sponsored paramilitary groups led by Cherkes Ahmet, and lieutenants Halil and Nazım, at a locality called Karacaören shortly before arriving to Diyarbakır.[10] The murderers were tried and executed in Damascus by Cemal Pasha in September 1915, and the assassinations became the subject of a 1916 investigation by the Ottoman Parliament led by Artin Boshgezenian, the deputy for Aleppo.
Ajemian, DikranDikran Ajemian
Տիգրան Աճեմեան
Survived Ayaş Returned to Constantinople[17] out of a group of ten deportees from Ayaş.[9]
Allahverdi, DikranDikran Allahverdi
Տիգրան Ալլահվերտի
Survived Member of different patriarchal councils Ayaş Returned to Constantinople.[17]
Altunian, VahanVahan Altunian
Վահան Ալթունեան
Survived Dentist[24] Çankırı Permitted to return to Constantinople soon after 11 May 1915.[26] He left Çankırı on 6 August 1915, was jailed in Ankara, was displaced to Tarson, arrived in Constantinople on 22 September 1915.[24]
Altunian, VahramVahram Altunian
Վահրամ Ալթունեան
Died[24] Merchant[24] Çankırı
Andonian, AramAram Andonian
Արամ Անտոնեան
1875
in Constantinople
Survived Hunchak[27] Հնչակեան Վերակազմ[28] Writer and journalist; member of Armenian National Assembly[29] Çankırı Belonged to the second convoy with only one[3] or two survivors that left Çankırı on 19 August 1915, broke his leg, was jailed in Ankara 20–24 August then escaped after hospitalization in Ankara Hospital.[30] He joined another caravan of deportees and returned to Constantinople only after Tarsus, Mardin, Der Zor, Haleb,[24] he stayed in concentration camps around the town of Meskene in the desert,[27] published his experiences in his literary work In those dark days, he edited a collection of telegrams, the authenticity of which is disputed, containing Talat Pasha's extermination orders; he assumed directorship of the AGBU Nubar library in Paris from 1928 to 1951.[31]
Arabian, V.V. Arabian
Վ. Արապեան
Patriot or educator[5]
Armdantsi, SarkisSarkis Armdantsi
Սարգիս Արմտանցի
Killed Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Armuni, K.K. Armuni
Գ. Արմունի
Lawyer[5]
Arsenian, AsadurAsadur Arsenian
Ասատուր Արսենեան
Killed Pharmacist[24] Çankırı Belonged to the second convoy with only one[3] or two survivors that left Çankırı on 19 August 1915, jailed in Ankara 20–24 August killed en route to Yozgat[30] or died near Der Zor.[24]
Arslanian
Արսլանեան
Merchant(?)[24] Çankırı
Artsruni
Արծրունի
Killed[9] Patriot or educator[5] Çankırı
Arzumanian, BaruyrBaruyr Arzumanian
Պարոյր Արզումանեան
Killed Çankırı Belonged to the second convoy with only one[3] or two survivors that left Çankırı on 19 August 1915, jailed in Ankara 20–24 August, killed en route to Yozgat.[30]
Asadurian, VahramVahram Asadurian
Վահրամ Ասատուրեան
from Gedikpaşa Survived[14] Pharmacist Çankırı Deported to Meskene where he served finally in the army as assistant physician and helped Armenian deportees.[24]
Asadurian, H.H. Asadurian
Յ. Ասատուրեան
Survived Print office owner[9] Ayaş Granted permission to return.[9]
Asdurian, HarutiunHarutiun Asdurian
Յարութիւն Աստուրեան
Killed Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Asdvadzadrian, HranHran Asdvadzadrian
Հրանդ Աստուածատրեան
Survived Ayaş Returned to Constantinople.[17]
Ashkharuni, D.D. Ashkharuni
Տ. Աշխարունի
Patriot or educator[5]
Atamian
Ադամեան
from Erzurum Survived Merchant[9] Konya Granted permission to return.[9]
Atanasian, VarteresVarteres Atanasian
Վարդերես Աթանասեան
1874 Died Hunchak "Headman" (mukhtar) of Feriköy, merchant[24] Çankırı Died in 1916 (?)[24]
Ayvazian, Yeghise KahanayYeghise Kahanay Ayvazian
Եղիսէ Քհնյ. Այվազեան
13 October 1870
in Bolu
Clergyman Jailed in Constan­tinople for two months Deported to Konya, Bey Shehir, Konya, Ulukshla, Ereyli (where he met many clergymen from Bardizag), Bozanti, Cardaklik, Tarsus. He left Tarsus on 15 October 1915 in direction of Osmaniye, Islahiye, Tahtaköprü to the outskirts of Aleppo.[5]
Azarik
Ազարիք
Died Pharmacist Çankırı Died in Der Zor.[14]
Balakian, KrikorisKrikoris Balakian
Գրիգորիս Պալաքեան
1879
in Tokat
Survived Clergyman Çankırı Escaped. Lived in Manchester and Marseille after the war — Published his memoirs[32] of exile.[10] Died in Marseille in 1934.
Balassan
Պալասան
Muslim from Persia Killed Adopted as child by Dashnak Doorman and coffee boy for editorial staff of Azadamard Ayaş Killed despite intervention from Persian Embassy.
Bardizbanian, KhachigKhachig Bardizbanian
Խաչիկ Պարտիզպանեան
Killed Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Bardizbanian, LevonLevon Bardizbanian
Լեւոն Պարտիզպանեան
1887
in Kharpert
Dashnak[24] Physician and director of Azadamard
Bardizbanian, VaghinagVaghinag Bardizbanian
Վաղինակ Պարտիզպանեան
Survived Official of the Khayrie navigation company[14][24] Çankırı Permitted to return to Constantinople soon after 11 May 1915.[26]
Bardizbanian, ZarehZareh Bardizbanian
Զարեհ Պարտիզպանեան
Dentist Çankırı Permitted to return to Constantinople by special telegramme from Talat Pasha on 7 May 1915.[33] The eight prisoners of this group were notified on Sunday, 9 May 1915, about their release[34] and left Çankırı on 11 May 1915.[26]
Basmajian, ManukManuk Basmajian
Մանուկ Պասմաճեան
Survived[24] Architect and intellectual[24] Çankırı Permitted to return to Constantinople soon after 11 May 1915.[26]
Basmajian, MkrtichMkrtich Basmajian[n 6]
Մկրտիչ Պասմաճեան
Survived Arms dealer[14] Çankırı Sent to İzmit for further interrogations together with other deportees. Fled to Konya. Was deported again, managed to escape half way to Der Zor and returned to Constantinople.[24]
Bazdikian, D.D. Bazdikian
Տ. Պազտիկեան
Patriot or educator[5]
Bedig
Պետիկ
Writer, publicist[5]
Bedrosian, MovsesMovses Bedrosian
Մովսէս Պետրոսեան
Dashnak Teacher Çankırı Set free as he was a Bulgarian national and returned to Sofia.[14]
Beylikjian, G.G. Beylikjian
Կ. Պէյլիքճեան
Merchant[5]
Berberian, KhachigKhachig Berberian
Խաչիկ Պէրպէրեան
Survived Teacher[17] Ayaş Returned to Constantinople.[17]
Beyazian, E.E. Beyazian
Ե. Պէյազեան
Patriot or educator[5]
Beylerian
Պէյլերեան
Son of Hagop Beylerian Çankırı
Beylerian, HagopHagop Beylerian
Յակոբ Պէյլերեան
1843
from Kayseri(?)[35]
Survived[24] Father of Beylerian son[24] Merchant[24] Çankırı Permitted to return to Constantinople soon after 11 May 1915,[26] died in 1921(?)[35]
Boghosian, ArtinArtin Boghosian
Արթին Պօղոսեան
Survived Çankırı "Pardoned on condition on not returning to Constantinople" according to a telegramme from the Ministry of the Interior on 25 August 1915 on the subject of exiles erroneously unlisted in a former 3 August telegramme.[36]
Boghosian, KhachigKhachig Boghosian
Խաչիկ Պօղոսեան
Survived Doctor, psychologist, deputy of the Armenian National Assembly[24] Ayaş Arrested 24 April 1915, exiled 3 May 1915. He arrived in Constantinople after further deportation from Ayaş to Ankara and Aleppo after the armistice.[24] Lived in Aleppo after the war. Founded a hospital. Published his memoirs of exile[10] - d. 1955 in Aleppo.
