Armenian printing

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The Armenian Literary Tradition exhibit at the Library of Congress in 2012, dedicated to the 500th anniversary of Armenian printing

After the invention of the mechanical printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in Germany (circa 1439), Armenians from throughout the diaspora began to publish Armenian-language books. The first book which had Armenian letters was published in Mainz (Germany) in 1486. The first Armenian book to be published by the printing press was Urbatagirq—Book of Friday prayers—which was published by Hakob Meghapart in Venice in 1512.

History[edit]

Hakob Meghapart, publisher of the first printed Armenian book.
Urbatagirq, the first book printed in Armenian in 1512.

In the 16th century there were published 31 books, in 17th century – 164 and in 18th there were 824 Armenian books printed.

  • The first Armenian book was published by Hakob Meghapart in 1512 in Venice (Italy). The book was called «Ուրբաթագիրք» ("Urpatakirk", "Friday Book").[1][2]
Statue of Khacatur Kesaratsi in New Julfa. He set up the first printing house in Persia in 1636.
  • The first Armenian printing house in Persia was established in New Julfa (Isfahan, Iran) in 1636. The first book to be published in this printing house was «Սաղմոսարան» ("Saghmosaran", "Psalter"); it was published in 1638 by Khachatur Kesaratsi,[3] while the first Persian book in Persia was published 192 years later in 1830.
  • The first Armenian printing house in Armenia was established in Vagharshapat in 1771 and the first book was called «Զբօսարան Հոգեւոր» ("Zbosaran Hogevor", "Spiritual walking"); it was published in 1772 by Simeon I of Yerevan.[4]
    • The first Armenian printing house in Yerevan was established in 1876 by Z. Hakobyan. In 1880 E. Ter-Grigoryan became director of the printing house and worked there until the 1910s. The first book printed in the printing house was E. Ter-Grigoryan's "Trchnik" ("Small Bird") collection.
  • The first Armenian printing house in Russia was set up in Saint Petersburg in 1781. Grigor Khaldariants' had type sent from London, and under the sponsorship of the Primate of Armenians in Russia, Bishop Hovsep' Arghutian, he edited the first Armenian book to be published in the Tsarist realm, «Տետրակ այբբենական» ("Tetrak aybbenakan", "ABC Reader") in 1781. He then printed works such as «Բանալի գիտութեան» ("Banali Gitut'ean", "The Key to Science"), «Շաւիղ լեզվագիտութեան» ("Shavigh Lezvagitut'ean", "Linguistic Guide"), and «Ընդհանրական»("Endhanrakan", "Encyclical Letter") by Nersés Shnorhali.[5]

20th century[edit]

After the sovietization of Armenia, Yerevan becoming the center of the Armenian printing, where in 1921 organized by the State Publishing House. It assumes the functions of editing and organization publications. Makes its political, artistic, scientific, publications for children with relatively large circulations. Separated from the State Publishing House publishing house “Luys” (Light), specialized mainly in the publication of textbooks. In 1964 from publishing Armenian State Publishing House (HayPetHrap) was renamed “Hayastan” (Armenia). In 1976 have been separated from the last publishing “Sovetakan Grogh” (Soviet writer), which it published in the most artistic and literary works. Academy of Science of Armenian SSR published a monograph of scientific and other research literature, and publish works of Armenian classical and scientific texts from the Matenadaran as well. Publishing hous of Yerevan State University publishes textbooks, collections and scientific monographs since 1922. From this period also involved in publishing the National Library, “Gitelik” (knowledge) and several others. In 1980 have acted in Yerevan on 20 printers. From 1922 until the end of 1970 in Armenia were published about 45 thousand titles of books. In the last years of Soviet power in Armenia each year were printed about 1,100 titles. During this period, books and periodicals published in the Armenian language as in other republics of the USSR.

Since 1920 (the sovietization of Armenia) to the 1980s main centers of the Armenian printing press in the diapora were Istanbul, Cairo and Beirut (the latter now is its main center). At this moment the Armenian Diaspora was published about 21 thousand titles. Total number of items of Armenian newspapers in 1512 and 1980, more than 80 thousand.

Armenian printing houses worldwide[edit]

The following table is a list of the Armenian printing houses from 1512 to 1800.[6]

