Armitage–Doll multistage model of carcinogenesis

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The Armitage–Doll model is a statistical model of carcinogenesis, proposed in 1954 by Peter Armitage and Richard Doll, which suggested that a sequence of multiple distinct genetic events preceded the onset of cancer. The original paper has recently been reprinted with a set of commentary articles.


  • P Armitage and R Doll (2004) "The age distribution of cancer and a multi-stage theory of carcinogenosis", Int. J. Epidemiol 33(6): 1174-1179 doi:10.1093/ije/dyh216
  • Steven A Frank (2004) "Commentary: Mathematical models of cancer progression and epidemiology in the age of high throughput genomics", Int. J. Epidemiol. 33(6): 1179-1181 doi:10.1093/ije/dyh222
  • Suresh H Moolgavkar (2004) "Commentary: Fifty years of the multistage model: remarks on a landmark paper", Int. J. Epidemiol. 33(6): 1182-1183 doi:10.1093/ije/dyh288
  • Richard Doll (2004) "Commentary: The age distribution of cancer and a multistage theory of carcinogenesis", Int. J. Epidemiol. 33(6): 1183-1184 doi:10.1093/ije/dyh359