Boyadjian, HampartsoumHampartsoum Boyadjian
(Mourad)
Համբարձում Պօյաճեան

(Մուրատ)

1867
in Hadjin
(Saimbeyli today)
Killed Hunchak Doctor, with a long and well-known history of political activity and agitation, one of the first organizers of the Hunchak in 1888 and one of its leaders, principal organizer of the 1890 Kumkapı affray, leader of the 1894–1895 Sasun revolt, after 1908 Armenian National Assembly delegate from Kumkapı and deputy of Ottoman Parliament from Adana. Mourad was his nom de guerre.[10] Çankırı He was led to Kayseri to appear before a court martial and then was executed there in 1915.[17]
Bozajian, PiuzantPiuzant Bozajian
Բիւզանդ Պօզաճեան
Survived Member of Armenian National Assembly[17] Ayaş Returned to Constantinople.[17]
Chplakian, Gh.Gh. Chplakian
Ղ. Չպլաքեան
Survived Konya Deported to Konya, Tarsus, Kuşcular, Belemedik. Returned to Constantinople after the armistice.[9]
Chavushyan, YervantYervant Chavushyan
Երունդ Չաւուշեան
1867
Constantinople[24]
Died Hunchak Armenian scientist, teacher, editor-in-chief of "Tzayn Hayrenyats" newspaper. Çankırı Deported to Hamman, Der Zor, where he died from illness.[25] He died at the same time in the same tent in a village near Meskene as Husig A. Kahanay Katchouni.[14]
Chebjie
Ջպճը
Armenian-Catholic[24] Architect Çankırı
Chökürian, DikranDikran Chökürian
Տիգրան Չէօկիւրեան
1884
Gyumushkana
Killed Writer, publicist,[5] teacher and chief editor of Vostan.[17] Ayaş Killed in Ankara; brother of Chökürian below[17]
Chökürian
Չէօկիւրեան
Writer, publicist[5] Brother of Dikran Chökürian
Cheraz, KasparKaspar Cheraz
Գասպար Չերազ
1850
in Hasköy
Survived Lawyer, public figure, brother of Minas Cheraz Çankırı Departed from Çankırı in winter after seven months and survived the next three years as refugee in Uşak together with his companions Hovhan Vartaped Garabedian, Mikayel Shamtanchian, Vartan Kahanay Karagözian from Feriköy. After the armistice he returned to Constantinople.[5] He was deported instead of his brother Minas Cheraz who emigrated to France, Kaspar Cheraz died in 1928 in Constantinople.[24]
Chukhajian, K.K. Chukhajian
Գ. Չուհաճեան
Merchant[5]
Dadurian, AharonAharon Dadurian
Ահարոն Տատուրեան
1886
in Ovacik (near İzmit)
Survived Poet[9] Eregli Returned to Constantinople after the armistice.[9] After a brief sojourn in Constantinople and Bulgaria, he pursued his studies in Prague (1923–28) and settled in France in the late 1920s. He died in 1965.[31]
Daghavarian, NazaretNazaret Daghavarian
Նազարէթ Տաղաւարեան
1862
Sebastia
Killed Physician, director of Surp Prgitch Hospital, deputy in the Ottoman parliament, deputy for Sivas in the Armenian National Assembly, founding member of Armenian General Benevolent Union. Ayaş Removed from the Ayaş prison on 5 May and taken under military escort to Diyarbakır along with Agnouni, Jangülian, Khajag, Minassian and Zartarian to appear before a court martial there and they were, seemingly, murdered by state-sponsored paramilitary groups led by Cherkes Ahmet, and lieutenants Halil and Nazım, at a locality called Karacaören shortly before arriving to Diyarbakır,[10] killed on the way to Urfa.[17] The murderers were tried and executed in Damascus by Cemal Pasha in September 1915, and the assassinations became the subject of a 1916 investigation by the Ottoman Parliament led by Artin Boshgezenian, the deputy for Aleppo.
Danielian
Դանիէլեան
Survived[14] Hunchak Tailor[14] Çankırı
Danielian, BoghosBoghos Danielian
Պօղոս Դանիէլեան
Died Dashnak Lawyer[5] Çankırı Died in Der Zor.[14]
Deovletian, GarabedGarabed Deovletian
Կարապետ Տէօվլեթեան
Survived Official of the mint[24] Çankırı Permitted to return to Constantinople soon after 11 May 1915.[26]
Der-Kaprielian, NersesNerses Der-Kaprielian
(Shahnour)
Ներսես Տէր-Գաբրիէլեան
(Շահնուր)
from Kayseri Killed Çankırı Belonged to the second convoy with only one[3] or two survivors that left Çankırı on 19 August 1915, jailed in Ankara 20–24 August killed en route to Yozgat.[30]
Der-Stepanian, NoyigNoyig Der-Stepanian[n 7]
Նոյիկ Տէր-Ստեփանեան
from Erzincan[24] Survived Commission agent, merchant and banker[24] Çankırı Permitted to return to Constantinople soon after 11 May 1915.[26] About 40 members of his family died.[24]
Dinanian, ParseghParsegh Dinanian
Բարսեղ Տինանեան
Survived Physician Çankırı Permitted to return to Constantinople soon after 11 May 1915.[26] One of the organizers of the commemoration ceremony of 24 April 1919.[24]
Diratsvian, K.K. Diratsvian
Գ. Տիրացուեան
Writer, publicist[5]
Dkhruni, Khor.Khor. Dkhruni
Խոր. Տխրունի
Writer, publicist[5]
Djelal, KrikorKrikor Djelal
Գրիգոր Ճելալ
Survived Hunchak[24] Çankırı Permitted to return to Constantinople soon after 11 May 1915.[26]
Djevahirdjian, MissakMissak Djevahirdjian
Միսաք Ճէվահիրճեան
1858
from Kayseri
Survived Physician (gynaecologist at the court), member of a tribunal council[24] Çankırı Permitted to return to Constantinople on 11 May 1915.[26] The eight prisoners of this group were notified on Sunday, 9 May 1915, about their release[34] and left Çankırı on 11 May 1915.[26] Set free with the help of his friend Pesin Omer Paşa, died in 1924.[24]
Dorian, ArmenArmen Dorian
(Hrachia Surenian)
Արմեն Տօրեան
(Հրաչյա Սուրէնեան)
1892
Sinop
Killed French-Armenian poet, editor of "Arene" weekly (Paris), founder of the Pantheist school.[37] Çankırı Finished the Sorbonne University in 1914 and returned to Constantinople.[37] Deported to Çankırı, killed in Anatolian desert;[25] was jailed in Ankara after Çankırı and killed according to Nshan Kalfayan,[24] killed near Ankara.[14]
Fenerjian, ChrisChris Fenerjian
(Silvio Ricci)
Survived Ayaş Set free as Bulgarian national and returned to Bulgaria.[9][17]
Ferukhan, ParunakParunak Ferukhan
Բարունակ Ֆէրուխան
1884 in
Constantinople[24]
Killed Official of Bakırköy (Makriköy) administration and violinist[24] Çankırı Belonged to the second convoy with only one[3] or two survivors that left Çankırı on 19 August 1915, jailed in Ankara 20–24 August killed en route to Yozgat.[30]
Garabedian, Hovhan VartapedHovhan Vartaped Garabedian
Յովհան Վրդ. Կարապետեան
22 June 1888
in Brusa
Survived Clergyman, M.A. of University of Columbia, secretary of patriarch Zaven[5] Çankırı Studied in the United States, came back in 1914 and was ordained priest on 16 June 1914 in Echmiadzin. He departed from Çankırı in winter after seven months and survived the next three years as refugee in Uşak together with his companions Kaspar Cheraz, Mikayel Shamtanchian, Vartan Kahanay Karagözian from Feriköy. After the armistice he returned to Constantinople and became priest in Gedikpaşa and Balat, member of the religious council. From 20 July 1919 – 5 August 1920 he was elected primate of İzmir. Later he got a higher degree as celibate priest (Ծ. Վրդ.). On 8 January 1921 he left for America and became priest of the St. Lusavorich church in New York.[5] He survived and left the clergy.[14]
Garabedian, MkrtichMkrtich Garabedian
Մկրտիչ Կարապետեան
Survived Armenian-Catholic[9] Ayaş Granted permission to return to capital as he was wrongly imprisoned in place of the teacher with same name.[9]
Ghazaros
Ղազարոս
Dashnak Çankırı Deported in lieu of Marzbed (Ghazar Ghazarian).[24]
Ghonchegülian
Ղոնչէկիւլեան
Died Merchant from Akn[24] Çankırı Died near Meskene.[14]
Krikor Torosyan (Gigo)
Գրիգոր Թորոսեան (Կիկօ)
1884 in Akn Killed Editor of the satirical newspaper Gigo[17] Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Gülustanian
Կիւլուստանեան
Killed[10] / Survived[14] Dentist Çankırı "Permitted to reside freely in Çankırı" according to a telegramme from the Ministry of the Interior on 25 August 1915 on the subject of exiles erroneously unlisted in a former 3 August telegramme.[36] Killed in a village called Tüney in 1915, together with Ruben Sevak, Daniel Varoujan and Mağazacıyan[10] in a group of five.
