List of coats of arms of the House of Plantagenet

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Memorial enamel of Geoffrey of Anjou. That Geoffrey used this coat is inferred from his memorial enamel, which shows four lions on half of his shield, arranged in a manner to suggest that this was the same as the six-lion shield borne by his grandson William Longespée, 3rd Earl of Salisbury.

Colour key
(Line of descent)

  Monarchs
  Paternal descent
  Maternal descent
  Consorts
  Illegitimate descent
  Collaterals

House of Plantagenet[edit]

Descendants of Geoffrey of Anjou[edit]

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of Geoffrey of Anjou.svg
Geoffrey of Anjou 1113-1151 Azure, six lions guardant Or, three, two and one[1][2] Son of: King Fulk of Jerusalem and Ermengarde of Maine.

Married to: Empress Matilda; 1128-1151.

Progenitor of the Plantagenet dynasty.

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of William the Conqueror (1066-1087).svg
King Henry II 1133-1189 Attributed: Gules, two lions passant guardant in pale Or[1][3] Son of: Geoffrey of Anjou and Empress Matilda.

In French blazoning, the lion passant guardant was often termed a léopard. However, this usage was never widespread in England, and is long obsolete.[4]

Arms of Eleanor of Aquitaine.svg
Eleanor of Aquitaine 1124?-1204 Gules, a lion passant guardant in pale Or[5] Daughter of: William X, Duke of Aquitaine and Aenor de Châtellerault.

Married to: King Henry II; 1152-1189.

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Royal Arms of England (1154-1189).svg Royal Arms of England (1189-1198).svg
Arms of William the Conqueror (1066-1087).svg Royal Arms of England (1198-1340).svg
King Richard I, the Lionheart 1157-1199 Possible: Lion rampant contourné[6]

Possible: Two lions combatant[6]

Possible: Two lions passant[6]

Gules, three lions passant guardant Or[1][7]

Son of: King Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine.

His arms are only known from two armorial seals, and hence the tinctures can not be determined. His First Great Seal showed one lion on half of the shield. It is debated whether this was meant to represent two lions combatant or a single lion, and if the latter, whether the direction in which the lion is facing is relevant or simply an artistic liberty. A simple lion rampant is most likely.[8]

At the end of his life, his second seal showed three lions, clearly the three-lion coat used by his successors.[1][8]

Arms of Berengaria of Navarre.svg
Berengaria of Navarre 1170?-1230 Azure, a cross pomettée Argent[9] Daughter of: King Sancho VI of Navarre and Sancha of Castile.

Married to: King Richard I; 1191-1199.

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of Geoffrey of Anjou.svg
William Longespée, Earl of Salisbury 1176-1226 Azure, six lions guardant Or, three, two and one[3][10] Illegitimate son of: King Henry II and Countess Ida de Tosny.

Descendants of John[edit]

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Royal Arms of England (1198-1340).svg
King John, Lackland 1166-1216 Gules, three lions passant guardant Or[9] Son of: King Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine.
Arms of Isabella of Angoulême.svg
Isabella of Angoulême 1188-1246 Lozengy, Or and Gules (Angoulême)[11] Daughter of: Aymer of Angoulême and Alice of Courtenay.

Married to: King John; 1200-1216.

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of Richard of Cornwall, Earl of Cornwall.svg
Richard of Cornwall, Earl of Cornwall 1209-1272 Argent, a lion rampant Gules crowned Or, within a bordure Sable bezanty[12] Son of: King John and Isabella of Angoulême

Descendants of Henry III[edit]

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Royal Arms of England (1198-1340).svg
King Henry III 1207-1272 Gules, three lions passant guardant Or[13] Son of: King John and Isabella of Angoulême
Arms of Eleanor of Provence.svg
Eleanor of Provence 1223-1291 Or, four pallets Gules[13] Daughter of: Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence and Beatrice of Savoy

Married to: King Henry III; 1236-1272.

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Leicester and Lancaster.svg
Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Leicester and Lancaster 1245-1296 Gules, three lions passant guardant Or, with a label of three points Azure each charged with three fleurs de lys Or[14] Son of: King Henry III and Eleanor of Provence.
Arms of Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Leicester and Lancaster.svg
Thomas, Earl of Lancaster 1278-1322 Gules, three lions passant guardant Or, with a label of three points Azure each charged with three fleurs de lys Or[14] Son of: Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Leicester and Lancaster and Blanche of Artois.
Arms of Henry, 3rd Earl of Leicester and Lancaster.svg
Henry, Earl of Lancaster 1281-1345 Gules, three lions passant guardant Or, a baston Azure[15] Son of: Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Leicester and Lancaster and Blanche of Artois.
Arms of Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Leicester and Lancaster.svg
Henry of Grosmont, Duke of Lancaster 1310-1361 Gules, three lions passant guardant Or, with a label of three points Azure each charged with three fleurs de lys Or[15] Son of: Henry, Earl of Lancaster and Maud Chaworth

Descendants of Edward I[edit]

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Royal Arms of England (1198-1340).svg
King Edward I, Longshanks 1239-1307 Gules, three lions passant guardant Or[16] Son of: King Henry III and Eleanor of Provence.
Arms of Castille (English heraldry).svg
Eleanor of Castile 1241-1290 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, Gules a castle Or (Castile), 2nd and 3rd, Argent a lion rampant (Leon)[17] Daughter of: King Ferdinand III of Castile and Joan of Ponthieu.

