Army Reserve (Ireland)
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2010)|
Reserve Defence Forces Cap Badge
|Active||1 October 2005|
|Branch||Reserve Defence Forces|
|Part of||Reserve Defence Forces|
|Website||Reserve Defence Forces|
|Army Reserve Beret|
The Army Reserve (Irish: Cúltaca an Airm) is the land component of the Reserve Defence Forces (RDF). It is the second line reserve of the Army. The Army Reserve is a part-time, fully voluntary organisation, and is one of two elements of the Reserve Defence Forces of Ireland, the other element being the Naval Service Reserve.
It was established on 1 October 2005 to replace and reorganise the previous reserve organisation, and to improve training and courses similar to those of the Permanent Forces. This reorganisation saw the creation of an overriding Reserve Defence Forces structure which spans both the Army and Naval Service Reserve.
Prior to the 2005 restructure, the reserve forces of the Irish Army were known as the Fórsa Cosanta Áitiúil (Local Defence Force), which in turn has its origins in the Units formed in 1920s.
Early Reserve/Volunteer forces
In the years following the establishment of Defence Forces various classes of army reserves were experimented with. Between 1927 and 1939, these comprised several reserve classes.
In May 1927, the "Class A Reserve" was established and consisted of regular non-commissioned officers and men transferred to the Reserve. Though numbers never exceeded 5,000, they were the best trained of the reserves, with over 80% reporting annually for training.
In January 1928, the "Class B Reserve" was formed, with the object of building up the infantry arm of the Defence Forces - on a voluntary basis. Its conditions of service were three months' initial training, followed by one month's annual training with liability for six years Reserve service. It was not a success however, never exceeding 3,600 in strength, and had practically ceased to exist by 1934.
The "Volunteer Reserve Force" was established in Autumn 1929. No initial training was required - instead members attended parade once weekly, with four weekend camps per year along with fifteen days annual training. It was divided into three units, one Battalion in Dublin, an Artillery Battery in Cork and an Officer Training corps in universities. A total of 1,229 enlisted in the Officer Training College (OTC) while 987 enlisted in the other two units. The units were disbanded in 1935.
The "Volunteer Force" was established in March 1934. Apart from basic military requirements there was a political consideration in its formation. Fianna Fáil, who had assumed power in 1932, were anxious that the army should be more representative of the different political persuasions in the country. Since 1924, the army had been composed of pro-Treaty supporters. It was hoped that this new force would attract men who would be considered anti-Treaty in outlook. To this end a number of men who had prominent anti-Treaty records in the Civil War were commissioned at the initial stages as Administrative Officers.
On 6 November 1935 the "Pearse Regiment" was added. Named for Pádraig Pearse, this force consisted of three lines of Reserve with varying conditions of service. Those of the first line had to undergo initial training along with a commitment to thirty days annual training, and reached a maximum strength of 10,578 by April 1935. On 1 September 1939 the strength was 257 officers and 6,986 other ranks. The second line consisted of personnel who had been trained in the first line and had been transferred. The third line was intended to be a reserve of specialists in civilian life who would be of value to the army upon mobilisation.
The Volunteer Force was the first scheme to make provision for recruitment into all Arms of the Service. It also provided for the special training of non-commissioned officers and the training of NCOs for commissions. The inclusion of civilian committees (known as Sluaghs) to help recruiting and administration at a local level was a feature of the Force. The Sluaghs however gradually disappeared and were replaced by committees composed solely of Volunteers. The Volunteers had a distinctive uniform, darker than the ordinary uniform, with black boots, leggings, belts, chromium buttons and badges and forage caps.
Territorially these early volunteer/reserve forces were divided into regimental areas, which took their names from the ancient Irish kingdoms where they were raised:-
- The Regiment of Oriel - Counties Louth, Meath and Monaghan.
- The Regiment of Leinster - Counties Kildare, West Wicklow, Wexford and Carlow.
- The Regiment of Dublin - County and Borough of Dublin and East Wicklow.
- The Regiment of Ormond, renamed Ossory in 1935. Counties Kilkenny, Waterford and Tipperary.
- The Regiment of Thomond - Counties Limerick and Clare.
- The Regiment of Connacht - Counties Galway, Mayo and Roscommon.
- The Regiment of Breffni - Counties Cavan, Longford, Leitrim and Sligo.
- The Regiment of Tyrconnell - County Donegal.
- The Regiment of Uisneach - Counties Laois, Offaly and Westmeath.
- The Regiment of Desmond - Counties Cork and Kerry.
In response to the various security threats posed during The Emergency (Second World War), a new reserve force - the Local Security Force (LSF) - was created on the 28 May 1940 as an auxiliary police service. Instituted under a Garda Act its activities were to be devoted to auxiliary police and internal security work. Recruiting forms were dispatched to Garda stations on the 31 May 1940 and by 16 June of the same year 44,870 members were enrolled.
On 22 June 1940 it was decided to divide the force into two groups:-
- "A" Group - to be an auxiliary to the army
- "B" Group - to continue as an auxiliary to the Police Force.
