Indonesian Army

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Indonesian Army
Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Darat
Lambang TNI AD.png
Indonesian Army insignia
Active 1945 – present
Country Indonesia
Type Army
Size 233,000(regular)[1]
Part of Indonesian National Armed Forces
Motto Kartika Eka Paksi
(Sanskrit, lit:"Unmatchable Bird with Noble Goals")
Engagements Indonesian Independence
Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation
East Timor Invasion
Counter-insurgency in Aceh
Counter-insurgency in Maluku
Papua conflict
Indonesian Army Chief of Staff General Budiman
(30 August 2013-present)
Army Aviation Roundel Roundel Indonesia army aviation.svg

The Indonesian Army (Indonesian: Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Darat, TNI–AD), the land component of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, has an estimated strength of 233,000 regular personnel.[1] The history of the Indonesian Army has its roots in 1945 when the Tentara Keamanan Rakyat (TKR) "Civil Security Forces" first emerged as a paramilitary and police corps.[2]

Since the nation's independence movement, the Indonesian Army has been involved in multifaceted operations ranging from the incorporation of Western New Guinea, the Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation, to the annexation of East Timor, as well as internal counter-insurgency operations in Aceh Maluku and Papua. The army's operations have not been without controversy; it has been periodically associated with human rights violations, particularly in West Papua, East Timor and Aceh.[3][4]

The Indonesia Army is composed of a headquarters, 12 military area commands, a strategic reserve command KOSTRAD, a special forces command Kopassus, and various adjunct units. The size of the Army has expanded over the years; in July 1976 the Army was estimated to consist of solely 180,000 personnel.[5]

The Military Area Commands (Kodam) as of 2007
RM-70 rocket launchers, Indonesia has seven units, which are spread throughout the country

Military Area Commands

The Armed Forces' operational sections were established by General Soedirman, following the model of the German Wehrkreise system. The system was later codified in Surat Perintah Siasat No.1, signed into doctrine by General Soedirman in November 1948.

The Army's structure underwent various reorganizations throughout its early years. From 1946 to 1952, the Army was organised into set divisions. These were further consolidated in 1951, and then dispersed in 1952. From 1952 to 1958-59, the Army was organised into seven Tentara & Teritoriums. In August 1958, the Indonesian Army reconsolidated its territorial command. There were then established sixteen Kodams, which retained earlier divisional titles; the Siliwangi Division, for example, became Kodam VI/Siliwangi.[6]

A reorganization in 1985 made significant changes in the army chain of command. The four multiservice Regional Defense Commands (Kowilhans) and the National Strategic Command (Kostranas) were eliminated from the defense structure, re-establishing the Military Area Command (Kodam), or regional command, as the key organization for strategic, tactical, and territorial operations for all services.[7] The chain of command flowed directly from the ABRI commander in chief to the ten Kodam commanders, and then to subordinate army territorial commands.

The Kodams incorporate provincial and district commands each with a number of infantry battalions, sometimes a cavalry battalion, artillery, or engineers.[8] Some have Raider battalions attached. Currently there are 12 Military Area Commands, and these are:

Operational Commands

  • Special Forces Command (Kopassus), est 5,530 divided is composed of five groups, Grup 1/Parakomando (Para Commando), Grup 2/Parakomando (Para Commando), Pusat Pendidikan Pasukan Khusus (Training), Grup 3/Sandhi Yudha (Combat Intelligence), SAT 81/Penanggulangan Teror (Counter-terrorism); plus the Presidential Guard (Paspampres) and headquarters.[11] Each group is headed by a Colonel and all groups are para-commando qualified. Of note is the unusual nature of Group IV, possibly also called "Sandhy Yudha," which consists of select members from Groups I, II, and III. The duties of these specially trained personnel include attacking behind enemy lines (Infiltration tactics). Group IV also, reportedly[who?], works with the Joint Intelligence Unit on interrogations, and carries out clandestine operations around the country.
  • Army Strategic Reserve Command (Kostrad), is the Indonesian Army's Strategic Reserve Command. Kostrad is a Corps level command which has around 40,000 troops.[12] It also supervises operational readiness among all commands and conducts defense and security operations at the strategic level in accordance with policies of the TNI commander.
    • Infantry Division 1 Kostrad, with 13th Infantry Brigade and the 17th Airborne Brigade, plus Field Artillery Regiment 2
    • 2nd Division, with 6th and 9th Infantry, and the 18th Airborne Brigades, plus a field artillery regiment
    • 3rd Airborne Infantry Brigade, Ujung Pandang (ex-Kopassus 3rd Group)[13]
    • KOSTRAD also commands several combat service support units such as combat engineers.
  • Army Aviation Command (id:Pusat Penerbangan Angkatan Darat) The army had its own small air arm that performs attack, liaison and transport duties. It operates 100 aircraft in three helicopter and aircraft squadrons composed mostly of light aircraft and small transports, such as the IPTN produced CN-235.
    • Squadron 11 Heli Serbu (light assault) (Semarang, Jawa Tengah)
    • Squadron 21 Sena (support) (Pondok Cabe, Jakarta)
    • Squadron 31 Heli Serbu (heavy assault squadron)(Semarang, Jawa Tengah)


Small arms and infantry weapons

Name Origin Type Caliber Notes
Pindad P1/P2[14]  Indonesia Semi-automatic pistol 9x19mm Local copy of the Browning Hi-Power. Approximately 30,000 P1s and 2,000 P2s manufactured.
M1911  United States Semi-automatic pistol .45 ACP
SIG Sauer P226   Switzerland Semi-automatic pistol 9x19mm For use by Kopassus.
Pindad PM2[14]  Indonesia Submachine gun 9x19mm
MP5 series  Germany Submachine gun 9x19mm Used by special forces
Pindad SS1[14]  Indonesia Assault rifle 5.56x45mm
Pindad SS2[14]  Indonesia Assault rifle 5.56x45mm Modernized SS1.
M16[14]  United States Assault rifle 5.56x45mm
Steyr AUG[14]  Austria Assault rifle 5.56x45mm For use by Kopassus.
G36[15]  Germany Assault rifle 5.56x45mm Used by special forces
Accuracy International AWM[15]  United Kingdom Sniper rifle .338 Lapua Magnum Used by special forces
Pindad SPR-1[14]  Indonesia Sniper rifle 7.62x51mm
Pindad SPR-3[14]  Indonesia Sniper rifle 7.62x51mm
Pindad SPR-2[14]  Indonesia Anti-materiel rifle 12.7x99mm
Pindad SM3  Indonesia Light machine gun 5.56x45mm Locally produced version of the FN Minimi.
Pindad SM2  Indonesia General purpose machine gun 7.62x51mm Locally produced version of the FN MAG.
Pindad SMB-QCB  Indonesia Heavy machine gun 12.7x99mm Locally produced version of the CIS 50MG.
Name Origin Type Notes
M203 grenade launcher 'Pindad SPG1'  Indonesia Under barrel grenade launcher First locally produced grenade Launcher.
M79 grenade launcher  United States Single-shot grenade launcher
AT-13 Metis M  Russia Anti tank missile launchers
AT-5 Sprandel  Russia Anti tank missile launchers
MBT LAW  Sweden Anti tank missile launchers [16][17][18]
FGM-148 Javelin  United States Anti tank guided missile On order[19][20][21]
C90-CR (M3)  Spain Anti tank rocket launchers
PF-89  China Anti tank rocket launcher
M80 Rocket Launcher[22]  Yugoslavia Shoulder-fired missile


Model Type Quantity Acquired Notes
GermanyLeopard 2 Main Battle Tank 103[23] With approximately U.S. $ 287 million, Indonesia purchased 40 units of the Leopard 2A4 and 63 units of the Leopard 2 Revolution plus 10 units supporting Leopard 2 tanks.[24] Two delivered.[25][26][27]
France AMX-13 Light tank 275[28] Including self-propelled artillery variants. Not all operational and the remaining tanks will be upgraded.
United KingdomFV101 Scorpion 90 Light tank 90[29] Armed with 90mm cockerill