Married to: King Edward I; 1254-1290

Arms of Margaret of France.svg
Margaret of France 1279-1318 Gules, three lions passant guardant Or (England), dimidiating, Azure, semée fleurs de lys Or (France)[18] Daughter of: King Philip III of France and Marie of Brabant.

Married to: King Edward I; 1299-1307

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of Alphonso, Earl of Chester.svg
Alphonso Plantagenet, Earl of Chester 1273-1284 Gules, two lions passant guardant in pale Or, with a label of five points Azure Son of: King Edward I and Eleanor of Castile.
Arms of Edward, Prince of Wales (1301-1307).svg
Edward of Caernarfon, Prince of Wales

(later King Edward II)

1284-1327 Gules, two lions passant guardant in pale Or, with a label of three points Azure[19] Son of: King Edward I and Eleanor of Castile.
Arms of Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk.svg
Thomas of Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk 1300-1338 Gules, two lions passant guardant in pale Or, with a label of three points Argent[20] Son of: King Edward I and Margaret of France.
Arms of Alice de Hales.svg
Alice de Hales (or Halys) 1304-1326 Barry of ten Argent and Azure, a canton Gules, a lion passant guardant Or[21] Daughter of: Roger Hales (or Halys)

Married to: Thomas of Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk; (1316?-1320?)-1326

Arms of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent.svg
Edmund of Woodstock, Earl of Kent 1301-1330 Gules, two lions passant guardant in pale Or, within a bordure Argent (Kent)[22] Son of: King Edward I and Margaret of France.
Arms of Margaret Wake, Baroness Wake of Liddell.svg
Margaret Wake, Baroness Wake of Liddell 1229?-1349 Or, two bars Gules, in chief three torteaux[22] Daughter of: John Wake, Baron Wake of Liddell and Joan de Fiennes

Married to: Edmund of Woodstock, Earl of Kent; 1325

Arms of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent.svg
Joan of Kent 1328-1385 Gules, three lions passant guardant Or, within a bordure Argent (Kent)[22] Daughter of: Edmund, Earl of Kent and Margaret Wake.

Married to: Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent; 1340-1360

Married to: Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales; 1361-1376.

The so-called Fair Maid of Kent.

Arms of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent.svg
Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent 1354?-1397 Gules, two lions passant guardant in pale Or, within a bordure Argent (Kent)[23] Son of: Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent and Joan of Kent
Arms of John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter.svg
John Holland, Duke of Exeter 1352-1400 Gules, two lions passant guardant in pale Or, within a bordure Argent charged with fleurs de lys Or[23] Son of: Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent and Joan of Kent
Arms of John Holland, 2nd Duke of Exeter.svg
John Holland, Duke of Exeter and Earl of Huntingdon 1395-1447 Gules, two lions passant guardant in pale Or, within a bordure Azure charged with eight fleurs de lys Or[23] Son of: John Holland, Duke of Exeter and Earl of Huntingdon and Elizabeth of Lancaster

Descendants of Edward II[edit]

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Royal Arms of England (1198-1340).svg
King Edward II 1284-1327 Gules, three lions passant guardant Or[19] Son of: King of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile.
Arms of Margaret of France.svg Arms of Isabella of France.svg Isabella of France 1295-1358 Gules, three lions passant guardant Or (England), dimidiating, Azure, semée fleurs de lys Or (France)[24]

Quarterly, 1st England, 2nd France ancien, 3rd, Gules, a cross saltire and an orle of chains linked together Or (Navarre), 4th, Azure, a bend Argent cotised potent-counter-potent Or (Champagne)[24]

Daughter of: King Philip IV of France and Joan I of Navarre.

Married to: King of Edward II; 1308-1327

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of Edward, Prince of Wales (1301-1307).svg
Edward of Windsor, Prince of Wales

(later King Edward III)

1312-1377 Gules, three lions passant guardant Or, with a label of three points Azure[25] Son of: King Edward II and Isabella of France.
Arms of John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall.svg
John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall 1316-1336 Gules, three lions passant guardant Or, within a bordure of France[24] Son of: King Edward II and Isabella of France.

Descendants of Edward III[edit]

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Royal Arms of England (1198-1340).svg Royal Arms of England (1340-1367).svg King Edward III 1312-1377 Previously Edward bore: Gules, three lions passant guardant Or.[25]

Quarterly, 1st and 4th, Azure, semée of fleurs de lys Or (France), 2nd and 3rd, Gules, three lions passant guardant Or (England)[26]

Son of: King Edward II and Isabella of France.