Gülustanian, MelkonMelkon Gülustanian
Մելքոն Կիւլուստանեան
Survived Ayaş Relative of his namesake in Çankırı;[24] set free and returned to Constantinople.[17]
Goshgarian, HaigHaig Goshgarian
Հայկ Կօշկարեան
Survived Editor of Odian and Gigo Der Zor Survived deportation to Der Zor and returned to Constantinople after the armistice.[9]
Reverend Grigorian, Grigorian
Սուրբ Հայր Գրիգորեան
Pastor and editor of Avetaper[14] Çankırı
Gülesserian, MelkonMelkon Gülesserian
Մելքոն Կիւլեսերեան
Survived Çankırı Permitted to return to Constantinople soon after 11 May 1915.[26]
Haigazn, MihrdatMihrdat Haigazn
Միհրդատ Հայկազն
Killed Dashnak Patriot or educator,[5] member of Armenian National Assembly, umbrella merchant.[17] Ayaş Banished a couple of times and then killed in Ankara.[17]
Hajian, K.K. Hajian
Գ. Հաճեան
Pharmacist Çankırı Returned from Çankırı after the armistice.[24]
Hampartsumian, HampartsumHampartsum Hampartsumian
Համբարձում Համբարձումեան
1890 in Constantinople Killed Writer, publicist[5] Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Hanisian, HovhannesHovhannes Hanisian
Յովհաննէս Հանիսեան
Survived Çankırı "Pardoned on condition on not returning to Constantinople" according to a telegramme from the Ministry of the Interior on 25 August 1915 on the subject of exiles erroneously unlisted in a former 3 August telegramme.[36]
Harutunian, ArdashesArdashes Harutunian
Արտաշէս Յարութիւնեան
1873
Malkara (near Rodosto)
Killed Writer, publicist[5] Stayed in Üsküdar on 24 April 1915. Arrested on 28 July 1915 and severely beaten at the Müdüriyet. When his father came to see him he was imprisoned as well. Father and son were deported together with 26 Armenians to Nicomedia (modern İzmit) and jailed in the Armenian church converted into a prison. Finally stabbed to death together with his father near Derbent on 16 August 1915.[9]
Hayrikian, AbrahamAbraham Hayrikian
Աբրահամ Հայրիկեան
Killed Turkologist, director of Ardi college, member of Armenian National Assembly[17] Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Hiusian, K.K. Hiusian
Գ. Հիւսեան
Patriot or educator[5]
Hojasarian, HaigHaig Hojasarian
Հայկ Խօճասարեան
Survived Teacher, educator, headmaster of Bezciyan school (1901–1924),[35] politician in Ramgavar Çankırı Permitted to return to Constantinople mid-June 1915, deputy of the Armenian National Assembly in 1919[24] became later chancellor of the Diocese of the Armenian Church of America.[10]
Hovhannessian, MkrtichMkrtich Hovhannessian
Մկրտիչ Յովհաննէսեան
Killed Dashnak Teacher Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Hovhannessian, MkrtichMkrtich Hovhannessian
Մկրտիչ Յովհաննէսեան
Survived Ayaş Deported in lieu of Dashnak member Mkritch Hovhannessian, returned to Constantinople.[17]
Giurdjian, MelkonMelkon Giurdjian (Hrant)
Մելքոն Կիւրճեան (Հրանդ)
1859 in Palu Killed Dashnak Writer, publicist,[5] armenologist, member of Armenian National Assembly[17] Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Hürmüz, KrikorKrikor Hürmüz
Գրիգոր Հիւրմիւզ
Killed[9] Writer, publicist[5]
Idarejian, KhachigKhachig Idarejian
Խաչիկ Իտարէճեան
Killed Teacher Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Injijian, KarnikKarnik Injijian
Գառնիկ Ինճիճեան
Survived[14] Merchant[24] Çankırı Came free upon request.[9]
Israelian , ArisAris Israelian (Dkhruni)
Արիս Իսրայէլեան (Տխրունի)
1885 Died Dashnak Teacher, writer Çankırı Was in Konya in 1916, died later under unknown circumstances.[14][24]
Jambaz, ApigApig Jambaz
Աբիկ Ճամպազ
from Pera[24] Died[24] Armenian-Catholic[24] Merchant[24] Çankırı Permitted to return to Constantinople soon after 11 May 1915.[26]
Djangulian, HarutiunHarutiun Djangulian
Յարութիւն Ճանկիւլեան
1855
in Van
Killed Hunchak One of the organizers of the 1890 Kumkapı affray, political activist, member of Armenian National Assembly, published his memoirs in 1913. Ayaş Dispatched to Diyarbakir, but executed after Aleppo between Urfa and Severek by Haci Tellal Hakimoglu (Haci Onbasi)[38] - Removed from the Ayaş prison on 5 May and taken under military escort to Diyarbakır along with Daghavarian, Agnouni, Khajag, Minassian and Zartarian to appear before a court martial there and they were, seemingly, murdered by state-sponsored paramilitary groups led by Cherkes Ahmet, and lieutenants Halil and Nazım, at a locality called Karacaören shortly before arriving to Diyarbakır.[10] The murderers were tried and executed in Damascus by Cemal Pasha in September 1915, and the assassinations became the subject of a 1916 investigation by the Ottoman Parliament led by Artin Boshgezenian, the deputy for Aleppo.
Kalenderian, AramAram Kalenderian
Արամ Գալէնտէրեան
Survived Official of the Ottoman Bank[14] Was set free.[9]
Kalfayan, HarutiunHarutiun Kalfayan
Յարութիւն Գալֆաեան
in Üsküdar Died Hunchak Director of Arhanyan College Çankırı Died in 1915.[10] Not to be confused with his namesake, also a deportee but a Dashnak member, who was mayor of Bakırköy (Makriköy) quarter of Constantinople.
Kalfayan, HarutiunHarutiun Kalfayan
Յարութիւն Գալֆաեան[n 8]
1870
in Talas
Died in Ankara[24] Dashnak Lawyer, mayor of Bakırköy (Makriköy) Çankırı Died in 1915.[10] Uncle of Nshan Kalfayan.[24] Not to be confused with his namesake, also a deportee but a Hunchak member, who was a schoolmaster.
Kalfayan, NshanNshan Kalfayan
Նշան Գալֆաեան
16 April 1865
in Üsküdar[39]
Survived Agronomist, lecturer in agriculture at Berberyan school[35] Çankırı Permitted to return to Constantinople soon after 11 May 1915.[26] Moved to Greece in 1924. Invited to Persia in 1927 to administer properties of the Shah. Was a correspondent for the Académie française.[24]
Kantaren[24]
Գանթարեն
Çankırı
Karagözian, RafaelRafael Karagözian
Ռաֆայէլ Գարակէօզեան
Survived Çankırı Permitted to return to Constantinople by a telegramme from Talat Pasha on 7 May 1915.[33]
Karagözian, TakvorTakvor Karagözian(?)
Թագւոր Գարակէօզեան
Merchant[24] Çankırı
Karagözian, Vartan KahanayVartan Kahanay Karagözian
Վարդան Քհնյ. Գարակէօզեան
15 July 1877
in Kumkapı, Constantinople
Survived Clergyman from Feriköy Çankırı Departed from Çankırı in winter after seven months and survived the next three years as refugee in Uşak together with his companions Hovhan Vartaped Garabedian, Kaspar Cheraz, Mikayel Shamtanchian. After the armistice he returned to Constantinople.[5]
Kasparian, AristakesAristakes Kasparian
Արիստակէս Գասպարեան
1861
in Adana
Killed Lawyer, businessman, member of Armenian National Assembly Ayaş[17] Killed in Ankara.[17]
Katchouni, Husig A. KahanayHusig A. Kahanay Katchouni
Յուսիկ Ա. Քհնյ. Քաջունի
1851
in Arapgir
Died Dashnak[24] Clergyman Çankırı Deported further and died from illness in a village near Meskene. He died at the same time in the same tent as Yervant Chavushyan.[14]
Kayekjian, KevorkKevork Kayekjian
Գէորգ Գայըգճեան
Killed Merchant[24] Çankırı Belonged to the second convoy with only one[3] or two survivors that left Çankırı on 19 August 1915, jailed in Ankara 20–24 August killed en route to Yozgat.[30] Three Kayekjian brothers were deported and killed altogether near Ankara.[24]
Kayekjian, LevonLevon Kayekjian
Լեւոն Գայըգճեան
Killed Merchant[24] Çankırı Belonged to the second convoy with only one[3] or two survivors that left Çankırı on 19 August 1915, jailed in Ankara 20–24 August killed en route to Yozgat.[30] Three Kayekjian brothers were deported and killed altogether near Ankara.[24]
Kayekjian, MihranMihran Kayekjian
Միհրան Գայըգճեան
Killed Merchant[24] Çankırı Belonged to the second convoy with only one[3] or two survivors that left Çankırı on 19 August 1915, jailed in Ankara 20–24 August killed en route to Yozgat.[30] Three Kayekjian brothers were deported and killed altogether near Ankara.[24]
Kazazian, Arshak KahanayArshak Kahanay Kazazian
Արշակ Քհնյ. Գազազեան
Survived[14] Clergyman Çankırı
Kechian, PiuzantPiuzant Kechian
Բիւզանդ Քէչեան
1859 Survived Editor, owner of influential newspaper Piuzantion, historian Çankırı Permitted to return to Constantinople by special telegramme from Talat Pasha on 7 May 1915.[33] The eight prisoners of this group were notified on Sunday, 9 May 1915, about their release[34] and left Çankırı on 11 May 1915.[26] Returned to Constantinople on 1 May 1915 [old calendar](?) and stayed in Plovdiv, Bulgaria, until the end of the war,[n 9] died in 1927[35] or 1928.[24]
Kehiayan , VahanVahan Kehiayan (Dökmeji Vahan)
Վահան Քէհեաեան
1874
in Urfa
Killed Hunchak Patriot or educator[5] and craftsman[24] Çankırı Killed on 26 August 1915 together with Ruben Sevak, Daniel Varoujan, Onnik Maghazajian, Artin Kocho.[24]
Kelekian, DiranDiran Kelekian
Տիրան Քէլէկեան
1862
Kayseri
Killed Ramgavar[14] Writer, university professor, publisher of a popular Turkish language newspapar, Sabah,[40] freemason, author of a French-Turkish dictionary which is still a reference.[41] Çankırı Permitted to reside with his family anywhere outside Constantinople by special order from Talat Pasha on 8 May 1915,[42] chose Smyrna, but was taken under military escort to Çorum to appear before a court martial and killed on 20 October 1915 on the way to Sivas between Yozgat and Kayseri near the bridge Cokgöz on the Kizilirmak.[30]
Kerestejian, AkrigAkrig Kerestejian
Ագրիկ Քերեսթեճեան
1855
in Kartal
Died[24] Merchant of wood[24] (coincides with the literal meaning of his name)
Keropian, GarabedGarabed Keropian
Պատ. Կարապետ Քերոբեան
from Balıkesir[5] Survived Pastor[n 10] Çankırı Permitted to return to Constantinople by special telegramme from Talat Pasha on 7 May 1915.[33] The eight prisoners of this group were notified on Sunday, 9 May 1915, about their release[34] and left Çankırı on 11 May 1915.[26] He went to America.[5]
Ketenjian, MirzaMirza Ketenjian
Միրզա Քեթենենճեան
Survived[14] Dashnak
Khajag, KarekinKarekin Khajag
born as Karekin Chakalian
Գարեգին Խաժակ (Գարեգին Չագալեան)
1867
in Alexandropol
Killed Dashnak Newspaper editor, teacher. Ayaş Removed from the Ayaş prison on 5 May and taken under military escort to Diyarbakır along with Daghavarian, Agnouni, Jangülian, Minassian and Zartarian to appear before a court martial there and they were, seemingly, murdered by state-sponsored paramilitary groups led by Cherkes Ahmet, and lieutenants Halil and Nazım, at a locality called Karacaören shortly before arriving to Diyarbakır.[10] The murderers were tried and executed in Damascus by Cemal Pasha in September 1915, and the assassinations became the subject of a 1916 investigation by the Ottoman Parliament led by Artin Boshgezenian, the deputy for Aleppo.
