Arnaldo Tamayo Méndez
|Arnaldo Tamayo Méndez|
|Intercosmos Research Cosmonaut|
29 January 1942 |
|Time in space||7d 20h 43m|
|Selection||1978 Intercosmos Group|
Arnaldo Tamayo Méndez (born January 29, 1942) was the first Cuban citizen and the first person from a country in the Western Hemisphere other than the United States to travel into earth orbit. As a member of the crew of Soyuz 38, he became the first Latin American and the first person of African ancestry in space; he was proclaimed at the time as the first black cosmonaut.
Early life and military career
Tamayo, along with Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Romanenko, was launched into space aboard Soyuz 38 from Baikonur Cosmodrome on September 18, 1980, at 19:11 UTC. After docking with Salyut 6, Tamayo and Romanenko conducted experiments in an attempt to find what caused space adaptation syndrome (SAS), and perhaps even find a cure, and on the crystallisation of sucrose in microgravity, for the benefit of Cuba's sugar industry. The SAS experiment involved wearing special adjustable shoes for six hours every day that placed a load on the arch of the foot. After 124 orbits of the Earth (lasting 7 days, 20 hours and 43 minutes), Tamayo and Romanenko landed 180 km (110 mi) from Dzhezkazgan. The landing was risky, as it was during the night.
Following his time in the Intercosmos program, Tamayo was made Director of the Military Patriotic Educational Society known as Sociedad de Educación Patriótico-Militar "SEPMI". After his promotion to Brigadier General, he became Director of International Affairs in the Cuban armed forces.
He has been honored by the Cuban Government for being the first Cuban, the first Caribbean, and the first Latin American to go into orbit. He was awarded the titles of "Hero of the Republic of Cuba" and the "Order of the Bay of Pigs." He also is a foreign recipient of the "Hero of the Soviet Union" award.
Tamayo is married and has two daughters and one son.
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- "Guantánamo - Los candidatos del pueblo". Retrieved 2009-06-22.