In 1340, Edward III claimed the throne of France as an inheritance from his mother, Isabella, daughter of King Philip IV of France, and adopted new arms, Quarterly France and England.[1] Such arms are termed "Arms of Pretension", where a sovereign adopts arms illustrative of a claim de jure (by right) to the throne of another kingdom.[27]

Arms of Philippa of Hainault (1330-1340).svg Arms of Philippa of Hainault (1340-1369).svg Philippa of Hainault 1314-1369 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, England; 2nd and 3rd, Or, four lions rampant in a quadrangle the first and fourth Sable (Flanders), the second and third Gules (Holland)[28] Daughter of: William I, Count of Hainaut and Joan of Valois.

Married to: King Edward III; 1329-1369.

Descendants of Edward of Woodstock[edit]

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of the Prince of Wales (Ancient).svg Arms of the Prince of Wales (Shield of Peace).svg Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales 1330-1376 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent[29] Son of: King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault.
Arms of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent.svg
Joan of Kent 1328-1385 Gules, three lions passant guardant Or, within a bordure Argent (Kent)[29] Daughter of: Edmund, Earl of Kent and Margaret Wake.

Married to: Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent; 1340-1360

Married to: Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales; 1361-1376.

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of Sir Roger de Clarendon.svg
Sir Roger Clarendon 1350-1402 Or, on a bend Sable, three ostrich feathers Argent, the quills transfixing as many scrolls of the first[30] Illegitimate son of: Edward of Woodstock, the Prince of Wales and Edith Willesford.
Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of Richard of Bordeaux, Prince of Wales (later Richard II).svg Royal Arms of England (1395-1399).svg King Richard II 1377-1400 Azure, a cross fleury between five martlets Or (St. Edward the Confessor), impaling, Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England[31] Son of: Edward of Woodstock, the Prince of Wales and Joan of Kent.

Childless, overthrew and succeeded by his cousin, Henry Bolingbroke or King Henry IV.

Arms of Anne of Bohemia.svg
Anne of Bohemia 1366-1394 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, Or, an eagle displayed sable (Imperial Arms), 2nd and 3rd, Gules, a lion rampant queue fourchée Argent crowned Or (Bohemia)[31] Daughter of: Emperor Charles IV of the Holy Roman Empire and Elizabeth of Pomerania.

Married to: King Richard II; 1382-1394.

Arms of Isabella of Valois.svg
Isabella of Valois 1389-1409 Azure, semée of fleurs de lys Or (France ancien)[32] Daughter of: King Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria.

Married to: King Richard II; 1396-1400.

Descendants of Lionel of Antwerp[edit]

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence.svg
Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence 1338-1368 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent each charged with a canton Gules[33] Son of: King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault.
Arms of the House of de Burgh.svg
Elizabeth de Burgh, Countess of Ulster 1332-1363 Or, a cross Gules (de Burgh)[33] Daughter of: William Donn de Burgh, Earl of Ulster and Matilda of Lancaster.

Married to: Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence; 1352-1363.

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of Philippa of Clarence, 5th Countess of Ulster.svg
Philippa of Clarence, Countess of Ulster 1355-1382 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent each charged with a canton Gules, impaling, Barry of six, Or and Azure, on a chief two pales, the corners gyronny, overall an escutcheon Argent[34] Daughter of: Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence and Elizabeth de Burgh, Countess of Ulster.

Married to: Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March; 1368-1381.

Arms of the House of Mortimer.svg
Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March 1352-1381 Barry of six, Or and Azure, on a chief two pales, the corners gyronny, overall an escutcheon Argent (Mortimer)[34] Son of: Roger Mortimer, Earl of March and Philippa Montacute.
Arms of the Earl of March.svg
Roger Mortimer, Earl of March 1374-1398 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, Barry of six, Or and Azure, on a chief two pales, the corners gyronny, overall an escutcheon Argent (Mortimer), 2nd and 3rd Or, a cross Gules (de Burgh)[34] Son of: Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March and Philippa of Clarence, Countess of Ulster.
Arms of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent.svg
Alianore Holland, Countess of March 1370-1405 Gules, three lions passant guardant Or, within a bordure Argent (Kent)[34] Daughter of: Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent and Alice Holland.

Married to: Roger Mortimer, Earl of March; 1388-1398.

Arms of Anne de Mortimer, Countess of Cambridge.svg
Anne Mortimer, Countess of Cambridge 1390-1411 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent each point charged with three torteaux Gules, within a bordure Argent charged with lions rampant purpure, impaling, Quarterly, 1st and 4th, Barry of six, Or and Azure, on a chief two pales, the corners gyronny, overall an escutcheon Argent (Mortimer), 2nd and 3rd Or, a cross Gules (de Burgh)[34] Daughter of: Roger Mortimer, Earl of March and Alianore Holland, Countess of March.