Khazkhazian, A.A. Khazkhazian
Ա. Խազխազեան
Merchant[5]
Kherbekian
Խերպէկեան
from Erzurum Merchant[9] Konya Granted permission to return.[9]
Kilijian, HovhannesHovhannes Kilijian
Յովհաննէս Գըլըճեան
Killed Bookseller[17] Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Kiljian, SarkisSarkis Kiljian (S. Srents)
Սարգիս Գըլճեան (Ս. Սրենց)
Survived Dashnak Teacher, writer, publicist Çankırı Escaped from Çankırı to Konya and became Deputy of the Armenian National Assembly in 1919.[24]
Kımpetyan, HovhannesHovhannes Kımpetyan(Kmpetian)
Յովհաննէս Գմբէթեան
1894 in Sivas Killed Armenian poet and educator[43] Çankırı Killed during the deportation in Ras al-Ain.[43]
Kocho, ArtinArtin Kocho (Harutiun Pekmezian)
Գոչօ Արթին (Յարութիւն Պէքմէզեան)
Killed Bread seller in Ortaköy[24] Çankırı Killed by 12 çetes on 26 August 1915 6 hours after Çankırı near the han of Tüneh in a group of five.[24]
Köleyan, Kevork or HovhannesKevork or Hovhannes Köleyan
Գէորգ կամ Յովհաննէս Քէօլէեան
Killed Çankırı Killed near Ankara.[14]
Körkian, Nerses (Der-)Nerses (Der-) Körkian
Ներսէս (Տէր-) Գէորգեան
Merchant[24] Çankırı Was betrayed by a competitor.[24]
Komitas
Կոմիտաս
1869
in Kütahya
Survived Priest, composer, ethnomusicologist, founder of a number choirs[n 11] Çankırı Permitted to return to Constantinople by special telegramme from Talat Pasha on 7 May 1915.[33] The eight prisoners of this group were notified on Sunday, 9 May 1915, about their release[34] and left Çankırı on 11 May 1915[26] - developed a severe form of Posttraumatic stress disorder and spent twenty years in virtual silence in mental asylums, died 1935 in Paris.[34]
Konyalian, HarutiunHarutiun Konyalian
Յարութիւն Գօնիալեան
Killed Tailor[17] Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Korian, HagopHagop Korian
Յակոբ Գորեան
from Akn, in his seventies[24] Survived Merchant, occasionally a teacher[24] Çankırı Permitted to return to Constantinople soon after 11 May 1915.[26] He left Çankırı on 6 August 1915, was jailed in Ankara, was displaced to Tarson, arrived in Constantinople on 22 September 1915.[24]
Kosmos[24]
Կոզմոս
Çankırı
Krissian, ShavarshShavarsh Krissian
Շաւարշ Քրիսեան
1886 in Constantinople Killed Dashnak[17] Writer, publicist,[5] teacher,[17] editor of the first sports magazine of the Ottoman Empire Marmnamarz[44] Ayaş He organized gym exercises in Ayaş. Until the deportees of Ayaş had learned about the 20 Hunchakian gallows of 15 June 1915, they weren't realising the severity of their situation.[38] The exercises were viewed by the Turkish guards with great suspicion.[12] Shavarsh Krissian was killed in Ankara.[17]
Kundakjian, M.M. Kundakjian
Մ. Գունտագճեան
Lawyer[5]
Larents, LevonLevon Larents (Kirishchiyan)
Լեւոն Լարենց Քիրիշճեան
1882 in Constantinople Killed Hunchak Poet, translator, professor of literature. Ayaş Killed during the deportation in Ankara.[17][25]
Maghazajian, OnnikOnnik Maghazajian
Օննիկ Մաղազաճեան
1878
in Constantinople
Killed Chairman of Kumkapı Progressive Society Cartographer, bookseller Çankırı "Permitted to reside freely in Çankırı" according to a telegramme from the Ministry of the Interior on 25 August 1915 on the subject of exiles erroneously unlisted in a former 3 August telegramme.[36] Killed in a village called Tüney in 1915, together with Ruben Sevak, Daniel Varoujan and Gülistanian[10] in a group of five.[30]
Manesian , AsdvadzadurAsdvadzadur Manesian (Maniassian)
Աստուածատուր Մանեսեան
Survived[14] Merchant[24] Çankırı
Manikian, BedrosBedros Manikian
Պետրոս Մանիկեան
Survived[14] Çankırı Pharmacist[24]
Mardiguian, VrtanèsVrtanès Mardiguian
Վրթանէս Մարտիկեան
Survived Ayaş Deported in a group of 50 persons to Ankara, 5 May 1915, dispatched to Ayaş on 7 May 1915, set free in July 1915,[38] returned to Constantinople.[17]
Marzbed
(Ghazar Ghazarian)
Մարզպետ (Ղազար Ղազարեան)
Died Dashnak Teacher Ayaş Dispatched around 18 May 1915 to Kayseri to appear before a court martial,[38] worked under fake Turkish identity for the Germans in Intilli (Amanus railway tunnel), escaped to Nusaybin where he fell from a horse and died right before the armistice.[17]
Mateossian, A. D.A. D. Mateossian
Ա. Տ. Մատթէոսեան
Lawyer, writer[5]
Melikian, MelikMelik Melikian[24]
Մելիք
Killed Çankırı
Melkonian, SimonSimon Melkonian
Սիմոն Մելքոնեան
from Ortaköy[24] Survived[24] Architect[24] Çankırı Permitted to return to Constantinople soon after 11 May 1915.[26]
Menzikian, TheodorosTheodoros Menzikian
Թ. Մենծիկեան
Killed Merchant[5] Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Minassian, SarkisSarkis Minassian
born as Aram Ashot
Սարգիս Մինասեան
1873 in
Çengiler, Yalova
Killed Dashnak[17] Chief editor of Droshak,[17] Editor of Armenian newspaper in Boston till 1909, teacher, writer and political activist in the Ottoman capital after 1909; member of Armenian National Assembly[29] Ayaş Removed from the Ayaş prison on 5 May and taken under military escort to Diyarbakır along with Daghavarian, Agnouni, Jangülian, Khajag and Zartarian to appear before a court martial there and they were, seemingly, murdered by state-sponsored paramilitary groups led by Cherkes Ahmet, and lieutenants Halil and Nazım, at a locality called Karacaören shortly before arriving to Diyarbakır.[10] The murderers were tried and executed in Damascus by Cemal Pasha in September 1915, and the assassinations became the subject of a 1916 investigation by the Ottoman Parliament led by Artin Boshgezenian, the deputy for Aleppo.
