Army of the Trans-Mississippi
||This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. (September 2013)|
|Active||September 28, 1862 - May 26, 1865|
|Country||Confederate States of America|
|Branch||Confederate States Army|
The Army of the Trans-Mississippi was the major Confederate field army for the Department of the Trans-Mississippi during the American Civil War. It was the last major Confederate command to be surrendered and was involved in the Battle of Palmito Ranch—a Confederate victory fought in late May 1865, exactly one month after Gen. Joseph Johnston surrendered the last major Confederate field army in the eastern United States.
The Department of the Trans-Mississippi was separated from the Western Department on May 26, 1862. It consisted primarily of the four Confederate states west of the Mississippi: Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, and Missouri. There were also two Confederate territories: Indian Territory and Confederate Arizona (roughly corresponding to the present-day states of Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Arizona). The command of the area was given to Major-General T. H. Holmes.
The Army of the Trans-Mississippi was the major Confederate field army for the Department of the Trans-Mississippi during the American Civil War. The army originally numbered well over 50,000 troops, but less than 43,000 were mustered at the war's conclusion. Major campaigns fought in this department included Sibley's New Mexico campaign, Banks' Red River campaign, and Price's Missouri campaign.
Additionally, the Army of the Trans-Mississippi was the last major Confederate command to surrender. General E. Kirby Smith did so on May 26, 1865, although many of his troops had already "gone home."
It was in Trans-Mississippi that the post-war Battle of Palmito Ranch was fought on May 12 and 13, 1865. A victory for the Confederate forces, the battle was actually fought several days after the war had ended. Although the war in Trans-Mississippi was officially over, the declaration of the end of hostilities could not yet be counted on. The last remaining Confederate land-combat force of the war, the 1st Cherokee Mounted Rifles (led by Cherokee Nation leader, and Confederate Brigadier-General, Stand Watie) surrendered on June 23, 1865.
- Trans-Mississippi Army, I Corps (Headquartered at Shreveport, Department of Louisiana)
- Trans-Mississippi Army, II Corps (Department of Arkansas and Missouri)
- Trans-Mississippi Army, III Corps (Headquartered at Galveston, Department of Texas)
- Trans-Mississippi Army, Cavalry Corps
- The Cavalry Corps was organized on August 4, 1864 under the command of Sterling Price.
- Trans-Mississippi Army, Reserve Corps
- The Reserve Corps was established on September 10, 1864 to support the Trans-Mississippi Army.
- Symonds, Craig L. Joseph E. Johnston: A Civil War Biography. New York: W. W. Norton, 1992. ISBN 978-0-393-31130-3.
- Southern Army- Trans-Mississippi Army; article at civilwarhome.com; retrieved March 2013.
- Eicher, John H. (2001). Civil War High Commands. Stanford University Press. pp. 891–892. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
- REBEL TRANS-MISSISSIPPI ARMY.; Strength of the Rebels, What they are Doing, Affairs in Texas; & c. Forrest and Dick Taylor Whipped.; April 9, 1865 article (transcribed); NY Times; retrieved March 2013.
- The Break-up of the Confederate Trans-Mississippi Army, 1865; treatise; Clampitt, Brad R; University of North Texas publisher; Denton, Texas; 2001.