Married to: Richard of Conisburgh, Earl of Cambridge; 1408-1411.

Descendants of John of Gaunt[edit]

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster.svg Arms of John of Gaunt, King of Castile.svg John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster 1340-1399 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points ermine[35]

Quarterly, Castile and Leon, impaling, quarterly, France and England, a label of three points ermine[36]

Son of: King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault.

See: House of Lancaster

Arms of Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Leicester and Lancaster.svg
Blanche of Lancaster 1345-1369 England a label of France (Old Lancaster)[35] Daughter of: Henry of Grosmont, Duke of Lancaster and Isabel of Beaumont.

Married to: John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster; 1359-1369.

Arms of Castille (English heraldry).svg
Constance of Castile 1354-1394 Quarterly, Castile and Leon (Kingdom of Castile)[36] Daughter of: King Peter of Castile and María de Padilla.

Married to: John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster; 1371-1394.

Arms of Katherine Swynford.svg
Katherine Swynford 1350-1403 Gules, three Catherine wheels Or (Roet)[36] Daughter of: Payne de Roet.

Married to: John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster; 1396-1399.

Descendants of Edmund of Langley[edit]

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York.svg
Edmund of Langley, Duke of York 1341-1402 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent each point charged with three torteaux Gules[37] Son of: King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault.

See: House of York

Arms of Castille (English heraldry).svg
Isabella of Castille 1355-1392 Quarterly, Castille and Leon (Kingdom of Castille)[37] Daughter of: King Peter of Castile and María de Padilla.

Married to: Edmund of Langley, Duke of York; 1372-1392.

Arms of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent.svg
Joan Holland 1380-1434 Gules, three lions passant guardant Or, within a bordure Argent (Kent)[37] Daughter of: Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent and Alice Holland.

Married to: Edmund of Langley, Duke of York; 1393-1402.

Descendants of Thomas of Woodstock[edit]

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester.svg
Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester 1355-1397 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, within a bordure Argent[38] Son of: King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault.
Arms of the House of de Bohun.svg
Eleanor de Bohun 1366-1399 Azure, a bent Argent between two cotise and six lions rampant Or (de Bohun)[38] Daughter of: Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Joan de Bohun.

Married to: Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester; 1374-1397.

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of Humphrey of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Gloucester.svg
Humphrey, Earl of Buckingham 1381-1399 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, within a bordure Argent[39] Son of: Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester and Eleanor de Bohun.
Arms of Anne of Gloucester, Countess of Stafford.svg
Anne of Gloucester, Countess of Stafford 1383-1438 Or, a chevron Gules (Stafford), impaling, Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, within a bordure Argent[39] Daughter of: Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester and Eleanor de Bohun.

Married to: Edmund Stafford, Earl of Stafford.

House of Lancaster[edit]

Descendants of John of Gaunt[edit]

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster.svg Arms of John of Gaunt, King of Castile.svg John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster 1340-1399 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points ermine[35]

Quarterly, Castile and Leon, impaling, quarterly, France and England, a label of three points ermine[36]

Son of: King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault.
Arms of Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Leicester and Lancaster.svg
Blanche of Lancaster 1345-1369 England a label of France (Old Lancaster)[35] Daughter of: Henry of Grosmont, Duke of Lancaster and Isabel of Beaumont.

Married to: John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster; 1359-1369.

Arms of Castille (English heraldry).svg
Constance of Castile 1354-1394 Quarterly, Castile and Leon (Kingdom of Castile)[36] Daughter of: King Peter of Castile and María de Padilla.

Married to: John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster; 1371-1394.

Arms of Katherine Swynford.svg
Katherine Swynford 1350-1403 Gules, three Catherine wheels Or (Roet)[36] Daughter of: Payne de Roet.

Married to: John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster; 1396-1399.

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Hereford and Lancaster.svg
Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Hereford and Lancaster
(later King Henry IV)
1366-1413 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of five points two of ermine (Richmond) and three Azure flory Or (Lancaster)[40] Son of: John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster and Blanche of Lancaster.
Arms of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset (Bastard).svg Arms of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset.svg John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset 1373-1410 Per pale, Argent and Azure, over all on a bend Gules three lions passant guardant Or with a label of three points Azure each charges with three fleur de lys Or[41]

Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, within a bordure componée Argent and Azure[41]

Illegitimate Son (legitimated in 1396) of: John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster and Katherine Swynford.

See: House of Beaufort

Arms of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset.svg
Henry Beaufort, Cardinal of St. Eusebius and Bishop of Winchester 1374-1447 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, within a bordure componée Argent and Azure[42] Illegitimate Son (legitimated in 1396) of: John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster and Katherine Swynford.
Arms of Thomas Beaufort, 1st Duke of Exeter.svg
Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter 1377-1426 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, within a bordure componée Azure and Ermine[43] Illegitimate Son (legitimated in 1396) of: John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster and Katherine Swynford.

