Arnaldus de Villa Nova
||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the French Wikipedia. (October 2014)|
Arnaldus de Villa Nova (also called Arnau de Vilanova in Catalan, his language, Arnaldus Villanovanus, Arnaud de Ville-Neuve or Arnaldo de Villanueva, c. 1240–1311) was a physician and a religious reformer. In the past also he was thought falsely to be an alchemist and an astrologer.
He was born in the Crown of Aragon, probably Villanueva de Jiloca or Valencia, and he studied medicine and he also took some courses of theology. After living at the court of Aragon and teaching for many years in the Montpellier School of Medicine, he went to Paris, where he gained a considerable reputation; but he incurred the enmity of ecclesiastics. In 1311 he was summoned to Avignon by Pope Clement V, but he died on the voyage off the coast of Genoa.
He is credited with translating a number of medical texts from Arabic, including works by Ibn Sina (Avicenna), Abu-l-Salt, and Galen. Many alchemical writings, including Rosarius Philosophorum, Novum Lumen, or Flos Florum, are also ascribed to him, but they are not authentic. Collected editions of them were published at Lyon in 1504 and 1532 (with a biography by Symphorianus Campegius), at Basel in 1585, and at Lyon in 1586. He is also the reputed author of important medical works, such as Speculum medicinae and Regimen sanitatis ad regem Aragonum, but many others, such as Breviarium Practicae, were falsely attributed to him. In addition, he wrote many theological works for the reformation of Christianity in Latin and in Catalan, some of them including apocalyptical prophecies.
See J. B. Haureau in the Histoire litteraire de la France (1881), vol. 28; E. Lalande, Arnaud de Villeneuve, sa vie et ses oeuvres (Paris, 1896). A list of writings is given by J. Ferguson in his Bibliotheca Chemica (1906). See also U. Chevalier, Repertoire des sources hist., &c., Bio-bibliographie (Paris, 1903).
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- McVaugh, Michael (1970). "Arnald of Villanova". Dictionary of Scientific Biography 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 289–291. ISBN 0-684-10114-9.
- Who is Arnau de Vilanova, full presentation of Arnau de Vilanova and his works provided by the project Arnau DB at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.
Works attributed to Arnaldus:
- Excerpta medica - Mscr.Dresd.C.278. [S.l.] 1500, Online-Ausgabe der Sächsischen Landesbibliothek - Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Dresden
- Opus aureum. Frankfurt a. Mayn 1604, Online-Ausgabe der Sächsischen Landesbibliothek - Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Dresden
- Hermetis Trismegisti Phoenicum Aegyptiorum Sed et aliarum Gentium Monarchae Conditoris ... sive Tabula Smaragdina. [Leipzig] 1657, Online-Ausgabe der Sächsischen Landesbibliothek - Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Dresden
- Hermetischer Rosenkrantz, Das ist: Vier schöne, außerlesene Chymische Tractätlein. [Hamburg] 1682, Online-Ausgabe der Sächsischen Landesbibliothek - Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Dresden