Miskjian, KrikorKrikor Miskjian
Գրիգոր Միսքճեան
1865 Killed[24] brother of Stepan Miskjian[24] Pharmacist[24] Çankırı Belonged to the second convoy with only one[3] or two survivors that left Çankırı on 19 August 1915, jailed in Ankara 20–24 August killed en route to Yozgat,[30] killed near Ankara.[14][24]
Miskjian, StepanStepan Miskjian
Ստեփան Միսքճեան
1852
in Constantinople
Killed[24] brother of Krikor Miskjian[24] Physician[24] Çankırı Belonged to the second convoy with only one[3] or two survivors that left Çankırı on 19 August 1915, jailed in Ankara 20–24 August killed en route to Yozgat,[30] killed near Ankara.[14][24]
Momjian, ZarehZareh Momjian
Զարեհ Մոմճեան
Killed Translator at the Russian Consulate Çankırı "Pardoned on condition on not returning to Constantinople" according to a telegramme from the Ministry of the Interior on 25 August 1915 on the subject of exiles erroneously unlisted in a former 3 August telegramme.[36] Belonged to the second convoy with only two survivors that left Çankırı on 19 August 1915, jailed in Ankara 20–24 August killed en route to Yozgat.[30]
Mübahejian, ApigApig Mübahejian
Աբիկ Միւպահեաճեան
Survived Publicist Konya Granted permission to return.[9]
Nakashian, AvedisAvedis Nakashian
Աւետիս Նագաշեան
Survived Physician Ayaş Was set free 23 July 1915, sent his family to Bulgaria, served in the Ottoman army as captain in the Gülhane Hospital at the time of the Gallipoli campaign and immigrated to the US.[12]
Nakulian
Նագուլեան
Survived Doctor

, exiled 3 May 1915

Ayaş Was free to move in Ayaş, returned later to Constantinople.[10]
Nargilejian, HagopHagop Nargilejian
Յակոբ Նարկիլէճեան
Survived Pharmacist in the army[24] Çankırı Permitted to return to Constantinople by special telegramme from Talat Pasha on 7 May 1915.[33] The eight prisoners of this group were notified on Sunday, 9 May 1915, about their release[34] and left Çankırı on 11 May 1915.[26]
Natanian, MarkosMarkos Natanian
Մարկոս Նաթանեան
Survived Member of Armenian National Assembly[29] Çorum Survived deportation to Çorum and later to Iskiliben, was permitted to go back.[9]
Nazarian, HrantHrant Nazarian
Հրանդ Նազարեան
Çankırı
Noradungian, SerovpeSerovpe Noradungian
Սերովբէ Նորատունկեան
Killed Dashnak Teacher at the Sanassarian college and member of Armenian National Assembly[17] Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Nosrigian
Նօսրիկեան
from Erzurum Survived Merchant Konya Granted permission to return.[9]
Nshan
Նշան
Killed Tattooist in Kumkapı[17] Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Odian, NshanNshan Odian
Նշան Օտեան
Hunchak[38] Ayaş
Odian, YervantYervant Odian
Երուանդ Օտեան
1869
in Constantinople
Survived Writer Ayaş Deported August 1915. Accompanied Karekin Vrtd. Khatchaturian (prelate of Konia) from Tarson to Osmanieh.[45] Islamized in 1916 under the name Aziz Nuri[9] in Hama. After failed attempts to escape from Der Zor Odian worked in a factory for military uniforms together with Armenian deportees from Aintab. Soon afterwards he became translator to the military commander of Der Zor. Finally he was orderly to the commander Edwal of the German garrison in Der Zor and gave account of the killing of the last deportees from Constantinople in the prison of Der Zor as late as January 1918 and described that all the policemen and officials kept Armenian women.[46]
Onnikian, AramAram Onnikian
Արամ Օննիկեան
Survived[14] Merchant,[5] chemist[14] Çankırı Son of Krikor Onnikian
Onnikian, HovhannesHovhannes Onnikian
Յովհաննէս Օննիկեան
Died Merchant[5] Çankırı Son of Krikor Onnikian; died from illness in Hajkiri near Çankırı.[14]
Onnikian, KrikorKrikor Onnikian
Գրիգոր Օննիկեան
1840 Died Merchant[5] Çankırı Father of Aram, Hovhannes and Mkrtich Onnikian; died from illness in Çankırı.[14]
Onnikian, MkrtichMkrtich Onnikian
Մկրտիչ Օննիկեան
Died Merchant[5] Çankırı Son of Krikor Onnikian; died in Der Zor.[14]
Panaghogh
Փանաղող
Writer, publicist[5]
Panossian, ShavarsShavars Panossian
Շաւարշ Փանոսեան
Survived Teacher from Pera.[9] Ayaş Granted permission to return.[9]
Papazian , NersesNerses Papazian (Vartabed Mashtots)
Ներսէս Փափազեան
Killed Dashnak Editor of Azadamard,[17] Patriot or educator[5] Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Papazian, VrtanesVrtanes Papazian
Վրթանէս Փափազեան
Survived Tailor[9] Çankırı Wrongly deported as he bore the same name as the novelist who escaped to Bulgaria and later to Russia.[9] Permitted to return to Constantinople soon after 11 May 1915.[26]
Parisian, ArdashesArdashes Parisian
Արտաշես Փարիսեան
Survived[14] Merchant[24] Çankırı
Parseghian
Բարսեղեան
Survived Ayaş Granted permission to return.[9]
Parseghian, ArmenagArmenag Parseghian
Արմենակ Բարսեղեան
Survived[24] Dashnak[24] Teacher, studied philosophy in Berlin, lived in Pera[24] Çankırı Permitted to return to Constantinople soon after 11 May 1915.[26]
Parseghian, H.H. Parseghian
Յ. Բարսեղեան
Patriot or educator[5]
Parseghian, KeghamKegham Parseghian
Գեղամ Բարսեղեան
1883 in Constantinople Killed Dashnak Writer, publicist,[5] editor, teacher[17] Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Parseghian , SarkisSarkis Parseghian (Shamil)
Սարգիս Բարսեղեան (Շամիլ)
Killed[24] Patriot or educator[5] Ayaş
Pashayan Khan, GarabedGarabed Pashayan Khan
Կարապետ Փաշայեան Խան
1864
in Constantinople
Killed Dashnak Physician, writer[5] former deputy of the Ottoman parliament, member of Armenian National Assembly[17] Ayaş First tortured[47] and then killed in Ankara.[17]
Piosian, M.M. Piosian
Մ. Փիոսեան
Patriot or educator[5]
Byurat, SmbatSmbat Byurat
Der-Ghazaryants
Սմբատ Բիւրատ
Տէր-Ղազարեանց
1862
in Zeytun (Süleymanlı today)
Died Novelist, public figure, member of Armenian National Assembly[17] Ayaş[17] Killed in Ankara.[17]
Reisian, G.G. Reisian
Կ. Րէյիսեան
Merchant[5]
Rostomiants), Rostom (RiustemRostom (Riustem Rostomiants)
Րոստոմ (Րիւսթէմ Րոստոմեանց)
Killed Merchant[5] and public figure[17] Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Samueloff, VramshabuhVramshabuh Samueloff
Վրամշապուհ Սամուէլօֆ
Killed Merchant[5] Armenian from Russia, banker Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Sarafian[24]
Սարաֆեան
Çankırı
Sarafian, GarabedGarabed Sarafian
Կարապետ Սարաֆեան
Killed Public official Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Sato
Սաթօ
Patriot or educator[5]
Sayabalyan, JakJak Sayabalyan (Pailag)
Ժագ Սայապալեան (Փայլակ)
1880
in Konya
Killed Armenian National Assembly Interpreter for the British Consul in Konya between 1901 and 1905, then vice-consul for a year and a half. After 1909, journalist in the capital. Çankırı Killed in Ankara.[17]
Sefer, MargosMargos Sefer
Մարկոս Սեֆեր
Survived Lawyer[17] Ayaş Deported in place of Markos Natanian and returned to Constantinople.[17]
Serengülian, VartkesVartkes Serengülian
Վարդգէս Սէրէնկիւլեան
1871
in Erzurum
Killed Deputy in the Ottoman parliament Dispatched to Diyarbakır to appear before a court martial Deported 21 May 1915[48] or 2 June 1915.[49] Same fate as Krikor Zohrab.[50] (Cherkes Ahmet and Halil were led to Damascus and executed there on orders from Cemal Pasha, in connection with the murder of the two deputies, in 30 September 1915, Nazım had died in a fight before that.)