Descendants of Henry IV[edit]

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Royal Arms of England (1340-1367).svg Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg King Henry IV 1366-1413 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England[44]

Changed to France moderne in line with changes made in that kingdom: Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England[44]

Son of: John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster and Blanche of Lancaster.

In 1376, the kings of France altered the royal coat of arms, replacing the field semée fleurs de lys with three fleurs de lys, alluding to the Trinity. This new design is referred to as France Moderne, the previous one being France Ancien. From about 1400 the kings of England imitated this change. As modified, the monarchs of England continued to bear arms in this form until the crown union with Scotland in 1603.[1]

First king of the House of Lancaster.

Arms of the House of de Bohun.svg
Mary de Bohun 1370-1394 Azure, a bent Argent between two cotise and six lions rampant Or (de Bohun)[40] Daughter of: Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Joan FitzAlan.

Married to: Henry Bolingbroke (later King Henry IV); 1380-1394.

Arms of Joan of Navarre.svg
Joan of Navarre 1370-1437 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien and a baston gobony Argent and Gules (Evreux), 2nd and 3rd, Gules, a cross, a saltire and an orle of chain linked together Or (Navarre)[45] Daughter of: King Charles II of Navarre and Joan of Valois.

Married to: King Henry IV; 1399-1413.

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of the Prince of Wales (Modern).svg
Henry of Monmouth, Prince of Wales
(later King Henry V)
1386-1422 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent[46] Son of: King Henry IV and Mary de Bohun.
Arms of Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence.svg
Thomas of Lancaster, Duke of Clarence 1387-1421 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points ermine, each with a canton Gules[47] Son of: King Henry IV and Mary de Bohun.
Arms of John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford.svg
John of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford 1389-1435 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of five points, the two on the dexter side ermine and each of the other three charged with three fleurs de lys[48] Son of: King Henry IV and Mary de Bohun.
Arms of Humphrey of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Gloucester.svg
Humphrey of Lancaster, Duke of Gloucester 1390-1447 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, within a bordure Argent[48] Son of: King Henry IV and Mary de Bohun.
Descendants of Henry V[edit]
Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg
King Henry V 1386-1422 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England[49] Son of: King Henry IV and Mary de Bohun.
Arms of Catherine of Valois.svg
Catherine of Valois 1401-1437 Azure, three fleur de lys Or (France moderne)[49] Daughter of: King Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria.

Married to: King Henry V; 1420-1422.

Later married to: Owen Tudor; 1428?-1437, progenitor of the House of Tudor.

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Royal Arms of England (1470-1471).svg
King Henry VI 1421-1471 France moderne, impaling, quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England[50] Son of: King Henry V and Catherine of Valois.

Throne usurped by Edward, Earl of March, who became King Edward IV in 1461.

Arms of Margaret of Anjou.svg
Margaret of Anjou 1430-1482 Quarterly of six, 1st, barry of eight Argent and Gules (Hungary), 2nd, Azure, semée of fleur de lys Or, a label of three points Gules (Naples), 3rd, Argent, a cross potent between four crosses Or (Jerusalem), 4th, Azure, semée of fleur de lys Or, a bordure Gules (Anjou), 5th Azure, semée of crosses crosslet fitchée, two barbels addorsée Or (Bar), 6th, Or, on a bend Gules three allerions Argent (Lorraine)[51] Daughter of: King René of Naples, Duke of Anjou and Isabella of Lorraine.

Married to: King Henry VI; 1445-1471.

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of the Prince of Wales (Modern).svg
Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales 1453-1471 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent[52] Son of: King Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou.

Killed at the Battle of Tewkesbury 1471.

House of York[edit]

Descendants of Edmund of Langley[edit]

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York.svg
Edmund of Langley, Duke of York 1341-1402 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent each point charged with three torteaux Gules[37] Son of: King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault.
Arms of Castille (English heraldry).svg
Isabella of Castille 1355-1392 Quarterly, Castille and Leon (Kingdom of Castille)[37] Daughter of: King Peter of Castile and María de Padilla.

Married to: Edmund of Langley, Duke of York; 1372-1392.

Arms of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent.svg
Joan Holland 1380-1434 Gules, three lions passant guardant Or, within a bordure Argent (Kent)[37] Daughter of: Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent and Alice Holland.

Married to: Edmund of Langley, Duke of York; 1393-1402.

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York.svg
Edward of Norwich, Duke of York 1373-1415 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Gules each charged with three castles Or[53]

Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent each point charged with three torteaux Gules[53]

Son of: Edmund of Langley, Duke of York and Isabella of Castille.
Arms of Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge.svg
Richard of Conisburgh, Earl of Cambridge 1385-1415 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent each point charged with three torteaux Gules, within a bordure Argent charged with lions rampant purpure[54] Son of: Edmund of Langley, Duke of York and Isabella of Castille.

Executed in 1415 at the orders of King Henry V, for Treason.

