Army National Guard
|Army National Guard|
Seal of the Army National Guard
|Country||United States of America|
|Branch||United States Army|
|Part of||U.S. Department of the Army|
|Garrison/HQ||Army National Guard Readiness Center, Arlington Hall
Arlington County, Virginia, U.S.
|Anniversaries||December 13, 1636 (founding)|
|Director of the Army National Guard||LTG William E. Ingram, Jr., USA|
|Chief of the National Guard Bureau||GEN Frank J. Grass, USA|
The Army National Guard (ARNG) is part of the United States National Guard and is divided up into subordinate units stationed in each of the fifty U.S. states, three territories and the District of Columbia operating under their respective governors.
The Army National Guard may be called up for active duty by the state governors or territorial commanding generals to help respond to domestic emergencies and disasters, such as those caused by hurricanes, floods, and earthquakes, as well as civil disorder.
With the consent of state governors, members or units of the Army National Guard may be activated, temporarily or indefinitely, in the service of the United States. If activated for federal service, the member or unit becomes part of the Army National Guard of the United States, which is a reserve component of the United States Army.
Army National Guard units or members may be called up for federal active duty in times of Congressionally sanctioned war or national emergency. The President may also call up members and units of the Army National Guard, with the consent of state governors, to repel invasion, suppress rebellion, or enforce federal laws.
The Army National Guard is one of two organizations administered by the National Guard Bureau, the other being the Air National Guard. The Director of the Army National Guard is the head of the organization, and reports to the Chief of the National Guard Bureau.
Main article: Militia (United States)
Though a militia was mustered in Spanish Florida in the 1500s, the modern Army National Guard traces its origins to December 13, 1636, the day the Massachusetts Bay Colony's General Court passed an act calling for the formation of a militia. The creation of the militia was caused by the perceived need to defend the Bay colony against American Indians, as well as colonists and military members from other European countries who were operating in North America, including: the French in what is now Canada; the Spanish in what is now Florida, The Carolinas, and Georgia; and the Dutch in what was then New Netherland, which now comprises parts of New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island and Massachusetts.
The General Court required that all able-bodied men between ages of 16 and 60, except judges and clergy members, be considered members of the colony's militia, which was organized as the North, South, and East Regiments. Militia members were required to equip themselves, take part in regular training, and report to their units when called. (The lineage of the North, South and East Regiments is maintained in the 21st century by: 1st Squadron, 182nd Cavalry Regiment and 1st Battalion, 181st Infantry Regiment (North); 1st Battalion, 101st Field Artillery Regiment (South); and the 101st Engineer Battalion (East).)
The militia of the Bay Colony, combined with militias from Plymouth and Saybrook and Native American allies from the Narragansett and Mohegan tribes fought the Native Americans of Southern New England in the Pequot War (1634-1638). This war resulted in the hundreds of deaths, hundreds of Native Americans sold into slavery or scattered throughout North America, and the destruction of the Pequots as a group.
The militias of the Southern New England colonies fought Native Americans again in King Philip’s War from 1675 to 1676. This conflict led to the decisive defeat of the Narragansets, further straining relationships between Native Americans and white Europeans, but enabling continued white settlement of New England.
The American colonists maintained their militias in the late 1600s and 1700s, preferring the militia to a standing army as the result of English experience with a standing army when Oliver Cromwell established a military dictatorship during the English Civil War. In addition, the colonists had little interest in paying the taxes to maintain permanent garrisons of British troops. The militias were also an early experiment in democracy, with company grade officers often elected by their men, with the higher officers appointed by colonial governors or legislatures. The colonies did not exert centralized control over the militias or coordinate their efforts. Training typically took place during musters each summer, with militia members reporting for inspection and undergoing several days of training in drill and ceremony.
French and Indian War
Main article: French and Indian War
During the French and Indian War, militias from several British colonies took part in various actions, including:
- Robert Dinwiddie dispatching Virginia militia, (most notably George Washington) to French outposts in the Ohio Country
- The Braddock Expedition
- Fort William Henry
- Siege of Louisbourg
- Battle of Quebec
Many leaders of both British and American forces during the American Revolution had military experience in the French and Indian War, including American militia veterans Washington, Israel Putnam, Daniel Morgan, Adam Stephen, Daniel Boone, Philip Schuyler, John Stark, and John Thomas.