By August 1940 the strength had risen to 148,306 and by October of the same year detailed organisations for each group were issued and District Staffs were formed. By the end of 1940 the army had more or less completed its expansion to a war-time footing and was then in a position to take over the control of "A" Group from the Gardaí. On 1 January 1941 it was handed over to the Command and control of the Army and was given the new title of "The Local Defence Force" (An Fórsa Cosanta Áitúil).
The "B" Group continued as an auxiliary police force and retained its old name - "The Local Security Force" (L.S.F.). From the military point of view the L.D.F. was the equivalent of many additional battalions to the Defence Forces.
Local Security Force
The L.S.F. was organised in groups around each Garda Station. It was organised into sections and squads and its general duties consisted of traffic control, communications, protective duties, transport, and first aid.
While other elements of the Defence Forces devoted most of their time to training, the L.S.F., while training was important, were required to devote much of their time to actual work. Police duties, patrolling and observation were important aspects of their activities. Unlike the soldier who was trained to act as part of a team, the L.S.F. member acted more like a policeman and therefore more emphasis was placed on training to enable him to act alone.
In the cities and large towns their systems of patrols and beats were designed to coincide with times of local crime peaks. A survey of 200 commendations issued to members include the detection of such crimes as housebreaking, larceny, dangerous driving, saving of life from burning buildings, assistance to Gardaí under assault and others.
They also assisted the Gardaí in searches for reported parachutists, missing persons, and crashed aircraft. They kept a watch for floating mines and provided cordons when required. They also assisted in policing at two General Elections. Assistance to other Government Departments was also provided, and included the distribution to households of tea rationing forms and ration books (March 1941), census of turf cutting (July 1941), a survey of accommodation available for refugees, and the provision of patrols to enforce the regulations governing the movement of cattle on outbreak of foot and mouth disease.
Local Defence Force
As noted above, this was the "A" Group of the L.S.F. that had been transferred to the army in January 1941. With its military status and responsibility, it was integrated into the combat organisations under full military discipline. The main LDF weapons were the rifle, bayonet and grenade. The organisation was mostly one of rifle companies and platoons.
In 1942 the LDF strength was 98,429. In 1943 this rose to 103,530. And in 1944 it was at 96,152. These strengths were regarded as being 90% effective and may reflect a rise and fall as the European battle front approached or receded from Irish shores.
The LDF was formed in January 1941 from the "A" Group, Local Security Force (LSF). As originally formed in May 1940, the LSF was a single organization. On 22 June 1940 it was split into two groups, A and B. The A group was to be an auxiliary to the Army, while the B Group was to serve the same purpose for the Gardai. This situation lead to some debate as too the status of the A group in the event of war. It would be part of a non-combatant force, the Garda. In the event of an invasion, this would leave them open to being shot as irregulars. This is one reason that in January 1941, the Local Defense Force (LDF) was formed from the A Group in accordance with Emergency powers Order No. 61. The B Group thus became the Local Security Force and remained under the jurisdiction of the Gardai.
The new LDF was organized country wide based on its previous Garda district and division system, with the basic unit being a "Group". Training and administration was provided by military personnel. A member of the Gardai was assigned as 'District Administrative Officer' to assist in the day to day administration of the force. In rural areas the LDF formed into self-contained units of "all arms". In reality this meant rifle platoons but as time went by, the effectiveness increased, within the confines of equipment and organizational deficiencies. At the same time, the greater numbers available in the larger cities and towns allowed specialist units of engineers, signals etc to be formed.
The strength of the LDF stood at over 88000 in March 1941.
Equipment, where available, for the LDF centered on the Springfield 0.300" rifle, a shipment of which was obtained from the British War Office. As ammunition for the Springfields was in short supply it was difficult for those LDF units which received them to carry out effective shooting practice. This short fall was somewhat alleviated by the use of 0.22 Miniature rifles. Some quantities of handguns and grenades were also supplied. Initially the LDF units were supplied with a brown denim battle dress but this met with universal dislike as it was of poor quality and was not suited to use in inclement Irish weather. As the Emergency entered 1942, some webbing and other military equipment began to make its way to the LDF units.
Training was carried out in the local areas by Army personnel. This training as it progressed allowed the LDF to become a very useful adjutant to the Army. The quality of units country wide differed greatly due to equipment, training and participation.
With the increased effectiveness of the LDF in Spring 1942, in cites and large towns, it was decided that the LDF would be formed into rifle battalions. This reorganization allowed the LDF to take over increased duties from the Army.
6 units were composed of the following: One field Artillery Battery (41st) One Cyclist regiment One Engineer battalion (11th) One Signals Battalion (11th) One Transport Battalion and One Field Ambulance.