Infantry Fighting Vehicles and Armored Personnel Carriers

Model Type Quantity Acquired Notes
GermanyMarder 1A3 Infantry fighting vehicle 50[30] With the assistance of German Rheinmetall, PT Pindad will make the production line from the early stages until finished.[31][32][33]
FranceAMX-VTT Armoured Personnel Carrier 200[34] less than 200 operational
United KingdomAlvis Stormer Armoured Personnel Carrier 40[35] Includes the armoured personnel carrier, command post, ambulance, recovery, logistics and bridge laying variants.[36]
South KoreaDoosan DST Tarantula (6x6) Amphibious Armored Fighting Vehicle 28[37] [38][39][40][41]
IndonesiaPindad Panser (6x6) Armoured Personnel Carrier 226[42]
IndonesiaPindad Panser APR-1V (4x4) Armoured Personnel Carrier 14 Early predecessor to the Pindad PS-3. Based on a commercial Isuzu truck chassis. Follow on orders cancelled following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami.
FranceVéhicule de l'Avant Blindé (VAB)(4x4) Armoured Personnel Carrier 46[43] 14 were originally supplied. Another 32 were acquired in 2006 for the Indonesian peacekeeping mission in Lebanon.[44]
United StatesCadillac Gage Commando (4x4) Light Armoured Car 200[45]
United KingdomFV601 Saladin Armoured Car 69[46]
IndonesiaPindad Komodo Light Tactical Vehicle 56[47] . The Indonesian Army has officially ordered 6 Komodos. The Mistral Mobile SAM launcher is also scheduled for orders with the Indonesian Army with a total of 56 Komodos.[48][49] An additional fifty Komodos are ordered from Pindad.[50] 8 Komodos modified to house communications equipments were also ordered.[51][52]
FranceRenault Sherpa 2 Light Tactical Vehicle 12[53][54] Announced in July 2011.[55]
Soviet UnionBTR-40 Light Tactical Vehicle 85[56] Locally modified from armoured personnel carrier to armoured reconnaissance variants.[57]

Utility and logistics vehicles

Model Type Quantity Acquired Notes
M151 MUTT Light utility vehicle
Land Rover LWB Light utility vehicle
Steyr Puch Haflinger 700 AP Light utility vehicle
Nissan Q4W73 Light truck
DAF YA400 Transport truck
Unimog Medium truck
Isuzu Elf[58][59] Medium truck
Steyr 680M Medium truck
Bedford MK Light truck
Steyr 17M29 Medium truck
Cakra FAV Fast attack vehicle

Artillery and Air Defence Systems

Model Type Quantity Acquired Notes
Brazil ASTROS II Multiple rocket launcher 36[60] on order
Indonesia Rhan 122 122mm Multiple rocket launcher Unknown 122 mm rockets. Built by PTDI
Indonesia NDL-40 77mm Multiple rocket launcher 50 77 mm rockets. Built by PTDI
France Nexter CAESAR 155mm Self-propelled howitzer 37[61] on order
South Korea KH-179 155mm Towed artillery 18[62][63] on order
Singapore FH-2000[64] 155mm Towed artillery 8
United StatesM101 howitzer & KH 178 105mm[64] 105mm Towed artillery 54
Soviet Union ZUR-23-2KG 23 mm Anti-aircraft artillery 14 .[65]
China Giant Bow I 23 mm Anti-aircraft artillery 18 .[66]
Soviet Union 57 mm AZP S-60 57mm Anti-aircraft artillery 256
SwedenBofors 40 mm[citation needed] 40mm Anti-aircraft artillery unknown
Switzerland Oerlikon Skyshield[67] 35mm Anti-aircraft artillery 6 .[68][69][70][71]
Switzerland Oerlikon 35 mm twin cannon[67] 35mm Anti-aircraft artillery unknown .[72][73]
Sweden RBS-70 Surface-to-air missile 45 .[74][75][76]
China TD-2000B Surface-to-air missile unknown .[77][78]
United Kingdom Starstreak (missile)[79] surface-to-air missile unknown .[80][81][82]
France Mistral Surface-to-air missile unknown .[83]
China QW-3[67] Surface-to-air missile unknown .[77][84]
Poland POPRAD Grom (missile) Surface-to-air missile 155


