Schwarzenegger at the 2012 Comic-Con in San Diego
|Born||Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger
July 30, 1947
Thal, Styria, Austria
|Residence||Brentwood, Los Angeles, California, U.S.|
|Alma mater||Santa Monica College
University of Wisconsin–Superior
|Occupation||Bodybuilder, actor, director, producer, businessman, investor, politician, writer, activist|
|Spouse(s)||Maria Shriver (m. 1986) (separated)|
Christina (b. 1991)
Patrick (b. 1993)
Christopher (b. 1997)
Joseph Baena (b. 1997)
Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (//; German: [ˈaɐnɔlt ˈalɔʏs ˈʃvaɐtsənɛɡɐ]; born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-born American actor, film producer, activist, businessman, investor, writer, philanthropist, former professional bodybuilder and politician. Schwarzenegger served two terms as the 38th Governor of California from 2003 until 2011.
Schwarzenegger began weight training at the age of 15. He won the Mr. Universe title at age 20 and went on to win the Mr. Olympia contest seven times. Schwarzenegger has remained a prominent presence in bodybuilding and has written many books and articles on the sport. Schwarzenegger gained worldwide fame as a Hollywood action film icon. He was nicknamed the "Austrian Oak" and the "Styrian Oak" in his bodybuilding days, "Arnie" during his acting career and more recently "The Governator" (a portmanteau of "Governor" and "The Terminator" – one of his best-known movie roles).
As a Republican, he was first elected on October 7, 2003, in a special recall election to replace then-Governor Gray Davis. Schwarzenegger was sworn in on November 17, 2003, to serve the remainder of Davis's term. Schwarzenegger was then re-elected on November 7, 2006, in California's 2006 gubernatorial election, to serve a full term as governor, defeating Democrat Phil Angelides, who was California State Treasurer at the time. Schwarzenegger was sworn in for his second term on January 5, 2007. In 2011, Schwarzenegger completed his second term as governor, and it was announced that he had separated from Maria Shriver, his wife for the last 25 years; she is a member of the influential Kennedy family, as a niece of the late Democratic US President John F. Kennedy.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Bodybuilding career
- 3 List of competitions
- 4 Acting career
- 5 Political career
- 6 Business career
- 7 Personal life
- 8 Net worth
- 9 Activism
- 10 Honors
- 11 Bibliography
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Schwarzenegger was born in Thal, Austria, a village bordering the Styrian capital Graz, and was christened Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger. His parents were the local police chief, Gustav Schwarzenegger (17 August 1907 – 13 December 1972), and Aurelia (née Jadrny; 29 July 1922 – 2 August 1998). Gustav served in World War II, after he voluntarily applied to join the Nazi Party in 1938. Gustav served with the German Army as a Hauptfeldwebel of the Feldgendarmerie and was discharged in 1943 after contracting malaria. They were married on October 20, 1945 – Gustav was 38, and Aurelia was 23-years-old. According to Schwarzenegger, both of his parents were very strict: "Back then in Austria it was a very different world, if we did something bad or we disobeyed our parents, the rod was not spared." He grew up in a Roman Catholic family who attended Mass every Sunday.
Gustav had a preference for his older son, Meinhard (17 July 1946 – 20 May 1971), over Arnold. His favoritism was "strong and blatant," which stemmed from unfounded suspicion that Arnold was not his biological child. Schwarzenegger has said his father had "no patience for listening or understanding your problems." Schwarzenegger had a good relationship with his mother and kept in touch with her until her death. In later life, Schwarzenegger commissioned the Simon Wiesenthal Center to research his father's wartime record, which came up with no evidence of Gustav's being involved in atrocities, despite Gustav's membership in the Nazi Party and SA. Schwarzenegger's father's background received wide press attention during the 2003 California recall campaign. At school, Schwarzenegger was apparently in the middle but stood out for his "cheerful, good-humored and exuberant" character. Money was a problem in their household; Schwarzenegger recalled that one of the highlights of his youth was when the family bought a refrigerator.