Arms of Anne de Mortimer, Countess of Cambridge.svg
Anne Mortimer, Countess of Cambridge 1390-1411 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent each point charged with three torteaux Gules, within a bordure Argent charged with lions rampant purpure, impaling, Quarterly, 1st and 4th, Barry of six, Or and Azure, on a chief two pales, the corners gyronny, overall an escutcheon Argent (Mortimer), 2nd and 3rd Or, a cross Gules (de Burgh)[34] Daughter of: Roger Mortimer, Earl of March and Alianore Holland, Countess of March.

Married to: Richard of Conisburgh, Earl of Cambridge; 1408-1411.

Heiress of the House of Clarence.

Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York (Variant).svg Arms of Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York.svg Richard of York, Duke of York 1411-1460 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, quarterly, France moderne, and England, overall a label pf three points each charged with three torteaux Gules, 2nd, quarterly, Castile and Leon, 3rd, quarterly, Mortimer and de Burgh, and overall and inescutcheon Gules, three passant guardant Or, a bordure Argent[55]

Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent each point charged with three torteaux Gules[55]

Son of: Richard of Conisburgh, Earl of Cambridge, Duke of York and Anne Mortimer.

Originator of the claim of the House of York to the throne, by combining the claims of Clarence (from his mother) and York (from his father).

Descendants of Richard of York[edit]

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York.svg
Richard of York, Duke of York 1411-1460 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France modern, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent each point charged with three torteaux Gules[55] Son of: Richard of Conisburgh, Earl of Cambridge, Duke of York and Anne Mortimer.

Originator of the claim of the House of York to the throne.

Defeated and killed at the Battle of Wakefield in 1460.

Arms of Cecily Neville, Duchess of York.svg
Cecily Neville, Duchess of York 1415-1495 Gules a saltire Argent (Neville)[55] Daughter of: Ralph de Neville, Earl of Westmorland and Joan Beaufort(daughter of John of Gaunt).

Married to: Richard of York, Duke of York; 1429-1460.

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of the Earl of March.svg
Edward, Earl of March
(later King Edward IV)
1442-1483 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, Barry of six, Or and Azure, on a chief two pales, the corners gyronny, overall an escutcheon Argent (Mortimer), 2nd and 3rd Or, a cross Gules (de Burgh)[56] Son of: Richard of York, Duke of York and Cecily Neville.
Arms of Edmund, Earl of Rutland.svg
Edmund, Earl of Rutland 1443-1460 Quarterly, 1st, quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of five points Argent the two dexter points charged with lions rampant purpure and three sinister points each with three torteaux, 2nd and 3rd de Burgh, 4th Mortimer[57] Son of: Richard of York, Duke of York and Cecily Neville.

Killed after the Battle of Wakefield.

Arms of George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence.svg
George, Duke of Clarence 1449-1478 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent each point charged with a canton Gules[58] Son of: Richard of York, Duke of York and Cecily Neville.
Arms of Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence.svg
Richard, Duke of Gloucester
(later King Richard III)
1452-1485 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points ermine each charged with a canton Gules (same as Thomas of Lancaster)[59] Son of: Richard of York, Duke of York and Cecily Neville.
Descendants of Edward IV[edit]
Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg
King Edward IV 1442-1483 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England[60] Son of: Richard of York, Duke of York and Cecily Neville.

Declared king in 1461, usurping the crown from the weak King Henry VI.

First king of the House of York.

Arms of Elizabeth Woodville.svg
Elizabeth Woodville 1437-1492 Quarterly of six, 1st, Agent, a lion rampant double queued gules, crowned Or (Luxembourg), 2nd, quarterly 1st and 4th, Gules, a star of eight points Argent, 2nd and 3rd, Azure semée of fleurs de lys Or (de Baux d' Andrée), 3rd, Barry Argent and Azure, overall a lion rampant Gules (Lusignan of Cyprus), 4th, Gules, three bendlets Argent, on a chief of the first, charged with a fillet in base Or, a rose of the second (Ursins), 5th, Gules, three pallets vairy, on a chief Or a label five points Azure (St. Pol), 6th, Argent, a fess and a canton conjoined Gules (Woodville)[61] Daughter of: Richard Woodville, Earl Rivers and Jacquetta of Luxembourg.

Married to: Sir John Grey; 1452-1461.

Married to: King Edward IV; 1464-1483.

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of Elizabeth of York (Princess).svg
Elizabeth of York 1466-1503 Quarterly, 1st, quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, 2nd and 3rd de Burgh, 4th Mortimer[62] Daughter of: King Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville.

Married to: King Henry VII; 1486-1503.

Arms of the Prince of Wales (Modern).svg
Edward, Prince of Wales
(later King Edward V)
1470-1483? Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent[63] Son of: King Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville.

One of the two: Princes in the Tower.

Arms of Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York.svg
Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York 1473-1483? Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent on the first point a canton Gules[64] Son of: King Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville.

One of the two: Princes in the Tower.