Sarkisian, BaghdasarBaghdasar Sarkisian
Պաղտասար Սարգիսեան
Survived Çankırı "Pardoned on condition on not returning to Constantinople" according to a telegramme from the Ministry of the Interior on 25 August 1915 on the subject of exiles erroneously unlisted in a former 3 August telegramme.[36]
Servet, MargosMargos Servet Effendi (Prudian)
Մարկոս Սէրվէթ
Survived Lawyer from Kartal[9] Ayaş Granted permission to return.[9]
Sevak, RubenRuben Sevak
Ռուբէն Սեւակ
1885
in Silivri
Killed Physician, prominent poet and writer, formerly captain in the Ottoman Army during the Balkan Wars Çankırı Deported 22 June 1915[51] but was "Permitted to reside freely in Çankırı" according to a telegramme from the Ministry of the Interior on 25 August 1915 on the subject of exiles erroneously unlisted in a former 3 August telegramme.[36] Killed in a village called Tüney in 1915, together with Gülistanyan, Daniel Varoujan and Mağazacıyan[10] in a group of five.[30] His house in Elmadağı, Constantinople is now a museum.[52]
Shahbaz[n 12]
Շահպազ
Patriot or educator[5]
Shahbaz, ParseghParsegh Shahbaz
Բարսեղ Շահպազ
1883
in Boyacıköy, Constantinople
Killed Dashnak Lawyer,[17] journalist, columnist Çankırı "Murdered on Harput-Malatya road."[10][17] On 6 July 1915, in a letter to Miss. Zaruhi Bahri and Evgine Khachigian, Parsegh Shahbaz wrote from Aintab that due to his wounded feet and stomachaches, he will rest for 6–7 days until he has to continue the 8–10 days journey to M. Aziz. But he had no idea why he was sent there.[9] According to Vahe-Haig (Վահէ-Հայկ), survivor of the massacre of Harput, Parsegh Shahbaz was jailed 8 days after the massacre in the central prison of Mezre. Parsegh Shahbaz remained without food for a week and was severely beaten and finally killed by gendarmes under the wall of 'the factory'.[9]
Shahen, A.A. Shahen
Ա. Շահէն
Patriot or educator[5]
Shahen, YenovkYenovk Shahen
Ենովք Շահէն
1881 in Bardizag (near İzmit) Killed Actor[5] Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Shahinian, SarkisSarkis Shahinian
Սարգիս Շահինեան
Survived Çankırı "Pardoned on condition on not returning to Constantinople" according to a telegramme from the Ministry of the Interior on 25 August 1915 on the subject of exiles erroneously unlisted in a former 3 August telegramme.[36]
Shahrigian, HarutiunHarutiun Shahrigian (Adom)
Յարութիւն Շահրիկեան (Ատոմ)
1860 in
Shabin-Karahisar
Killed Dashnak Dashnak leader, lawyer, member of Armenian National Assembly. Ayaş[17][24] First tortured[47] and then killed in Ankara.[17]
Shamtanchian, LevonLevon Shamtanchian
Լեւոն Շամտանճեան
Survived Ayaş Deported in lieu of Mikayel Shamtanchian, returned to Constantinople.[9][17]
Shamtanchian, MikayelMikayel Shamtanchian
Միքայէլ Շամտանճեան
1874 Survived Friend of Dikran Chökürian Newspaper editor at Vostan, writer, lecturer, leader in the Armenian National Assembly Çankırı Departed from Çankırı in winter after seven months and survived the next three years as refugee in Uşak together with his companions Hovhan Vartaped Garabedian, Kaspar Cheraz, Vartan Kahanay Karagözian from Feriköy. After the armistice he returned to Constantinople.[5] Published his memoirs of exile after the war.[10] - d. 1926[35]
Shashian, LevonLevon Shashian
Լեւոն Շաշեան
Killed Merchant[5] Killed in Der Zor.[9]
Siamanto (Adom Yerdjanian)
Սիամանթօ (Ատոմ Եարճանեան)
1878
in Akn
Killed Dashnak[17] Poet, writer, member of Armenian National Assembly[17] Killed in Ankara.[17]
Siurmeian, KrikorKrikor Siurmeian
Գրիգոր Սիւրմէեան
Survived Father of Artavazd V. Siurmeian.[9] Ayaş Granted permission to return to Constantinople.[9]
Srabian, OnnigOnnig Srabian (Onnig Jirayr)
Օննիկ Սրապեան (Օննիկ Ժիրայր)
1878 in Erzincan Killed Teacher Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Sughikian, YeghiaYeghia Sughikian
Եղիա Սուղիկեան
Writer, publicist[5] Met Yervant Odian and Aram Andonian in September 1915 while working in the mill of Aram and Ardashes Shalvarjian in Tarson (supplying daily 30,000 Ottoman soldiers with flour).[45]
Svin, S.S. Svin
Ս. Սուին
Patriot or educator[5] 24 April 1915
Tabakian, MihranMihran Tabakian
Միհրան Թապագեան
1878
from Adapazar[24]
Killed Dashnak[24] Teacher and writer[24] Çankırı Belonged to the second convoy with only one[3] or two survivors that left Çankırı on 19 August 1915, jailed in Ankara 20–24 August killed en route to Yozgat.[30]
Tashjian, GarabedGarabed Tashjian
Կարապետ Թաշճեան
Killed Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Tashjian, GarabedGarabed Tashjian
Կարապետ Թաշճեան
Survived Butcher[24] Çankırı Deported in lieu of Garabed Tashjian jailed in Ayaş, came free and returned to Constantinople.[24]
Tatarian, StepanStepan Tatarian
Ստեփան Թաթարեան
Survived[24] Merchant[24] Çankırı Dispatched to Kayseri to appear before a court martial (where he was an eyewitness to executions[9]). Joined by a group of four from Ayaş beginning of July.[26] Survived deportation from Çankırı to Kayseri to Aleppo and returned to Constantinople after the armistice.[24]
Terjumanian, KevorkKevork Terjumanian
Գէորգ Թէրճիմանեան
Killed Ayaş Merchant[5] Killed in Ankara.[17]
Terlemezian, OhannesOhannes Terlemezian
Օհաննես Թէրլէմէզեան
from Van Survived[24] Money changer[24] Çankırı Permitted to return to Constantinople soon after 11 May 1915.[26] One of the last who came free from Çankırı. He left Çankırı on 6 August 1915, was jailed in Ankara, came to Tarson, arrived in Constantinople on 22 September 1915.[24]
Terzian, HagopHagop Terzian
Յակոբ Թէրզեան
1879 in Hadjin Killed Hunchak Pharmacist Çankırı Belonged to the second convoy with only one[3] or two survivors that left Çankırı on 19 August 1915, jailed in Ankara 20–24 August killed en route to Yozgat,[30] killed near Ankara.[14]
Tiriakian, HaigHaig Tiriakian
Հայկ Թիրեաքեան
about
60 years old[17]
Survived Cashier of Phoenix[9] Ayaş Deported instead of his Dashnak homonym. Returned to Constantinople.[9][17]
Tiriakian, HaigHaig Tiriakian
Հայկ Թիրեաքեան (Հրաչ)
1871
in Trabzon
Killed Dashnak Member of Armenian National Assembly[17] Çankırı[17] After learning that another Haig Tiriakian had been detained in Ayaş he demanded his namesake's release and his own transfer from Çankırı to Ayaş. He was later killed in Ankara.[17]
Tolayan, YervantYervant Tolayan
Երուանդ Թօլայեան
1883 Survived Theater director, playwright, editor of the satirical journal Gavroche Çankırı Permitted to return to Constantinople by special telegramme from Talat Pasha on 7 May 1915.[33][34] The eight prisoners of this group were notified on Sunday, 9 May 1915, about their release[34] and left Çankırı on 11 May 1915.[26] Yervant Tolayan died in 1937.[35]
Topjian, HagopHagop Topjian
Յակոբ Թօփճեան
1876 Survived Ramgavar Editor[n 13] Çankırı Permitted to return to Constantinople mid-June 1915,[10] died in 1951.[35]
Torkom
Թորգոմ
Patriot or educator[5]
Torkomian, VahramVahram Torkomian
Վահրամ Թորգոմեան
20 April 1858[53]
in Constantinople
Survived Physician,[n 14] medical historian Çankırı Permitted to return to Constantinople by special telegramme from Talat Pasha on 7 May 1915.[33] The eight prisoners of this group were notified on Sunday, 9 May 1915, about their release[34] and left Çankırı on 11 May 1915.[26] He moved to France in 1922.[35] He published a book after the war (a list of Armenian doctors) in Évreux, France in 1922 and a study on Ethiopean Taenicide-Kosso[54] in Antwerp in 1929. He died 11 August 1942 in Paris.[55]
Tumajan, SamvelSamvel Tumajan (Tomajanian)
Սամուել Թումաճան (Թոմաճանեան)
Died[24] Hunchak[24] Çankırı Permitted to return to Constantinople soon after 11 May 1915.[26] Samvel Tomajian/Թօմաճեան (!) died according to Alboyajian.[24]
Varoujan, DanielDaniel Varoujan
Դանիէլ Վարուժան
1884
in Brgnik (near Sivas)
Killed Poet Çankırı Killed together with Ruben Sevak by 12 çetes on 26 August 1915 six hours after Çankırı near the han of Tüneh in a group of five.[30]
Yerchanik, AramAram Yerchanik
Արամ Երջանիկ
1865 Died Restaurant owner Çankırı Deported because many intellectuals regularly met at his restaurant in Bahçekapı, died in 1915.[24]
Yerganian, D.D. Yerganian
Տ. Երկանեան
Lawyer[5]
Yesayan, KrikorKrikor Yesayan
Գրիգոր Եսայեան
1883
from Van[24]
Killed[30] Dashnak[24] French and Math teacher, translator of Levon Shant's Ancient Gods into French[24] Çankırı Belonged to the second convoy with only one[3] or two survivors that left Çankırı on 19 August 1915, jailed in Ankara 20–24 August killed en route to Yozgat.[30]
Yeznik
Եզնիկ
Profession Çankırı[24]
Zakarian, NersesNerses Zakarian
Ներսէս Զաքարեան
Killed Hunchak[17] Patriot or educator,[5] member of Armenian National Assembly[17] Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]
Zarifian, AvedisAvedis Zarifian
Աւետիս Զարիֆեան
Survived[14] Pharmacist Çankırı Permitted to return to Constantinople soon after 11 May 1915.[26]
Zartarian, RoupenRoupen Zartarian
Ռուբէն Զարդարեան
1874
in Kharpert
Killed Writer, poet, newspaper (Azadamard) and textbook editor, considered a pioneer of Armenian rural literature. Translated Victor Hugo, Maxim Gorki, Anatole France, Oscar Wilde into Armenian.[25] Ayaş Removed from the Ayaş prison on 5 May and taken under military escort to Diyarbakır along with Daghavarian, Agnouni, Jangülian, Khajag and Minassian to appear before a court martial there and they were, seemingly, murdered by state-sponsored paramilitary groups led by Cherkes Ahmet, and lieutenants Halil and Nazım, at a locality called Karacaören shortly before arriving to Diyarbakır.[10] The murderers were tried and executed in Damascus by Cemal Pasha in September 1915, and the assassinations became the subject of a 1916 investigation by the Ottoman Parliament led by Artin Boshgezenian, the deputy for Aleppo.