As a boy, Schwarzenegger played several sports, heavily influenced by his father. He picked up his first barbell in 1960, when his soccer coach took his team to a local gym. At the age of 14, he chose bodybuilding over soccer as a career. Schwarzenegger has responded to a question asking if he was 13 when he started weightlifting: "I actually started weight training when I was 15, but I'd been participating in sports, like soccer, for years, so I felt that although I was slim, I was well-developed, at least enough so that I could start going to the gym and start Olympic lifting." However, his official website biography claims: "At 14, he started an intensive training program with Dan Farmer, studied psychology at 15 (to learn more about the power of mind over body) and at 17, officially started his competitive career." During a speech in 2001, he said, "My own plan formed when I was 14 years old. My father had wanted me to be a police officer like he was. My mother wanted me to go to trade school." Schwarzenegger took to visiting a gym in Graz, where he also frequented the local movie theaters to see bodybuilding idols such as Reg Park, Steve Reeves, and Johnny Weissmuller on the big screen. When Reeves died in 2000, Schwarzenegger fondly remembered him: "As a teenager, I grew up with Steve Reeves. His remarkable accomplishments allowed me a sense of what was possible, when others around me didn't always understand my dreams. Steve Reeves has been part of everything I've ever been fortunate enough to achieve." In 1961, Schwarzenegger met former Mr. Austria Kurt Marnul, who invited him to train at the gym in Graz. He was so dedicated as a youngster that he broke into the local gym on weekends, when it was usually closed, so that he could train. "It would make me sick to miss a workout... I knew I couldn't look at myself in the mirror the next morning if I didn't do it." When Schwarzenegger was asked about his first movie experience as a boy, he replied: "I was very young, but I remember my father taking me to the Austrian theaters and seeing some newsreels. The first real movie I saw, that I distinctly remember, was a John Wayne movie."
On 20 May 1971, his brother, Meinhard, died in a car accident. Meinhard had been drinking and was killed instantly. Schwarzenegger did not attend his funeral. Meinhard was due to marry Erika Knapp, and the couple had a three-year-old son, Patrick. Schwarzenegger would pay for Patrick's education and help him to immigrate to the United States. Gustav died the following year from a stroke. In Pumping Iron, Schwarzenegger claimed that he did not attend his father's funeral because he was training for a bodybuilding contest. Later, he and the film's producer said this story was taken from another bodybuilder for the purpose of showing the extremes that some would go to for their sport and to make Schwarzenegger's image more cold and machine-like in order to fan controversy for the film. Barbara Baker, his first serious girlfriend, has said he informed her of his father's death without emotion and that he never spoke of his brother. Over time, he has given at least three versions of why he was absent from his father's funeral.
In an interview with Fortune in 2004, Schwarzenegger told how he suffered what "would now be called child abuse" at the hands of his father: "My hair was pulled. I was hit with belts. So was the kid next door. It was just the way it was. Many of the children I've seen were broken by their parents, which was the German-Austrian mentality. They didn't want to create an individual. It was all about conforming. I was one who did not conform, and whose will could not be broken. Therefore, I became a rebel. Every time I got hit, and every time someone said, 'you can't do this,' I said, 'this is not going to be for much longer, because I'm going to move out of here. I want to be rich. I want to be somebody.'"
Schwarzenegger served in the Austrian Army in 1965 to fulfill the one year of service required at the time of all 18-year-old Austrian males. During his army service, he won the Junior Mr. Europe contest. He went AWOL during basic training so he could take part in the competition and spent a week in military prison: "Participating in the competition meant so much to me that I didn't carefully think through the consequences." He won another bodybuilding contest in Graz, at Steirer Hof Hotel (where he had placed second). He was voted best built man of Europe, which made him famous. "The Mr. Universe title was my ticket to America – the land of opportunity, where I could become a star and get rich." Schwarzenegger made his first plane trip in 1966, attending the NABBA Mr. Universe competition in London. He would come in second in the Mr. Universe competition, not having the muscle definition of American winner Chester Yorton.