Arms of Arthur Plantagenet, 1st Viscount Lisle.svg
Arthur Plantagenet, Viscount Lisle ?-1542 Quarterly, 1st, quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, 2nd and 3rd de Burgh, 4th Mortimer, overall a baston sinister Azure[65] Illegitimate son of: King Edward IV.

Imprisoned in 1540 at the orders of King Henry VIII for treason. Died two days after receiving the news he was to be released.

Descendants of George Plantagenet[edit]
Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence.svg
George, Duke of Clarence 1449-1478 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent each point charged with a canton Gules[58] Son of: Richard of York, Duke of York and Cecily Neville.

Executed in 1478 at the orders of King Edward IV (his own brother), for having designs on the throne.

Arms of Isabel Neville, Duchess of Clarence.svg
Isabel Neville, Duchess of Clarence 1451-1476 Gules a saltire Argent, a label of three points gobony, Argent and Azure (Neville)[58] Daughter of: Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick and Anne de Beauchamp.

Married to: George Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence; 1469-1476.

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury.svg
Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury 1473-1541 Quarterly, 1st, Quarterly, France modern and England, a label of three points Argent each charged with a canton Gules (Clarence), 2nd, Gules a saltire Argent, a label of three points gobony Argent and Azure (Neville), impaling Gules, a fess between six crosses crosslet Or (Beauchamp), 3rd, Chequy Or and Azure, a chevron ermine (Newburgh), impaling Argent, three lozenges conjoined in fess Gules (Montacute), 4th, Or, an eagle displayed Vert (Monthermer), impaling Quarterly 1st and 4th, Or, three chevrons Gules (Clare), 2nd and 3rd, Quarterly, Argent and Gules, a fret Or, overall a bendlett Sable (Despencer)[58] Daughter of: George, Duke of Clarence and Isabel Neville.

Married to: Sir Richard Pole; 1487-1505?.

Matriarch of the Pole family; mother of Cardinal Reginald Pole, later Archbishop of Canterbury.

Executed in 1541 at the orders of King Henry VIII for treason.

Later beatified by the Catholic Church as Blessed.

Arms of Edward Plantagenet, 17th Earl of Warwick.svg
Edward Plantagenet, Earl of Warwick 1475-1499 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points gobony, Argent and Azure (Neville)[66] Son of: George, Duke of Clarence and Isabel Neville.

Nominated heir of King Richard III in 1484.

Executed in 1499 at the orders of King Henry VII for treason.

Last legitimate male-line member of the House of Plantagenet.

Descendants of Richard III[edit]
Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg
King Richard III 1452-1485 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England[59] Son of: Richard of York, Duke of York and Cecily Neville.

Defeated and killed at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, fighting against Henry Tudor, later King Henry VII.

Last legitimate male-line Plantagenet king.

Arms of Anne Neville.svg Arms of Anne Neville (Variant).svg Anne Neville 1456-1485 Quarterly of seven, 1st, Gules, a fess between six crosses crosslet Or (Beauchamp), 2nd, Chequy Or and Azure, a chevron ermine (Newburgh), 3rd, Argent, three lozenges conjoined in fess Gules (Montacute), 4th, Or, an eagle displayed Vert (Monthermer), 5th, Gules a saltire Argent, a label of three points gobony Argent and Azure (Neville), 6th, Or, three chevrons Gules (Clare), 7th, Quarterly, Argent and Gules, a fret Or, overall a bendlett Sable (Despencer)[67]

Gules, a saltire Argent[59]

Daughter of: Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick and Anne de Beauchamp.

Married to: Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales; 1470-1471.

Married to: King Richard III; 1472-1485.

Anne sometimes bore her father, Warwick the Kingmaker's, full achievement, however at other times she also bore the arms of Neville without difference.

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of the Prince of Wales (Modern).svg
Edward of Middleham, Prince of Wales 1473-1484 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent[68] Son of: King Richard III and Anne Neville,

Died at age 10 in 1484, Edward Plantagenet, Earl of Warwick nominated heir in his place.

House of Beaufort[edit]

Descendants of John Beaufort[edit]

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset (Bastard).svg Arms of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset.svg John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset 1373-1410 Per pale, Argent and Azure, over all on a bend Gules three lions passant guardant Or with a label of three points Azure each charges with three fleur de lys Or[41]

Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, within a bordure componée Argent and Azure[41]

Illegitimate Son (legitimated in 1396) of: John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster and Katherine Swynford.
Arms of Margaret Holland, Countess of Somerset.svg Margaret Holland, Countess of Somerset 1451-1476 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, within a bordure componée Argent and Azure, impaling, Gules, three lions passant guardant Or, within a bordure Argent[41] Daughter of: Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent and Alice Holland, Countess of Kent

Married to: John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset; 1399-1410

Married to: Thomas of Lancaster, Duke of Clarence; 1411-1421

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of Lady Margaret Beaufort.svg John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset 1403-1444 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, within a bordure componée Argent and Azure[69] Son of: John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset and Margaret Holland.
Arms of Margaret Beauchamp.svg Margaret Beauchamp 1406-1482 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, within a bordure componée Argent and Azure, impaling, Gules, on a fess Or a mullet Sable, between six martlets, three, two and one, of the second (Beauchamp)[69] Daughter of: John Beauchamp of Bletso and Edith Stourton.