Main article: American Revolutionary War
When tensions escalated between the British government and the American colonists in the 1760s and 1770s, many citizens began organizing, equipping and training private militia units, in order to have bodies of troops that were outside the control of the royal governors.
Militia members served throughout the Revolution, often near their homes, and frequently for short periods. Militia units served in combat, as well as carrying out guard duty for prisoners, garrisoning of forts, and local patrols.
On some occasions, militia members performed ineffectively, as at the Battle of Camden in North Carolina. On other occasions they performed capably, including the Battles of Lexington and Concord, Battle of Bunker Hill, Battle of Bennington, Battles of Saratoga, and Battle of Cowpens.
Post Revolutionary War
During the period of the Articles of Confederation, the weak federal government reduced the Continental Army to a handful of officers and soldiers. The Articles of Confederation required each state to maintain a militia, and allowed Congress to form a standing army only with the consent of nine of the thirteen states. Such consent was not forthcoming in an era when the population still harbored a distrust of a standing army, so Congress largely left the defense of the new nation to the state militias.
During the Constitutional Convention in 1787, Federalists delegates argued for a powerful federal government, including federal control of the militia. Federalists anticipated using the military to defend the country if it were attacked, and to enforce federal laws when required.
Anti-Federalists advocated limited federal government, and wanted continued state control over the militias. Anti-Federalists based their arguments on three points. First, the militia could be available to resist foreign invasions. Second, the militia served as a police force in each state, enabling it to maintain order and respect for the law. Third, once the new federal government replaced the one under the Articles of Confederation, the militia would be the last defense of the states in the event that a standing army raised by the federal government was employed against the states.
The compromise agreed to by both sides satisfied Anti-Federalists because there was no standing Army, and the militias remained the responsibility of the states, especially the appointment of officers. It satisfied the Federalists because it provided that the militia could be federalized when circumstances required it.
Militia Acts of 1792
The compromise between Federalists and Anti-federalists proved short-lived. In 1791 Arthur St. Clair suffered a major defeat in the Battle of the Wabash while fighting American Indians in the Northwest Territory. In response, Congress authorized the expansion of the Army, and allowed for the President to call up the state militias on his own authority if circumstances required it when Congress was not in session.
The First Militia Act of 1792 allowed the President to call up the militias in the event of a foreign invasion, in response to attacks by American Indians, and when required for the enforcement of federal law.
The Second Militia Act of 1792 formalized the organization and training requirements of the state militias. It mandated that the militia consisted of every "free able-bodied white male citizen" between ages 18 and 45, organized as members of a local unit. (A later change expanded eligibility to all men between 18 and 54, regardless of race.) Some occupations were exempt, including stagecoach drivers and ferry operators, who would be expected to support the militia by facilitating the transport of soldiers, supplies and equipment in the event of a mobilization. There were also religious exemptions for Quakers and other denominations that advocated nonviolence.
Militia units were required to report for training twice a year, usually in early summer (after Spring planting) and late Fall (after the autumn harvest but before snow fell). Militia members were required to outfit themselves and report for training or mobilization with a musket or rifle, bayonet, flints, cartridge box, bullets or musket balls, haversack or knapsack, and powder horn and gunpowder.
State legislatures were authorized to organize local units into divisions, regiments and subordinate commands, and federalized militia members were made subject to court martial proceedings for disobeying orders and other offenses.
Part of this reorganization included removing state governors as commanders with military rank (Captain General), and the creation of the state Adjutant General. The Adjutant General reported directly to the governor and served as commander of the state militia. States were slow to respond, and some did not begin appointing Adjutants General until after the War of 1812.
President George Washington used the authority of the Second Act in 1794 to call up the militia in response to the Whiskey Rebellion. He did so shortly before that provision of the Second Act was about to expire. Recognizing that the authority might be needed again in the future, Congress responded by passing the Militia Act of 1795, which made permanent the President's ability to call up the militia on his own authority if Congress was not in session.
The use of the militia in the Whiskey Rebellion made clear that militias were not well organized, effectively trained, or capably led. Washington and other Federalists advocated the creation of a national military academy to standardize training and increase the number of citizens with military experience, and in 1802, the Army established the United States Military Academy at West Point.