Year Place Book Publisher Year
1512 Republic of Venice Venice «Ուրբաթագիրք» ("Urbathagirq", "Friday Book")[2] Hakob Meghapart 1512
1513 Republic of Venice Venice «Պարզատումար» ("Parzatumar")[7] Hakob Meghapart 1512
1513 Republic of Venice Venice «Պատարագագիրք» ("Pataragagirq") Hakob Meghapart 1513
1513 Republic of Venice Venice «Աղթարք» ("Aghtarq") Hakob Meghapart 1513
1513 Republic of Venice Venice «Տաղարան» ("Tagharan")[8] Hakob Meghapart 1513
1565 Republic of Venice Venice «Խառնափնթուր տումարի գեղեցիկ եւ պիտանի» ("Kharnapntur tumari geghetsik yev pitani") Abgar Dpir Tokhatetsi 1565
1567 Ottoman Empire Constantinople «Փոքր քերականութիւն» ("Poqr qerakanutyun", "Brief Armenian Grammar") Abgar Dpir Tokhatetsi 1567
1584 Papal States Rome «Տոմար Գրիգորեան» ("Tomar Grigorean", "Gregorian Calendar') Dominico Basa 1584
1616 Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Lviv «Սաղմոսարան» ("Saghmosaran", "Psalter") Yovhannes Karamatanents 1616
1621 Spain Milan "Dictionarium Armeno-Latinum" (Armenian-Latin Dictionary) Collegium Ambrosianum 1621
1633 Kingdom of France Paris «Բառգիրք Հայոց» ("Bargirq Hayots", "Dictionarium Armeno-Latinum") Antonius Vitray 1633
1638 Safavid Flag.png New Julfa «Սաղմոս ի Դավիթ» ("Saghmosaran", Psalter) Khachatur Kesratsi of the Vank Cathedral 1638
1641 Safavid Flag.png New Julfa «Հարանց Վարք» ("Harants Varq") Khachatur Kesratsi of the Vank Cathedral 1641
1641 Safavid Flag.png New Julfa «Խորհրդատետր» ("Khorhrdatetr", Missal) Khachatur Kesratsi of the Vank Cathedral 1641
1642 Safavid Flag.png New Julfa «Ժամագիրք Ատենի» ("Zhamagirq Ateni") Khachatur Kesratsi of the Vank Cathedral 1642
1644 Livorno «Գիրք եւ Սաղմոսք Դաւթի որ եւ Սաղմոսարան կոչի» ("Girq yev Saghmosq Davti vor yev Saghmosaran kochi", "Psalter") Yovhannes Jughayetsi 1644
1647 Safavid Flag.png New Julfa «Գիրք տումարաց որ եւ պարզատումար կոչի» ("Girq tumarats vor yev parzatumar kochi") Yovhannes Jughayetsi 1647
1660 Dutch Republic Amsterdam "Visus Ordi" (Jesus the Son) Matteos Caretsi and Avetis Ghlitshents 1660–1661
1672 Kingdom of France Marseille «Սաղմոսարան» ("Saghmosaran", "Psalter") Oskan Yerevantsi 1672
1676 Ottoman Empire Smyrna «Մաշտոց» ("Mashtots", "Ritual") N/A 1676
1680 Electorate of Saxony Leipzig "Obadias Armenus" ("Armeno-Latin") Justinus Brand 1680
1690 Republic of Venice Padua «Դաշանց թուղթ» ("Dashnats tught", "Lettera dell amicitia") Timoteos Garnuk 1690
1736 Kingdom of Great Britain London Movses Khorenatsi,
«Պատմություն» ("Patmutyun", "History") (Mosis Chorenensis, Historiae Armeniacae) Armenian and Latin
William and George Whiston 1736
1771 Zand Dynasty Flag.png Vagharshapat «Սաղմոսարան» ("Saghmosaran", "Psalter") St. Gregory the illuminator Press 1772
1776 Habsburg Monarchy Trieste «Աղօթք Յուսկան» ("Aghot Yuskan", Prayer of our Holy Hierarch Yusik) Mkhitarist Press 1774
1781 Russian Empire Saint Petersburg «Ժամագիրք» ("Zhamagirq", "Breviary") Grigor Khaldareants 1783
1786 Russian Empire Nakhichevan-on-Don «Սաղմոսարան» ("Saghmosaran", "Psalter") Holy Cross Monastery Press 1790
1796 Russian Empire Astrakhan «Հրովարտակ» ("Hrovartak", "Decree") Arghuteants press 1796
1796 Flag of the British East India Company (1801).svg Calcutta «Վիճաբանութիւն ար շահ Սլեմանն պարսից»
("Vitsabanuthyun ar sah Slemann parsits", "Dispute Before the Persian Sah Suleyman")
Hovsep Stepanosyan 1797
1810 Flag of the British East India Company (1801).svg Bombay
1812 Habsburg Monarchy Vienna
1820 Russian Empire Moscow
1823 Russian Empire Tiflis
1828 Russian Empire Shusha
1833 Ottoman Empire Jerusalem
1848 Ottoman Empire Bahçecik
1856 Russian Empire Shamakhi
1857 United States New York
1858 Ottoman Empire Van
1859 Russian Empire Feodosiya, Crimea
1863 Ottoman Empire Muş
1863 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Manchester
1865 Egypt Cairo
1871 Ottoman Empire Sivas
1872 Russian Empire Baku
1874 Russian Empire Elisabethpol
1875 Russian Empire Rostov-on-Don
1876 Russian Empire Erivan
1877 Russian Empire Alexandrapol
1877 Kingdom of Romania Focşani
1883 Ottoman Empire Tokat
1884 Bulgaria Varna
1888 Egypt Alexandria
1888 Russian Empire Akhaltsikh
1889 Amir Kabir Flag.svg Tabriz
1890 Russian Empire Nor Bayazet
1891 Switzerland Geneva
1891 Bulgaria Rousse
1892 Greece Athens
1894 Amir Kabir Flag.svg Tehran
1899 United States Boston

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]