Charles "Wag" Bennett, one of the judges at the 1966 competition, was impressed with Schwarzenegger and he offered to coach him. As Schwarzenegger had little money, Bennett invited him to stay in his crowded family home above one of his two gyms in Forest Gate, London, England. Yorton's leg definition had been judged superior, and Schwarzenegger, under a training program devised by Bennett, concentrated on improving the muscle definition and power in his legs. Staying in the East End of London helped Schwarzenegger improve his rudimentary grasp of the English language. Also in 1966, Schwarzenegger had the opportunity to meet childhood idol Reg Park, who became his friend and mentor. The training paid off and, in 1967, Schwarzenegger won the title for the first time, becoming the youngest ever Mr. Universe at the age of 20. He would go on to win the title a further three times. Schwarzenegger then flew back to Munich, training for four to six hours daily, attending business school and working in a health club (Rolf Putzinger's gym where he worked and trained from 1966–1968), returning in 1968 to London to win his next Mr. Universe title. He frequently told Roger C. Field, his English coach and friend in Munich at that time, "I'm going to become the greatest actor!"
Move to the U.S.
Schwarzenegger, who dreamed of moving to the U.S. since the age of 10, and saw bodybuilding as the avenue through which to do so, realized his dream by moving to the United States in September 1968 at the age of 21, speaking little English. There he trained at Gold's Gym in Venice, Los Angeles, California, under Joe Weider. From 1970 to 1974, one of Schwarzenegger's weight training partners was Ric Drasin, a professional wrestler who designed the original Gold's Gym logo in 1973. Schwarzenegger also became good friends with professional wrestler "Superstar" Billy Graham. In 1970, at age 23, he captured his first Mr. Olympia title in New York, and would go on to win the title a total of seven times.
Immigration law firm Siskind & Susser have stated that Schwarzenegger may have been an illegal immigrant at some point in the late 1960s or early 1970s because of violations in the terms of his visa. LA Weekly would later say in 2002 that Schwarzenegger is the most famous immigrant in America, who "overcame a thick Austrian accent and transcended the unlikely background of bodybuilding to become the biggest movie star in the world in the 1990s".
In 1977, Schwarzenegger's autobiography/weight-training guide Arnold: The Education of a Bodybuilder was published and became a huge success. After taking English classes at Santa Monica College in California, he earned a BA by correspondence from the University of Wisconsin–Superior, where he graduated with a degree in international marketing of fitness and business administration in 1979.
|— Bodybuilder —|
|Nickname||The Austrian Oak|
July 30, 1947 |
Thal, Styria, Austria
|Height||6 ft 2 in (1.88 m)|
|Weight||250 pounds (113 kg)|
|Pro-debut||NABBA Mr. Universe, 1968|
|Best win||IFBB Mr. Olympia, 1970–1975, 1980, Seven Times|
|Predecessor||Sergio Oliva ('69), Frank Zane ('79)|
|Successor||Franco Columbu ('76, '81)|
|Mr Universe (amateur)|
|Mr Universe (pro)|
|International Powerlifting Championships|
|German Powerlifting Championships|
|Graz-Paradise Keller Powerlifting Championships|
|Styrian Junior Weightlifting Championships|
|German Austrian Weightlifting Championships|
Schwarzenegger is considered among the most important figures in the history of bodybuilding, and his legacy is commemorated in the Arnold Classic annual bodybuilding competition. Schwarzenegger has remained a prominent face in the bodybuilding sport long after his retirement, in part because of his ownership of gyms and fitness magazines. He has presided over numerous contests and awards shows.
For many years, he wrote a monthly column for the bodybuilding magazines Muscle & Fitness and Flex. Shortly after being elected Governor, he was appointed executive editor of both magazines, in a largely symbolic capacity. The magazines agreed to donate $250,000 a year to the Governor's various physical fitness initiatives. When the deal, including the contract that gave Schwarzenegger at least $1 million a year, was made public in 2005, many criticized it as being a conflict of interest since the governor's office made decisions concerning regulation of dietary supplements in California. Consequently, Schwarzenegger relinquished the executive editor role in 2005. American Media Inc., which owns Muscle & Fitness and Flex, announced in March 2013 that Schwarzenegger had accepted their renewed offer to be executive editor of the magazines.