War of 1812
Main article: War of 1812
At the start of the War of 1812 the regular army totaled less than 12,000 soldiers. Congress authorized expanding the army to 35,000, but recruiting was only moderately successful because of poor pay and a lack of trained leaders. In addition, war with England was less popular in some areas of the country than others, which made it difficult to convince men to enlist. For example, in Vermont residents saw little need to fight the British in the dominion of Canada, which was a profitable trading partner.
Both regular and hastily organized militias took part in battles throughout the war, with mixed results. For example, the militia fled during the Battle of Bladensburg, giving rise to the description of the event as the "Bladensburg races." On the other hand, Alexander Macomb led a successful action at Plattsburgh, with his small force of regulars and militia defeating a British attempt to invade upstate New York from Canada. In addition, Andrew Jackson employed militia effectively at the Battle of New Orleans.
In some cases militia members objected to serving outside their home states, arguing that since they were responsible to their state governors and not the federal government, they were not required to serve in other states or take part in invasions. One result of this was that with the question of state versus federal control left unresolved, the federal government was wary of attempting to federalize the militia during future conflicts.
Post War of 1812
In the wake of the War of 1812, the federal government attempted to standardize training and laws governing call up and mobilization for militia organizations throughout the United States.
These efforts to reenergize the militia lapsed as the result of the long period of relative peace that followed the War of 1812. (The Era of Good Feelings.) The number of occupations exempt from membership increased, and annual muster days became more picnic and parade than military formation. These factors, coupled with a lack of military leaders with training and experience, led to a gradual decline of the militia.
Main article: Mexican-American War
In the United States, war with Mexico had the support of southern Democrats who were anxious to annex Texas and gain states that would permit slavery. At the start of the war, the Army consisted of between 8,000 and 9,000 soldiers. Enthusiasm for the war, primarily in the south, spurred renewed interest in the militia, and membership began to grow.
The regular Army did not consider militia members to be reliable, and the issue of federal versus state control of militia units had not been resolved. As a result, Congress expanded the Army by authorizing the creation of ten regiments and the recruiting of 50,000 "volunteers" -- individuals who were not in the regular Army and were not militia members subject to state control.
American Civil War
The Union used a version of the Mexican-American War-era volunteer system to expand the size of the Union Army while sidestepping the issue of federal versus state control of the militias. Many militia units were enlisted en masse, and many individuals who enlisted or received commissions in the Union Army were militia veterans.
State Adjutants General and the military staffs of the state governors in the Union were often responsible for equipping, training and transporting recruits and draftees to front line units. In addition, militias often garrisoned forts, performed local defense and border security patrols, and guarded prisoners.
The Confederate States Army also frequently enlisted militia unit members as a group, and many individuals who joined the CSA were militia veterans. The Confederate states also used their militias for local duty in much the same way as the Union.
Union veterans of the militia who had leadership roles during the war included George J. Stannard. Chester A. Arthur, who served on the staff of the Governor of New York as Quartermaster with the rank of Brigadier General, played a key role in outfitting New York soldiers and transporting them to the front lines.
Post American Civil War
In 1867, Congress suspended the right of each former Confederate state to organize its militia until it resumed normal functions as part of the United States, and the U.S. Army enforced martial law during Reconstruction and guarded polls during the presidential election of 1876. In addition to enforcing federal law in the south, the Army was used to suppress labor unrest in the North, as during the Great Railroad Strike of 1877. In response Congress passed the Posse Comitatus Act in 1878, which limited the president's ability to employ the military within the United States during peacetime without the consent of Congress.
Governors could still employ the militia during labor strikes or civil disturbances, and concern over the militia's increased use for this function led states to revise their militia laws and reorganize their units. During the late 1880s and early 1890s most states changed the name of their militias to "National Guard," making semi-official a name that had been used by 2nd Battalion, 11th New York Artillery after it paraded for the Marquis de Lafayette in 1825, and was used with increasing frequency during and immediately after the Civil War. (The term "national guard" was first coined in the 1790s by Lafayette as a description of anti-royalist forces during the French Revolution.)
In the Spanish-American War, the U.S. government again used the volunteer concept to expand the Army without directly addressing the question of when militia could be federalized. As had happened previously, there were militia units that volunteered and were enlisted en masse, as well as individual militia members who joined volunteer units. Examples of the units that volunteered as a group include the 69th New York Infantry and the 71st New York Infantry.