The rifle Battalions were organized in the following areas: Dublin - 5 (41st, 42nd, 43rd, 44th and 45th) Cork - 2 (47th and 48th) Waterford - 1 Limerick - 1 Galway - 1
In Cork City for example, the 47th and 48th battalions formed part of its defense. In Dublin, the 5 Battalions were organized into two areas, North and South city, with staff organizations, In all cases the new battalion Commanding Officers were members of the regular army. The new measures meant that LDF units could take over from Army units' tasks such garrisoning certain points and mounting check points. At this time it was decided that these new LDF battalions would be re-equipped with the Lee Enfield 0.303" rifle to make them common with the Army units they would co-operate with. The new rifles were delivered from surplus Army stocks. With this taking place the old Springfield 0.300" rifles were redistributed to other LDF units thus increasing the number of armed personnel.
Along with the above urban re-organization, the LDF units stationed in the areas of the regular 1st and 2nd Divisions were placed under their operational control. This as above increased the effectiveness of the LDF units in these areas.
There were concerns raised in 1942 in the defense forces about the objections being raised by the clergy in some areas regarding LDF service. Also, the attitude of some employers to men taking service was voiced in the 1942-1943 Annual report. A further change during this period was the removal of Garda officers as District Administration officers. The Garda command was forced to remove their involvement due the increased workload they were experiencing due to the emergency. To replace these Garda officers, regular Army NCO's were appointed as Company Quartermaster Sergeants.
June 1943 seen the LDF reach its highest enlistment numbers. In that month the total number of men in the LDF was 106034. However, as at all times in its existence, the total number of men enrolled never equaled the total number actively taking part in training and operations. There was a continuous series of people leaving the service and new recruitment. Indeed the regular army likely suffered in its attempts to recruit due to the existence of the LDF. Some felt that service in the LDF was preferable to full time service due its low pay and conditions.
Further small changes were made in the 1943 - 1944. The Field Artillery Battery in Dublin was spilt into two units, the 41st and 42nd Batteries. Five additional Field Ambulance Companies were formed. Also, LDF Groups and Sections were re titled Companies and platoons respectively. The Army annual report reported the increasing effectiveness of Army - LDF co-operation. This likely varied countrywide and was best where large army formations were stationed such as the Divisional areas and the cities.
Establishment of the FCÁ
A post-war establishment of 12,500 in all ranks saw a rapid demobilisation and reorganisation within a small period. The Regular Army was now composed of three Brigades. In 1947 all reserve forces were dis-established and in their place were created the First Line Reserve and the Second Line Reserve - An Fórsa Cosanta Áitiúil (FCÁ) (Local Defence Force).
The basic principles underlying this establishment were that:-
- The three brigades at about half strength could, with their reserves be quickly mobilised to full strength.
- Provide normal garrison and training establishments.
- Provide cadres for the Reserves.
This organisation remained until 1959 when "integration" was introduced by which the FCÁ was integrated with the Regular Army. Six Brigades of mixed Regular and FCÁ units, each with only one Regular Battalion were established with the intention that the remaining units would be filled by FCÁ personnel upon mobilisation.
In 1979 there was a change in the structure and role of the FCÁ which had existed since the 1959 integration.
The six integrated Infantry Brigades were reduced to four PDF (Permanent Defence Force) Brigades and the Eastern Command Infantry Force (ECIF). A new Command structure was set up for the FCÁ with a Directorate of Reserve Forces.
Changing role and the RDF
Confirmed by the Minister in the Dáil Éireann on 15 May 1991, the role of the FCÁ units changed. They were now to be tasked with local defence and security, reinforcement of PDF units with trained manpower, and the replacement of PDF units in Barracks should the need arise.
Females were inducted into selected units of the FCÁ in 1991 and from 1993 all units were permitted to recruit females. In 1997 a Steering Group was convened by the Chief of Staff to conduct a special study on the Restructuring of the Reserve Defence Forces. The Report was completed in May 1999.
On October 1, 2005 the FCÁ was stood down and the RDF (Reserve Defence Forces), consisting of the Army Reserve and Naval Reserve, was established.
In 2013 a major reorganisation was carried out that implemented the Single Force Concept. RDF units would now be attached to Army units.
All enlisted members of the Reserve Defence Forces (RDF) undergo recruit training on a part-time voluntary basis. This training takes place mostly on weekends. Recruits must undergo at least 14 days full-time training and pass proficiency tests on foot, arms drill, tactics and rifle training with the Steyr AUG to qualify as a 2 Star Private.
3 Star training includes navigation, training on the FN MAG machine gun, fieldcraft and tactical training and is also 14 full-time days in duration plus weekend training.
The Irish Army Reserve is organised along the same rank and command structures as the Permanent Defence Forces (PDF), however there are some differences.
All Ranks within the Reserve Defence Forces (RDF) are enlisted as recruits. Potential officers are chosen from the Non Commissioned ranks, normally only Corporal and Sergeant ranks are selected. The Potential Officers course is run over 2 years. There is some Direct Entry routes for Officers in the Reserve. This is only available for professionals like Dentists,Engineers, Doctors etc.
A Lieutenant Colonel is the highest rank in the RDF.
Footnotes and sources