Aircraft Type Versions In service[85] Notes
United States Boeing AH-64 Apache Attack helicopter AH-64E 8[86] Deal finalized[87]
Russia Mil Mi-35 Attack helicopter Mi-35 8[88] [89]
France Eurocopter Fennec Utility helicopter AS550,AS350,AS355 12[90] on order
Russia Mil Mi-17 Transport Helicopter Mi-17-V5 15 One lost to crash 2013.[91]
United States Bell UH-1 Iroquois Utility helicopter UH-1D 10
Germany Eurocopter Bo 105 Utility helicopter 15[92] Built under license by PTDI
Canada Bell 412 Utility helicopter 412
Built under license by PTDI[93]
Spain CASA C-212 Aviocar Tactical transport 4
United States Cessna 310 Light transport 4
United States Aero Commander Light transport 680 3

List of Army Chief of Staffs

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b IISS Military Balance 2012, 248. Figure may have not been updated by IISS since 2006 at least.
  2. ^ Daves, Joseph H (2013) The Indonesian Army from Revolusi to Reformasi ISBN 978-1492930938, p 15
  3. ^ Schwarz, Adam (1994) A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia in the 1990s Allen & Unwin ISBN 1-86373-635-2, p 215
  4. ^ Hill-Smith, Charlie (2009) Strange Birds in Paradise: A West Papuan Story
  5. ^ IISS, The Military Balance 1976-77, p.55, ISBN 0-900492-98-8
  6. ^ Ken Conboy, Kopassus: Inside Indonesia's Special Forces, Equinox Publishing, Jakarta/Singapore, 2003, p.79
  7. ^ Library of Congress Country Study, Indonesia, November 1992, Organization of the Armed Forces
  8. ^ The Military Balance 2006, International Institute for Strategic Studies
  9. ^ a b Huxley 1997, p.39
  10. ^ BBC, RI Military Area Commander Files Complaint Over Political Candidates, January 2009
  11. ^ For further authoritative details on Kopassus, see Ken Conboy (2003) KOPASSUS Inside Indonesia's Special Forces, Equinox Publishing, ISBN 979-95898-8-6.
  12. ^ International Institute for Strategic Studies, The Military Balance 2008, 382.
  13. ^ Independent status of 3rd Airborne Infantry Brigade is as reported in Tim Huxley, 'Indonesia's armed forces face up to new threats,' Jane's Intelligence Review, January 1997, p.40
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i "TNI Angkatan Darat - Situs Resmi TNI Angkatan Darat" (in Indonesian). 19 March 2011. 
  15. ^ a b "Kopassus & Kopaska - Specijalne Postrojbe Republike Indonezije" (in Croatian). Hrvatski Vojnik Magazine. Retrieved 2010-06-12. 
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^ "TNI-AD Uji Terima Roket Anti Tank NLAW". March 21, 2013. 
  19. ^ Indonesia & Jordan; Javelin missile order -, May 26, 2013
  20. ^ "TNI Borong Rudal Anti-Tank Buatan Amerika Serikat". June 10, 2013. 
  21. ^ "Raytheon - Lockheed Martin's Javelin JV Gets Contract to Produce Block I Javelin Missile for Indonesia and Other Countries". November 18, 2013. 
  22. ^ ANNUAL REPORT ON THE TRANSFERS OF CONTROLLED GOODS IN 2008 - Serbia, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, 24 September 2010 
  23. ^
  24. ^ "Approves Sale of Tanks to Indonesia". May 8, 2013. 
  25. ^ Indonesia takes delivery of first Leopard 2A4 tanks and Marder armoured vehicles from Germany -, 25 September 2013