The Dick Act
Main article: Militia Act of 1903
The official founding of the modern Army National Guard resulted from passage of the Militia Act of 1903, which enabled the National Guards of the individual states to be called to federal service when required. Also called the Dick Act, for sponsor Charles W. F. Dick, The 1903 law updated the Militia Act of 1792 and codified that National Guard members were both members of the militias of their states, subject to control of the state governors, and federal reserves, subject to the control of the President of the United States.
Prior to passage of the Dick Act, whether state militia members could be federalized, and if so under what circumstances, had been unresolved since the War of 1812. This uncertainty led the federal government to bypass the state militias in favor of creating volunteer armies, as was done for the Mexican-American War, the Union Army of the American Civil War, and the U.S. forces raised for the Spanish-American War.
In addition to clarifying the question of when militia members could be federalized, the Dick Act provided that the newly-organized National Guard had to design its units to match those of the regular Army, and that National Guard members would have to meet the same training, education and readiness standards as their regular Army counterparts. In exchange, the federal government provided states with funding and equipment to enable the reorganization and modernization.
The Dick Act also authorized creation of an office to oversee and coordinate the activities of the state militias. In response, the Army created the Militia Section within the Miscellaneous Division of the Adjutant General's office, staffed by Major James Parker and four clerks. This office became the Division of Militia Affairs in 1908, and Erasmus M. Weaver, Jr. was named to head it.
National Defense Act of 1916
In 1916 the Division of Militia Affairs was reorganized within the Army as the Militia Bureau.
Numerous National Guard units were activated for service on the Mexico–United States border during the Pancho Villa Expedition. Passed as part of the Preparedness Movement during and after the Villa expedition and before U.S. entry into World War I, the 1916 law named the state militias as the Army's primary reserve and expanded the President's authority to mobilize the National Guard during war or national emergency. In addition, it made mandatory the use of the term "National Guard" to describe the militia, and provided funding to pay members for attending drill. The act also increased the number of weekend or weeknight drills from 24 to 48 per year, and increased the annual training period from from five days to 15. The 1916 law also created the Reserve Officer Training Corps.
World War I
Main article: United States in World War I
In the spring of 1917, the U.S. declared war on Germany and entered World War I, and the National Guard played a major role. Its units were federalized and organized into divisions by state, which made up 40% of American Expeditionary Forces combat strength. Three of the first five U.S. Army divisions in combat were National Guard divisions, and the division with the highest number of Medals of Honor recipients was the National Guard's 30th Infantry Division.
National Guard divisions in World War I included the 26th; 27th; 28th; 29th; 30th; 31st; 32nd; 33rd; 34th; 35th; 36th; 37th; 38th; 39th; 40th; 41st; and 42nd. Most divisions came from one state or region, but the the 42nd Division was made up of National Guard units not already assigned to other divisions, and included representation from 26 states and the District of Columbia.
National Guard participants in World War I included: future President Harry S. Truman, who commanded Battery D, 129th Field Artillery, a unit of the 35th Infantry Division; and William J. Donovan, who received the Medal of Honor as commander of the 42nd Division's 1st Battalion, 165th Infantry Regiment (the federalized designation of New York's 69th Infantry Regiment).
African Americans participated in World War I as they had in America's other conflicts, including the New York National Guard's 15th Infantry Regiment, which was federalized as the 369th Infantry Regiment. The 369th fought as part of the French 16th Division, and the entire regiment received the Croix de guerre, with 171 members receiving the Legion of Honor. In one of the most well known acts of heroism in the war, 369th soldiers Henry Lincoln Johnson and Needham Roberts fought off a German patrol of at least 24 soldiers, for which Johnson received the Distinguished Service Cross.
National Defense Act of 1920
Advocated by National Guard proponents including John McAuley Palmer, the National Defense Act of 1920 mandated that the Chief of the National Guard Bureau would be a National Guard officer, and the first Guard officer to serve as Chief was George C. Rickards. It also enabled National Guard officers to serve on the Army's general staff, reorganized the National Guard's divisions and subordinate commands, and provided federal funding for National Guard unit operating expenses.
National Defense Act of 1933
The National Defense Act of 1933 provided that the National Guard is considered a component of the Army at all times. Beginning with this law, each National Guard member has two military statuses -- a member of the National Guard of his or her state, or a member of the National Guard of the United States when federalized. This enhanced the 1916 Act's mobilization provisions, making it possible to deploy National Guard units and individual members directly for overseas service in the event of a war.