Married to: Sir Oliver St John, of Bletsoe; 1425-1437.

Married to: John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset; 1439-1444.

Married to: Lionel de Welles, Baron Welles; 1447-1461.

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of Lady Margaret Beaufort.svg Arms of Lady Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond.svg Lady Margaret Beaufort 1443-1509 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England, within a bordure componée Argent and Azure[70]

Quarterly, France moderne and England, a bordure Azure charged alternatively with fleurs de lys and martlets Or, impaling, Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England, within a bordure componée Argent and Azure[70]

Daughter of: John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset and Margaret Beauchamp.

Married to: Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond; 1455-1456.

Married to: Sir Henry Stafford; 1462-1471.

Married to: Thomas Stanley, Earl of Derby; 1472-1504.

Arms of Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond.svg Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond 1430-1456 Quarterly, France moderne and England, a bordure Azure charged alternatively with fleurs de lys and martlets Or[70] Son of: Sir Owen Tudor and Catherine of Valois.

Half brother to King Henry VI, legitimated by Parliament in 1453.

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond.svg Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond
(later King Henry VII)
1457-1509 Quarterly, France moderne and England, a bordure Azure charged alternatively with fleurs de lys and martlets Or[71]

Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England[72]

Son of: Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond and Lady Margaret Beaufort.

Defeats King Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, claims the throne as King Henry VII.

See: House of Tudor

Arms of Elizabeth of York (Princess).svg Arms of Elizabeth of York.svg Elizabeth of York 1466-1503 Quarterly, 1st, quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, 2nd and 3rd de Burgh, 4th Mortimer[62] Daughter of: King Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville.

Married to: King Henry VII; 1486-1503.

Heiress of the House of York.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations
  1. ^ a b c d e f Brooke-Little, J.P., pp. 205–222
  2. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 14
  3. ^ a b Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 20
  4. ^ Fox-Davies, A., pp.173
  5. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 21
  6. ^ a b c Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 24
  7. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 25
  8. ^ a b Ailes, A., pp. 52–3, 64–74.
  9. ^ a b Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 26
  10. ^ Ailes, A., pp. 52–53
  11. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 27
  12. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 28
  13. ^ a b Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 30
  14. ^ a b Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 32
  15. ^ a b Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 33
  16. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 34
  17. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 35
  18. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 38
  19. ^ a b Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 48
  20. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 40
  21. ^ Louda, J. & Maclagan, M., p. 19
  22. ^ a b c Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 45
  23. ^ a b c Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 46
  24. ^ a b c Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 49
  25. ^ a b Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 50
  26. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 52
  27. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed. vol.11, Heraldry, p.689
  28. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 55
  29. ^ a b Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 59
  30. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 60
  31. ^ a b Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 62
  32. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 63
  33. ^ a b Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 65
  34. ^ a b c d e f Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 66
  35. ^ a b c d Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 77
  36. ^ a b c d e f Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 78
  37. ^ a b c d e f Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 103
  38. ^ a b Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 69
  39. ^ a b Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 70
  40. ^ a b Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 86
  41. ^ a b c d e Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 81
  42. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 84
  43. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 85
  44. ^ a b Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 87
  45. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 89
  46. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 94
  47. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 91
  48. ^ a b Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 92
  49. ^ a b Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 95
  50. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 97
  51. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 99
  52. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 100
  53. ^ a b Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 104
  54. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 105
  55. ^ a b c d Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 106
  56. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 113
  57. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 108
  58. ^ a b c d Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 110
  59. ^ a b c Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 122
  60. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 114
  61. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 117
  62. ^ a b Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 134
  63. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 121
  64. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 119
  65. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 120
  66. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 111
  67. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 116
  68. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 124
  69. ^ a b Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 82
  70. ^ a b c Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 127
  71. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 132
  72. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 133
Bibliography
  • Ailes, Adrian (1982), The Origins of The Royal Arms of England, Reading: Graduate Center for Medieval Studies, University of Reading, ISBN 0704907763 
  • Brooke-Little, J.P., FSA (1978) [1950], Boutell's Heraldry (Revised ed.), London: Frederick Warne LTD, ISBN 0-7232-2096-4 
  • Fox-Davies, Arthur (1978) [1909], Complete Guide to Heraldry (Revised Edition ed.), New York: Bonanza Books, ISBN 1602390010 
  • Louda, Jiří; Maclagan, Michael (1981), Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe, United States of America: Clarkson N. Potter, Inc., ISBN 0517545586 
  • Pinches, John Harvey; Pinches, Rosemary (1974), The Royal Heraldry of England, Heraldry Today, Slough, Buckinghamshire: Hollen Street Press, ISBN 0-900455-25-X