  26. ^ "Tank Kelas Berat Perkuat TNI-AD". September 23, 2013. 
  27. ^ "Rheinmetall to Supply the Indonesian Army With Leopard 2 Simulators". May 23, 2014. 
  28. ^
  29. ^
  30. ^
  31. ^
  32. ^ Marder, Lapis Baja One Stop Services
  33. ^ "Beli 114 tank Leopard, Indonesia dapat 50 tank". May 15, 2013. 
  34. ^
  35. ^
  36. ^ "Stormer - Light Armoured Vehicles - Jane's Land Forces". Jane's Information Group. 18 January 2011. Archived from the original on 6 May 2009. 
  37. ^
  38. ^ "Production of Tarantula 6x6 has been Completed". May 21, 2013. 
  39. ^ "Korea Selatan Segera Kirim Panser Tarantula Pesanan TNI AD". May 25, 2013. 
  40. ^ "Tarantula 6×6 Armoured Fire Support Vehicle". June 12, 2013. 
  41. ^ "[Foto] Sengatan sang Laba-Laba". October 10, 2013. 
  42. ^
  43. ^
  44. ^ "TNI defends purchase of 32 armored vehicles". The Jakarta Post. 2006-09-18. Retrieved 2009-07-10. 
  45. ^
  46. ^
  47. ^
  48. ^ "Mistral Komodo Akan Memperkuat Arhanud". October 6, 2012. 
  49. ^ "Pindad Produksi Lima Varian Rantis Komodo". November 13, 2012. 
  50. ^ "Kopassus & Brimob, Pengguna Pertama Komodo Tempur" (in Bahasa Indonesia). Medan Bisnis. 2013-04-22. Archived from the original on 2013-06-08. Retrieved 2013-06-08. 
  51. ^ "PINDAD Kebut Pesanan KOMODO". January 13, 2013. 
  52. ^ "Komodo, Other Milestone for PT Pindad?". May 5, 2013. 
  53. ^
  54. ^
  55. ^
  56. ^
  57. ^ BTR-40 series of wheeled armoured vehicles
  58. ^ "Kemhan dan Isuzu Bahas Pengadaan Truk Militer". April 4, 2013. 
  59. ^ "TNI Pesan 965 Truk Isuzu". November 15, 2013. 
  60. ^
  61. ^
  62. ^
  63. ^
  64. ^ a b
  65. ^
  66. ^
  67. ^ a b c
  68. ^ "Senjata Oerlikon Skyshield TNI AU". May 28, 2013. 
  69. ^ "Perkuat Dirgantara, Indonesia Beli Perisai Udara". May 29, 2013. 
  70. ^ "Indonesia has ordered Rheinmetall-made Oerlikon Skyshield air defence system". February 11, 2014. 
  71. ^ "Indonesia orders more German air defense systems". February 20, 2014. 
  72. ^ Songsong Kedatangan PSU Baru, Korpaskhas akan Kirim Personil untuk Berlatih di Swiss
  73. ^ "Paskhas Akan Dapat OERLIKON 35 mm, Denhanud disiapkan". May 18, 2013. 
  74. ^
  75. ^
  76. ^ Saab AB Tawarkan Giraffe AMB dan RBS-70NG kepada TNI AD
  77. ^ a b
  78. ^ Uji terima ulang Sista Hanud Terintegrasi TD-2000B Rudal Meriam
  79. ^
  80. ^ "Thales Announces Order for FORCESHIELD Integrated Air Defence System and STARSTREAK Missiles for Indonesian Ministry of Defence". January 15, 2014. 
  81. ^ "Sistem Pertahanan Udara Terintegrasi ForceSHIELD". January 20, 2014. 
  82. ^ "Indonesian SAMs Break Cover, Promising Enhanced Anti-UAV Capability". June 27, 2014. 
  83. ^
  84. ^ "Lanud Supadio Kini Dilengkapi dengan Rudal QW-3". June 6, 2013. 
  85. ^ "World Military Aircraft Inventory", Aerospace Source Book 2007, Aviation Week & Space Technology, January 15, 2007.
  86. ^
  87. ^ USA and Indonesia formalise AH-64E Apache deal -, 26 August 2013
  88. ^
  89. ^
  90. ^
  91. ^
  92. ^
  93. ^ "PT DI Serahkan 3 CN 295 dan 6 Bell 412 EP kepada Kemenhan". December 17, 2013. 
  94. ^
  95. ^ "Letjen Budiman Ditunjuk Gantikan Jenderal Moeldoko". August 30, 2013. 

External links