World War II
In August, 1940 the National Guard was order to federal service for 12 months in anticipation of U.S, entry into World War II. More than 400,000 National Guardsmen were called up as parts of divisions or in non-divisional units, and 18 Army divisions were National Guard organizations.
National Guard units participated in all combat theaters and took part in 34 separate campaigns and seven assault landings, sustaining 175,000 casualties (killed and wounded). 48 Presidential Unit Citations were awarded to National Guard units, and National Guard soldiers received 14 Medals of Honor, 50 Distinguished Service Crosses, 48 Distinguished Flying Crosses, and more than 500 Silver Stars.
Despite the efforts of regular Army leaders to replace National Guard division commanders with regular Army officers, National Guard Major Generals Leonard F. Wing and Robert S. Beightler remained in command of their divisions, the 43rd and 37th, and Beightler was the only National Guard general to command his division for the entire duration of the war.
Post World War II
The National Security Act of 1947 created the position of Secretary of Defense and the United States Department of Defense. In addition it removed the Secretary of War and Secretary of the Navy from the cabinet and placed their departments within the Department of Defense.
As a result of the Air Force's creation, the Air National Guard was formed. Under the control of the governors, the Air Guard was organized overall as part of the National Guard Bureau. The fielding of the Air National Guard also caused the creation of two new positions, the Director of the Army National Guard and Director of the Air National Guard, who each reported to the Chief of the National Guard Bureau.
The post-World War II reorganization of the National Guard was an emphasis on the creation of numerous Infantry and Armor divisions, oriented on a Cold War scenario that presumed large numbers of soldiers and tanks would be needed to stop an invasion of Western Europe by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (See Legacy units and formations.)
President Harry S. Truman mobilized the National Guard for the Korean War. Four infantry divisions were activated -- the 28th; 40th; 43rd; and 45th. The 40th and 45th served in Korea, while the 28th and 43rd deployed to West Germany as part of the Cold War deterrent to an invasion by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
By the end of the war, approximately 700 Army National Guard units had been mobilized, as had thousands of individual volunteers and soldiers involuntarily called to active duty because they had critical skills. Approximately 139,000 Army Guardsmen served during this conflict.
During the Vietnam War the Administration of President Lyndon B. Johnson decided upon a draft to enhance active duty troop strength rather than calling on large numbers of the National Guard and Reserves. As a result, membership in a reserve component, including the Army National Guard, became a way to avoid combat service in an unpopular war. Amid accusations of favoritism in enlistment and "easy" service when compared to duty in Vietnam, the reputation of the Army National Guard declined even as enlistments increased.
Despite the decision not to call up the National Guard in full force, some units were activated, and individual National Guard members volunteered to be mobilized. Among the Army National Guard units mobilized during the Vietnam War were Artillery battalions from Kentucky and New Hampshire, and an Engineer company from Vermont. Between 12,000 and 13,000 Army National Guard members were activated for the Vietnam War, either as individual volunteers or in units.
The National Guard was also activated to quell numerous civil disturbances, including anti-Vietnam War protests and urban riots. The most notable of these was the May, 1970 event at Kent State University, at which four students were killed and nine wounded by members of the Ohio Army National Guard.
Post Vietnam War
The Army's experience with not having fully used the National Guard during the Vietnam War led to the creation of the 1973 Total Force Policy. With the Vietnam War draft having been ended in favor of an all volunteer miltary, the Total Force Policy required all active and reserve military organizations to be treated as a single integrated force. Following the experience of fighting in Vietnam without widespread popular support, the TFP was designed to involve the American public in military actions by mobilizing the National Guard from its thousands of locations throughout the United States.
In 1974 the "Abrams Doctrine" further expanded the TFP. Creighton Abrams, who had become commander of Military Assistance Command, Vietnam in 1968, became Chief of Staff of the United States Army in 1972. Having seen the effects of President Johnson's decision to use the draft rather than calling on the National Guard and Reserve in large numbers, Abrams stated that the U.S. should never again go to war without calling up the Guard and Reserve.
Late 20th century
For much of the final decades of the twentieth century, National Guard personnel typically served "One weekend a month, two weeks a year", with a portion working for the Guard in a full-time capacity as members of the Active Guard Reserve (AGR) or as dual status federal technicians. (Dual status technicians are traditional National Guard members who are federal civilian emloyees during the regular work week, and work in uniform.)
