Arnold Orville Beckman
|Arnold Orville Beckman|
April 10, 1900|
|Died||May 18, 2004
La Jolla, California
|Alma mater||University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,
California Institute of Technology
|Doctoral advisor||Roscoe G. Dickinson|
|Notable awards||Vermilye Medal (1987)
National Medal of Technology (1988)
National Medal of Science (1989)
Presidential Citizens Medal (1989)
Arnold Orville Beckman (April 10, 1900 – May 18, 2004) was an American industrialist, investor, inventor, chemist, and philanthropist. He founded Beckman Instruments based on his 1934 invention of the pH meter, a device for measuring acidity. He also funded the first transistor company, thus giving rise to Silicon Valley.
Beckman was born in Cullom, Illinois, the son of a blacksmith. He was curious about the world from an early age. When he was nine, Beckman found an old chemistry textbook and began trying out the experiments. His father encouraged his scientific interests by letting him convert a toolshed into a laboratory.
World War I was still raging when Beckman turned 18, and so in August 1918, he enlisted in the United States Marines. After his basic training, he was sent to the Brooklyn Navy Yard, to await transit to the war in Europe. Fortunately for him, the war ended in November, 1918, and he did not have to fight in France. By another stroke of luck, he missed being sent to Russia to fight the Bolsheviks by one space in line. Instead, he spent that Thanksgiving at the local YMCA, where his table was served by 17-year-old Mabel Meinzer, who became his wife.
Beckman attended the University of Illinois, where he earned his bachelor's degree in chemical engineering in 1922 and his master's degree in physical chemistry in 1923. While attending the University of Illinois, he was initiated into Zeta Chapter of Alpha Chi Sigma in 1921 and the Gamma Alpha Graduate Scientific Fraternity in December 1922. He joined the Delta Upsilon Fraternity.
Beckman decided to go to Caltech for his doctorate. He stayed there for a year, but decided to return to New York with his fiancée, Mabel, who was working as a secretary for the Equitable Life Assurance Society. He found a job with Western Electric's engineering department, the precursor to the Bell Telephone Laboratories.
Beckman married Mabel on June 10, 1925. The following year, the couple moved back to California and Beckman resumed his studies at Caltech. He became interested in ultraviolet photolysis and worked with his doctoral advisor, Roscoe G. Dickinson, on an instrument to find the energy of ultraviolet light. It worked by shining the ultraviolet light onto a thermocouple, converting the incident heat into electricity, which drove a galvanometer. After receiving his doctorate in 1928, Beckman was asked to stay on at Caltech as an instructor and then as a professor.
Beckman, and his family then built a home in Altadena, in the foothills and adjacent to Pasadena. They lived in Altadena for over twenty seven years raising their family.
Beckman's interest in electronics made him very popular within the chemistry department, as he was very skilled in building measuring instruments. He also shared his expertise with glass-blowing by teaching classes in the machine shop. With the blessing of Robert Millikan, Caltech's president, Beckman began accepting outside consulting work.
One of his clients wanted an ink that would not clog. Beckman's solution was to make it with butyric acid, a very noxious substance. Because of this ingredient, no manufacturer wanted to manufacture it, so Beckman decided to make it himself. He hired two Caltech students to help him, and started the National Inking Appliance Company. At first, he tried marketing it as a way to re-ink typewriter ribbons, but this approach was not successful.
Another client, Sunkist, was having problems with its own manufacturing process. The lemons that were not saleable as produce were made into pectin or citric acid, with sulfur dioxide used as a preservative. Sunkist needed to know what the acidity of the product was at any given time, and the methods then in use, such as litmus paper, were not working well.
Beckman invented the pH meter in 1935. Originally called the acidimeter, the pH meter is an important device for measuring the pH of a solution. The pH meter weighed in at nearly 7 kg. The earliest meter had a design glitch, In that the pH readings changed with the depth of immersion of the electrodes. Beckman fixed this problem by sealing the glass bulb of the electrode.
|This section requires expansion. (June 2013)|
During World War II, there was a critical shortage of rubber. The Office of Rubber Reserve met secretly in Detroit with Robert Brattain of the Shell Development Company, Arnold O. Beckman, and R. Bowling Barnes of American Cyanamid. Beckman Instruments produced the Beckman IR-1 spectrophotometer in 1942 specifically for the Rubber Reserve. Approximately 75 IR-1s were made between 1942 and 1945 for use by the U.S. synthetic-rubber effort. The researchers were not allowed to publish or discuss anything related to the new machines until after the war.
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In 1955, Beckman established the Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory to fund William Shockley's research into semiconductor technology. Because Shockley's aging mother lived in Palo Alto, Shockley established the laboratory in nearby Mountain View, California. Thus, Silicon Valley was born.
During his later years, Beckman lived in Corona del Mar near Newport Beach, California. He was an active philanthropist through the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Foundation. To date, the Foundation has given more than 400 million dollars to various charities and organizations. Donations chiefly went to scientists and scientific causes as well as his alma maters. He is the namesake of The Beckman Institute and the Beckman Quadrangle at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He is also the namesake of the Beckman Institute, Beckman Auditorium, Beckman Laboratory of Behavioral Sciences, and Beckman Laboratory of Chemical Synthesis at the California Institute of Technology.
Beckman's history and the unique Heritage Center is located at the Beckman Coulter headquarters in Brea, California.
He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1976. Beckman was inducted into the Junior Achievement U.S. Business Hall of Fame in 1985. In 1987, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame. Beckman was awarded the Public Welfare Medal from the National Academy of Sciences in 1999. He was also inducted into the Alpha Chi Sigma Hall of Fame in 1996.
- Fairchild Semiconductor (a more detailed history of Beckman's role in the founding of Silicon Valley)
- Arnold O. Beckman High School was named after him
- "Beckman Infrared Spectrometer". Chemical Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
- "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter B". American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved May 29, 2011.
- "The U.S. Business Hall of Fame". Fortune Magazine. April 15, 1985.
- National Inventors Hall of Fame
- "Public Welfare Award". National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved February 18, 2011.
- Gochman, N. (2004). "Arnold O. Beckman, PhD (1900–2004)". Clinical Chemistry 50 (8): 1486. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2004.037861.
- Gallwas, Jerry (2004). "People: Arnold Orville Beckman (1900–2004)". Analytical Chemistry 76 (15): 264 A. doi:10.1021/ac041608j.
- Brown, Theodore L.; Gray, Harry B. (2005). "Arnold Orville Beckman". Physics Today 58: 63. doi:10.1063/1.1881907.
- Arnold Thackray and Minor Myers, Jr. ; foreword by James D. Watson. (2000). Arnold O. Beckman : one hundred years of excellence. Philadelphia, Pa.: Chemical Heritage Foundation. ISBN 978-0-941901-23-9.
- His company's website
- His philanthropic foundation's website
- Obituary from Caltech's Engineering and Science Quarterlyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Arnold_Orville_Beckman&action=edit§ion=7
- – Dr. Arnold O. Beckman Memorial
- Arnold O. Beckman High School Website