Zenop[24]
Զենոբ
Çankırı
Zohrab, KrikorKrikor Zohrab
Գրիգոր Զօհրապ
1861 in Constantinople Killed Writer, jurist, deputy in the Ottoman parliament Dispatched to Diyarbakır to appear before a court martial Deported either 21 May 1915 or 2 June 1915.[49] Ordered to appear before a court martial in Diyarbakır, together with Vartkes Hovhannes Serengülyan, both went to Aleppoby train, escorted by one gendarme, remained in Aleppo for a few weeks, waited the results of infructuous attempts by the Ottoman governor of the city to have them sent back to Constantinople (some sources mention Cemal Pasha himself intervening for their return, but Talat Pasha insisting on them to sent to the court martial), and then dispatched to Urfa and remained there for some time in the house of a Turkish deputy friend, taken under police escort and led to Diyarbakır by car -allegedly accompanied on a voluntary basis by some notable Urfa Armenians, and with many sources confirming, they were murdered by state-sponsored paramilitary groups led by Cherkes Ahmet, Halil and Nazım, at a locality called Karaköprü or Şeytanderesi in the outskirts of Urfa, some time between 15 July and 20 July 1915. The murderers were tried and executed in Damascus by Cemal Pasha in September 1915, and the assassinations became the subject of a 1916 investigation by the Ottoman Parliament led by Artin Boshgezenian, the deputy for Aleppo.
Zorian , PartoghPartogh Zorian (Jirayr)
Բարթող Զօրեան (Ժիրայր)
1879 in Tamzara Killed Dashnak Publicist Ayaş Killed in Ankara.[17]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ According to Teotig's year book 1916–20 these were: Dikran Ajemian, Mkrtich Garabedian, H. Asadurian, Haig Tiriakian, Shavarsh Panossian, Krikor Siurmeian, Servet, Dr. Parseghian, Piuzant Bozajian, and Dr. Avedis Nakashian.
  2. ^ According to Teotig's year book 1916–20.
  3. ^ According to Teotig's year book 1916–20.
  4. ^ Note, Western Armenian orthography is used throughout the article as the deportees mother language and eyewitness accounts are all Western Armenian.
  5. ^ 'From a place' (e.g. from Van, from Kayseri) means place of origin, i.e. a citizen living in Constantinople was often identified with the place his family originally came from.
  6. ^ Wrongly recorded as "Barsamian" by Krikor Balakian in his memoirs.
  7. ^ Teotik lists a M. Stepanian (merchant).
  8. ^ Teotik and Balakian list two B. Kalfayans or Bedros Kalfayans respectively, both killed in Ankara (jailed in Ayaş according to Garine Avakian). One of them being mayor of Bakırköy (Makriköy) and Dashnak the other, a merchant, being deported and killed mistakenly.
  9. ^ Patriarch Zaven Der Yeghiayan was amazed how Piuzant Kechian received permission to get free from detention, and repeats assumptions about him being a spy for the Young Turks.[18]
  10. ^ Studied at the theological seminary of Merzifon, worked for the Bible House founded by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions.
  11. ^ He was also the music teacher of prince Mejid's wife.
  12. ^ Not to be confused with Parsegh Shahbaz (listed among the "writers, publicists" on Teotig's list).
  13. ^ Edited a catalogue of the manuscripts of the monastery of Armaş, posthumously Venice 1962.
  14. ^ He was also the physician of Patriarch Zaven Der Yeghiayan and Prince Mejid.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Dadrian, Vahakn N. (2004). The history of the Armenian genocide: ethnic conflict from the Balkans to Anatolia to the Caucasus (6th rev. ed.). New York: Berghahn Books. p. 221. ISBN 1-57181-666-6. 
  2. ^ Shirakian, Arshavir (1976). Կտակն էր Նահատակներուն [Gdagn er Nahadagnerin] [The legacy: Memoirs of an Armenian Patriot]. translated by Shirakian, Sonia. Boston: Hairenik Press. OCLC 4836363. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Ternon, Yves; Naim Bey (1989). Enquête sur la négation d'un génocide (in French). Marseille: Éditions Parenthèses. p. 27. ISBN 978-2-86364-052-4. LCCN 90111181. 
  4. ^ a b Walker, Christopher J. (1997). "World War I and the Armenian Genocide". In Hovannisian, Richard G. The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times. II: Foreign Dominion to Statehood: The Fifteenth Century to the Twentieth Century. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 252. ISBN 978-0-333-61974-2. OCLC 59862523. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh Teotoros Lapçinciyan Գողգոթա հայ հոգեւորականութեան [The Golgotha of the Armenian clergy], Constantinople 1921[ref-notes 1]
  6. ^ Der Yeghiayan 2002, p. 63.
  7. ^ Panossian, Razmik (2006). The Armenians. From Kings and Priests to Merchants and Commissars. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 237. ISBN 978-0-231-13926-7. LCCN 2006040206. OCLC 64084873. 
  8. ^ Bournoutian, Goerge A. (2002). A Concise History of the Armenian People. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda. p. 272. ISBN 978-1-56859-141-4. LCCN 2002021898. OCLC 49331952. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap Teotoros Lapçinciyan (Teotig): Ամէնուն Տարեցոյցը. Ժ-ԺԴ. Տարի. 1916–1920. [Everyman's Almanac. 10.-14. Year. 1916–1920], G. Keshishian press, Constantinople 1920
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Boghosian, Khachig (21 April 2001). "My Arrest and Exile on April 24, 1915". Armenian Reporter. 
  11. ^ John Horne, ed. (2012). A companion to World War I (1. publ. ed.). Chichester, U.K.: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 191. ISBN 1119968704. 
  12. ^ a b c Nakashian, Avedis; Rouben Mamoulian Collection (Library of Congress) (1940). A Man Who Found A Country. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell. pp. 208–278. LCCN 40007723. OCLC 382971. 
  13. ^ Der Yeghiayan 2002, p. 58.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai Palak'ean, Grigoris (2002). Le Golgotha arménien: de Berlin à Deir-es-Zor (in French) 1. La Ferté-sous-Jouarre: Le Cerle d'Écrits Caucasiens. pp. 95–102. ISBN 978-2-913564-08-4. OCLC 163168810. 
  15. ^ Shamtanchean, Mikʻayēl (2007) [1947]. Hay mtkʻin harkě egheṛnin [The Fatal Night. An Eyewitness Account of the Extermination of Armenian Intellectuals in 1915]. Genocide library, vol. 2. Translated by Ishkhan Jinbashian. Studio City, California: H. and K. Majikian Publications. ISBN 978-0-9791289-9-8. LCCN 94964887. OCLC 326856085. 
  16. ^ Kévorkian 2006, p. 318.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck Palak'ean, Grigoris (2002). Le Golgotha arménien : de Berlin à Deir-es-Zor 1. La Ferté-sous-Jouarre: Le Cerle d'Écrits Caucasiens. pp. 87–94. ISBN 978-2-913564-08-4. OCLC 163168810. 
  18. ^ a b Der Yeghiayan 2002, p. 66.
  19. ^ "The Real Turkish Heroes of 1915". The Armenian Weekly. 29 July 2013. 
  20. ^ Kevorkian, Raymond (3 June 2008). "The Extermination of Ottoman Armenians by the Young Turk Regime (1915–1916)". Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence. p. 31. 
  21. ^ Odian, Yervant (2009). Krikor Beledian, ed. Accursed years : my exile and return from Der Zor, 1914–1919. London: Gomidas Institute. p. x. ISBN 1-903656-84-2. 
  22. ^ Karakashian, Meliné (24 July 2013). "Did Gomidas 'Go Mad'? Writing a Book on Vartabed's Trauma". Armenian Weekly. 
  23. ^ a b "At the Origins of Commemoration: The 90th Anniversary Declaring April 24 as a Day of Mourning and Commemoration of the Armenian Genocide". Armenian Genocide Museum. 10 March 2009. 