As part of the Reagan Era defense build up, the National Guard began to transform from a strategic reserve to an operational one. This included modernization of equipment and weapons, more intensive training during drill and annual training periods, and increased overseas training opportunities.
In the late 1980s several state governors unsuccessfully challenged the authority of the President to federalize the National Guard in their states without their consent. Governor Rudy Perpich and others objected to the National Guard bring deployed to Central America during the political debate over whether the United States should be involved in the attempted overthrow of the Sandanista government of Nicaragua.
In the first major test of the Total Force Policy, several Army National Guard units were activated for the 1991 Gulf War, mostly combat support and combat service support organizations. Though there was controversy over the Army's decision not to deploy the "roundout brigades" of three divisions (the 48th Infantry Brigade, 155th Armored Brigade, and 256th Infantry Brigade) once they completed their mobilization training, other Army National Guard units were activated, served in Southwest Asia, and performed well. Approximately 60,000 Army Guard soldiers were activated for the Gulf War, including the 142nd Field Artillery Brigade and 196th Field Artillery Brigade.
The National Guard also continued to carry out its role to aid in civil disturbance control, including responding to the 1992 Los Angeles riots. In addition, it took on an increased role in U.S. illegal drug interdiction efforts.
In the late 1990s, the Army National Guard was increasingly relied upon for overseas missions, including deployments in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Kosovo for stabilization and peacekeeping missions following the Bosnian War and Kosovo War.
Main article: War on Terror
The role of the National Guard expanded following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. As part of the Global War on Terrorism, National Guard units and individual National Guard members performed sustained active duty during Operations Noble Eagle, Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom, both as part of scheduled mobilizations and as individual volunteers.
In addition to deployments for the Global War on Terrorism, National Guard members continued in their roles of disaster relief and providing support to law enforcement when required. These responses included Hurricane Katrina in 2006, Hurricane Irene in 2011, and Hurricane Sandy and Hurricane Isaac in 2012.
- Myles Standish
- John Underhill
- George Washington
- Israel Putnam
- John Stark
- Robert Rogers
- Seth Warner
War of 1812
American Civil War
- Paul Bragg
- William Frank
- Frederick E. Humphreys
- William Leushner
- Cornelius Vanderbilt III
- William Seward Webb
World War I
World War II
- Ernest W. Gibson, Jr.
- Leonard F. Wing
- Robert S. Beightler
- Butler B. Miltonberger
- Scott Brown
- Tammy Duckworth
- Tulsi Gabbard
- John Napier
- Shauna Rohbock
- Terry Schappert
- Jill Stevens
- Courtney Zablocki
Directors of the Army National Guard
Upon the creation of the United States Air Force in 1948, which included the Air National Guard, the National Guard Bureau was organized into two divisions, Army and Air, each headed by a Major General who reported to the Chief of the National Guard Bureau. The following is a list of the Dirctors of the Army National Guard since the creation of the position:
- MG Raymond H. Fleming, 1948-1950
- MG William H. Abendroth, 1951-1955
- MG Donald W. McGowan, 1955-1959
- MG Clayton P. Kerr, 1959-1962
- BG Francis S. Greenlief, 1962-1963
- BG Charles L. Southward, 1964-1967
- BG Leonard C. Ward, 1968-1970
- MG Francis S. Greenlief, 1970-1971
- MG La Vern E. Weber, 1971-1974
- MG Charles A. Ott, Jr., 1974-1978
- MG Emmett H. Walker, Jr., 1978-1982
- MG Herbert R. Temple, Jr., 1982-1986
- MG Donald Burdick, 1986-1991
- MG Raymond F. Rees, 1991-1992
- MG John R. D'Araujo, Jr., 1993-1995
- MG William A. Navas, Jr., 1995-1998
- LTG Roger C. Schultz, 1998-2005
- LTG Clyde A. Vaughn, 2005-2009
- MG Raymond W. Carpenter (Acting), 2009-2011
- LTG William E. Ingram, Jr., 2011–Present
Deputy Directors of the Army National Guard
The Army National Guard is also authorized a Deputy Director. The individuals who have held this post since 1970 are:
- BG Leonard C. Ward, 1970-1972
- BG Joseph R. Jelinek, 1973-1976
- BG Emmett H. Walker, Jr., 1977
- BG Herbert R. Temple, Jr., 1978-1981
- BG Richard D. Dean, 1982-1986
- BG William A. Navas, Jr., 1987-1990
- BG John R. D'Araujo, Jr., 1990-1993
- BG William C. Bilo, 1993-1997
- BG Michael J. Squier, 1998-2002
- BG Clyde A. Vaughn, 2002-2003
- MG Frank J. Grass, 2004-2006
- MG James W. Nuttall, 2006-2009
- MG Raymond W. Carpenter, 2009
- MG Timothy J. Kadavy, 2009–2013
- BG Walter E. Fountain (Acting), 2013
- MG Judd H. Lyons, 2013-Present (Announced, May, 2013. Will assume duties later in 2013.)
