Arnaldus de Villa Nova
He was born in some city of the kingdom of Aragon, Villanueva de Jiloca or Valencia, and to have studied chemistry, medicine, physics, and also Arabic philosophy. After having lived at the court of Aragon and taught many years in Montpellier School of Medicine, he went to Paris, where he gained a considerable reputation; but he incurred the enmity of the ecclesiastics and was forced to flee, finally finding an asylum in Sicily. About 1313 he was summoned to Avignon by Pope Clement V, who was ill, but he died on the voyage off the coast of Genoa.
He is credited with translating a number of medical texts from Arabic, including works by Ibn Sina (Avicenna), Qusta ibn Luqa (Costa ben Luca), and Galen. Many alchemical writings, including Thesaurus Thesaurorum or Rosarius Philosophorum, Novum Lumen, and Flos Florum, are also ascribed to him, but they are of very doubtful authenticity. Collected editions of them were published at Lyon in 1504 and 1532 (with a biography by Symphorianus Campegius), at Basel in 1585, at Frankfurt in 1603, and at Lyon in 1686. Villa Nova is credited with using a Camera Obscura to project live performances for entertainment.  He is also the reputed author of various medical works, including Breviarium Practicae.
- Fernando Salmón (2010). Robert E. Bjork, ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-19-866262-4.
- D. Campbell, Arabian Medicine and Its Influence on the Middle Ages, p. 5.
- Burns, Paul. "The History of the Discovery of Cinematography". Retrieved 1/4/2014.
- Smith, Roger. "A Look Into Camera Obscuras". Retrieved 1/4/2014.
See J. B. Haureau in the Histoire litteraire de la France (1881), vol. 28; E. Lalande, Arnaud de Villeneuve, sa vie et ses oeuvres (Paris, 1896). A list of writings is given by J. Ferguson in his Bibliotheca Chemica (1906). See also U. Chevalier, Repertoire des sources hist., &c., Bio-bibliographie (Paris, 1903).
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- McVaugh, Michael (1970). "Arnald of Villanova". Dictionary of Scientific Biography 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 289–291. ISBN 0-684-10114-9.
Works of Arnaldus:
- Excerpta medica - Mscr.Dresd.C.278. [S.l.] 1500, Online-Ausgabe der Sächsischen Landesbibliothek - Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Dresden
- Opus aureum. Frankfurt a. Mayn 1604, Online-Ausgabe der Sächsischen Landesbibliothek - Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Dresden
- Hermetis Trismegisti Phoenicum Aegyptiorum Sed et aliarum Gentium Monarchae Conditoris ... sive Tabula Smaragdina. [Leipzig] 1657, Online-Ausgabe der Sächsischen Landesbibliothek - Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Dresden
- Hermetischer Rosenkrantz, Das ist: Vier schöne, außerlesene Chymische Tractätlein. [Hamburg] 1682, Online-Ausgabe der Sächsischen Landesbibliothek - Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Dresden