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl Avagyan, Karine (2002). Եղեռնահուշ մասունք կամ խոստովանողք եւ վկայք խաչի [Relic of the Genocide or to those who suffered in the name of the cross and died for their faith] (in Armenian). Yerevan: Zangak 97. ISBN 978-99930-2-436-1. OCLC 62755097. [ref-notes 2]
  25. ^ a b c d e Article in Yevrobatsi 23 April 2007. "Etre à l'Université du Michigan pour la commemoration du 24 avril 1915", 23-04-2007, Par le Professor Fatma Müge Göçek, Université du Michigan
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Kévorkian 2006, p. 662.
  27. ^ a b Peroomian, Rubina (1993). Literary Responses To Catastrophe. A Comparison Of The Armenian And Jewish Experience. Studies in Near Eastern culture and society, 8. Atlanta: Scholars Press. ISBN 978-1-55540-895-4. LCCN 93026129. OCLC 28547490. 
  28. ^ Andonian, Aram (2007). En ces sombres jours. Prunus armeniaca, 4 (in French). Translated from Armenian by Hervé Georgelin. Genève: MétisPresses. p. 10. ISBN 978-2-940357-07-9. OCLC 470925711. 
  29. ^ a b c Der Yeghiayan 2002, p. 49.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Kévorkian 2006, p. 663.
  31. ^ a b Bardakjian, Kevork B. (2000). A Reference Guide to Modern Armenian Literature, 1500–1920. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8143-2747-0. LCCN 98043139. OCLC 39930676. 
  32. ^ Balakian, Krikoris Հայ Գողգոթան [The Armenian Golgotha], Mechitaristenpresse Vienna 1922 (vol. 1) and Paris 1956 (vol. 2)
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h "Kastamonu Vilâyeti'ne" (in Turkish). State Archives of the Republic of Turkey. 
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Kuyumjian 2001, p. 131.
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i Kevork Pamukciyan: Biyografileriyle Ermeniler, Aras Yayıncılık, Istanbul 2003 OCLC 81958802
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h "Kastamonu Vilâyeti'ne" (in Turkish). State Archives of the Republic of Turkey. 
  37. ^ a b Göçek 2011, p. 220.
  38. ^ a b c d e Kévorkian 2006, p. 652.
  39. ^ Teotig (Teotoros Lapçinciyan): Ամէնուն Տարեցոյցը. 1910. [Everyone's Almanac. 1910], V. and H. Der Nersesian Editions, Constantinople, 1910, p. 318
  40. ^ Kuyumjian 2001, p. 129.
  41. ^ Somel, Selcuk Aksin (2010). The A to Z of the Ottoman Empire. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press. p. 152. ISBN 1461731763. 
  42. ^ "That Diran Kelekyan May Reside In Any Province He Wishes Outside Of İstanbul". General Directorate for the State Archives [Devlet Arşivleri Genel Müdürlüğü]. 23 C. 1333 (8 May 1915). 
  43. ^ a b Göçek 2011, p. 221.
  44. ^ "Armenian Sport and Gymnastics in the Ottoman Empire". Public Radio of Armenia. 13 October 2009. Retrieved 16 December 2013. 
  45. ^ a b Teotig (Teotoros Lapçinciyan): Ամէնուն Տարեցոյցը. ԺԶ. Տարի. 1922. [Everyone's Almanac. 16. Year. 1922], M. Hovakimian Press, Constantinople 1922, p. 113
  46. ^ Kévorkian 2006, p. 825.
  47. ^ a b Dr. Nakashian according Vrtanès Mardiguian in a letter to Aram Andonian, 26 April 1947
  48. ^ Ternon, Yves (1990). The Armenians : history of a genocide (2nd ed.). Delmar, N.Y.: Caravan Books. ISBN 0-88206-508-4. 
  49. ^ a b Raymond H. Kévorkian (ed.): Revue d'histoire arménienne contemporaine. Tome 1. 1995 Paris p.254
  50. ^ El-Ghusein, Fà'iz (1917). Martyred Armenia. p. 7. 
  51. ^ Kantian, Raffi. Der Dichter und seine Frau. Rupen Sevag & Helene Apell. Ein armenisch-deutsches Paar in den Zeiten des Genozids in: Armenisch-Deutsche Korrespondenz, Nr. 139, Jg. 2008/Heft 1, pp. 46
  52. ^ "Kristin Saleri'ye "Geçmiş Olsun: Ziyareti". Lraper (in Turkish). 4 March 2006. 
  53. ^ Vahram Torkomian: Mémoires d'un médecin stambouliote. 1860–1890, translated by Simone Denis-Torkomian, edited by Raymond Kévorkian, Centre d'histoire arménnienne contemporaine, Bibliothèque Nubar de l'UGAB 2007, ISSN 1259-4873
  54. ^ Pankhurst R (July 1979). "Europe's discovery of the Ethiopian taenicide--kosso". Med Hist 23 (3): 297–313. doi:10.1017/S0025727300051772. PMC 1082476. PMID 395376. 
  55. ^ Raymond Kévorkian (editor): Simone Denis-Torkomian: Les Mémoires du Dr. Vahram Torkomian, p. 14, in: Vahram Torkomian: Mémoires d'un médecin stambouliote. 1860–1890, translated by Simone Denis-Torkomian, edited by Raymond Kévorkian, Centre d'histoire arménnienne contemporaine, Bibliothèque Nubar de l'UGAB 2007, ISSN 1259-4873

Reference notes[edit]

  1. ^ Gives an account of over 1,500 deported clergymen all over the Ottoman Empire with selected biographical entries and lists 100 notables of 24 April 1915 by name out of 270 in total and classifies them roughly in 9 professional groups.
  2. ^ Gives an account of the events that lead to Çankırı (first deportation stop in Anatolia) and 100 short biographic descriptions of deportees on the basis of a rosary/worry-beads (Hamrich) in the History Museum of Yerevan with the engraved names of the deportees, that a deportee himself, Varteres Atanasian (Nr. 71 of the worry-beads), created.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Avagyan, Karine (2002). Եղեռնահուշ մասունք կամ խոստովանողք եւ վկայք խաչի [Relic of the Genocide or to those who suffered in the name of the cross and died for their faith] (in Armenian). Yerevan: Zangak 97. ISBN 978-99930-2-436-1. OCLC 62755097. 
  • Krikor Balakian Հայ Գողգոթան [The Armenian Golgotha], Mechitaristenpresse Vienna 1922 (vol. 1) and Paris 1956 (vol. 2) (a new edition in French: Georges Balakian: Le Golgotha arménien, Le cercle d'écrits caucasiens, La Ferté-Sous-Jouarre 2002 (vol. 1) ISBN 978-2-913564-08-4, 2004 (vol. 2) ISBN 2-913564-13-5)
  • Beledian, Krikor (2003). "Le retour de la Catastrophe". In Coquio, Catherine. L'histoire trouée. Négation et témoignage (in French). Nantes: éditions l'atalante. ISBN 978-2-84172-248-8.  [essay about the survivor literature 1918–23]
  • Göçek, Fatma Müge (2011). The transformation of Turkey: redefining state and society from the Ottoman Empire to the modern era. London: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 1848856113. 
  • Kévorkian, Raymond (2006). Le Génocide des Arméniens [The Armenian Genocide] (in French). Paris: Odile Jacob. ISBN 978-2-7381-1830-1. 
  • Lapçinciyan, Teotoros (1921). Գողգոթա հայ հոգեւորականութեան [The Golgotha of the Armenian clergy]. Constantinople: H. Mateossian.  [Gives an account of over 1.500 deported clergymen all over the Ottoman Empire with selected biographical entries and lists 100 notables of 24 April 1915 by name out of 270 in total and classifies them roughly in 9 professional groups]
  • Lapçinciyan, Teotoros (1920). Ամէնուն Տարեցոյցը. Ժ-ԺԴ. Տարի. 1916–1920. [Everyman's Almanac. 10.-14. Year. 1916–1920]. Constantinople: G. Keshishian Press. 
  • Shamtanchian, Mikayel (2007). The Fatal Night. An Eyewitness Account of the Extermination of Armenian Intellectuals in 1915. Ishkhan Jinbashian (translator). Studio City, California: Manjikian Publications. ISBN 978-0-9791289-9-8. 
  • Kuyumjian, Rita Soulahian (2001). Archeology of Madness. Komitas. Portrait of an Armenian Icon. Princeton, New Jersey: Gomidas Institute Taderon Press. ISBN 978-0-9535191-7-0. LCCN 2005551875. OCLC 60664608. 
  • Ternon, Yves (1989). Enquête sur la négation d'un génocide [Investigation of the Denial of a Genocide] (in French). Marseille: Editions Parentèses. ISBN 978-2-86364-052-4.  Gives an account of the arrests of 24 April 1915 in the first part of his book
  • Der Yeghiayan, Zaven (2002). My Patriarchal Memoirs [Patriarkʻakan hushers]. Translated by Ared Misirliyan, copyedited by Vatche Ghazarian. Barrington, Rhode Island: Mayreni. ISBN 978-1-931834-05-6. LCCN 2002113804. OCLC 51967085.