Legacy units and formations
Several units have been affected by Army National Guard reorganizations. Some have been renamed or inactivated. Some have had subordinate units reallocated to other commands. A partial list of inactivated major units includes:
- 26th Infantry Division, inactivated 1 September 1993.
- 27th Infantry Division, reorganized as 27th Armored Division, 1 February 1955. (See below.)
- 27th Armored Division, inactivated 1 February, 1968.
- 30th Armored Division, reorganized as 30th Infantry Division, 1968. (See below.)
- 30th Infantry Division, inactivated 4 January 1974.
- 31st Infantry Division, inactivated 14 January, 1968.
- 32nd Infantry Division, inactivated 1967.
- 33rd Infantry Division, inactivated 1 February 1968.
- 37th Infantry Division, inactivated 15 February 1968.
- 39th Infantry Division, inactivated 1 December 1967.
- 40th Armored Division, inactivated 29 January, 1968.
- 41st Infantry Division, inactivated 1968.
- 43rd Infantry Division, inactivated 16 December 1967.
- 44th Infantry Division, inactivated 10 October 1954.
- 45th Infantry Division, inactivated 1968.
- 46th Infantry Division, inactivated 29 January 1968.
- 47th Infantry Division, inactivated 1991.
- 48th Armored Division, inactivated 29 January 1968.
- 49th Armored Division, inactivated 1 May 2004; reflagged as the 36th Infantry Division.
- 50th Armored Division, inactivated 1 September, 1993.
Army National Guard by state
Main article: State Adjutant General
The Army and Air National Guard in each state are headed by the State Adjutant General. The Adjutant General (TAG) is the de facto commander of a state's military forces, and reports to the state governor.
- Military units and formations of the United States Army National Guard
- State Defense Forces
- 1992 Los Angeles riots
- Military Reserves Federal Call Up Authority
- 10 USC 12211. Officers: Army National Guard of the United States
- 10 USC 12107. Army National Guard of United States; Air National Guard of the United States: enlistment in
- 32 USC 101. Definitions (NATIONAL GUARD)
- 10 USC 12401. Army and Air National Guard of the United States: status
- 10 USC 10105. Army National Guard of the United States: composition
- 10 USC 12406. National Guard in Federal service: call
- Thomas Kielbasa, National Guard News, Florida Celebrates 445th Anniversary of 'First Muster', September 16, 2010
- About the National Guard, The National Guard Website
- Thomas L. Purvis, Almanacs of American Life: Colonial America to 1763, 1999, page 41
- George Madison Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip's War, 1906, page 471
- Michael D. Doubler, The National Guard and Reserve: A Reference Handbook , 2008, page 161
- Faren R. Siminoff, Crossing the Sound: The Rise of Atlantic American Communities in Eastern Long Island, 2004, page 63
- Alfred A. Cave, The Pequot War, 1996, page 11
- Stanley Sandler, editor, Ground Warfare: An International Encyclopedia, H-Q, 2002, pages 464-465
- James A. Wood, Militia Myths: Ideas of the Canadian Citizen Soldier, 1896-1921, 2010, page 5
- A. Ward Burian, George Washington's Legacy of Leadership, 2007, page 120
- Peter M. Karsten, The Military in America, 1986, page 59
- Barry M. Stentiford, The Richardson Light Guard of Wakefield, Massachusetts, 2013, page 18
- René Chartrand, Colonial American Troops, 1610-1774, Volume 2, 2002, page 23
- Spencer C. Tucker, The Encyclopedia of North American Indian Wars, 1607–1890, 2011, page 498
- John Ferling, The Ascent of George Washington: The Hidden Political Genius of an American Icon, 2010, page 18
- William A. Crozier, editor, Virginia Colonial Militia, 1651-1776, 1905, page 36
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