The magazine MuscleMag International has a monthly two-page article on him, and refers to him as "The King".
One of the first competitions he won was the Junior Mr. Europe contest in 1965. He won Mr. Europe the following year, at age 19. He would go on to compete in, and win, many bodybuilding contests. His bodybulding victories included five Mr. Universe (4 – NABBA [England], 1 – IFBB [USA]) wins, and seven Mr. Olympia wins, a record which would stand until Lee Haney won his eighth consecutive Mr. Olympia title in 1991.
- Competition Weight: 235 lb (107 kg) (top 250 lb (113 kg))
- Off Season Weight: 255 lb (116 kg) (top 260 lb (118 kg))
During Arnold's early years in bodybuilding, he also competed in several Olympic weightlifting and powerlifting contests. Arnold won two weightlifting contests in 1964 and 1965, as well as two powerlifting contests in 1966 and 1968.
In 1967, Schwarzenegger competed in and won the Munich stone-lifting contest, in which a stone weighing 508 German pounds (254 kg/560 lbs.) is lifted between the legs while standing on two foot rests.
- Clean and press – 264 lb (120 kg)
- Snatch – 243 lb (110 kg)
- Clean and jerk – 298 lb (135 kg)
- Squat – 545 lb (247 kg)
- Bench press – 500 lb (230 kg)
- Deadlift – 710 lb (320 kg)
Schwarzenegger's goal was to become the greatest bodybuilder in the world, which meant becoming Mr. Olympia. His first attempt was in 1969, when he lost to three-time champion Sergio Oliva. However, Schwarzenegger came back in 1970 and won the competition, making him the youngest ever Mr. Olympia at the age of 23, a record he still holds to this day.
He continued his winning streak in the 1971–74 competitions. In 1975, Schwarzenegger was once again in top form, and won the title for the sixth consecutive time, beating Franco Columbu. After the 1975 Mr. Olympia contest, Schwarzenegger announced his retirement from professional bodybuilding.
Months before the 1975 Mr. Olympia contest, filmmakers George Butler and Robert Fiore persuaded Schwarzenegger to compete, in order to film his training in the bodybuilding documentary called Pumping Iron. Schwarzenegger had only three months to prepare for the competition, after losing significant weight to appear in the film Stay Hungry with Jeff Bridges. Lou Ferrigno proved not to be a threat, and a lighter-than-usual Schwarzenegger convincingly won the 1975 Mr. Olympia.
Schwarzenegger came out of retirement, however, to compete in the 1980 Mr. Olympia. Schwarzenegger was training for his role in Conan, and he got into such good shape because of the running, horseback riding and sword training, that he decided he wanted to win the Mr. Olympia contest one last time. He kept this plan a secret, in the event that a training accident would prevent his entry and cause him to lose face. Schwarzenegger had been hired to provide color commentary for network television, when he announced at the eleventh hour that while he was there: "Why not compete?" Schwarzenegger ended up winning the event with only seven weeks of preparation. After being declared Mr. Olympia for a seventh time, Schwarzenegger then officially retired from competition.
Schwarzenegger has admitted to using performance-enhancing anabolic steroids while they were legal, writing in 1977 that "steroids were helpful to me in maintaining muscle size while on a strict diet in preparation for a contest. I did not use them for muscle growth, but rather for muscle maintenance when cutting up." He has called the drugs "tissue building."
In 1999, Schwarzenegger sued Dr. Willi Heepe, a German doctor who publicly predicted his early death on the basis of a link between his steroid use and his later heart problems. As the doctor had never examined him personally, Schwarzenegger collected a US$10,000 libel judgment against him in a German court. In 1999, Schwarzenegger also sued and settled with The Globe, a U.S. tabloid which had made similar predictions about the bodybuilder's future health.
List of competitions
|1965||Junior Mr. Europe||Germany|
|1966||Best Built Man of Europe||Germany|
|1966||International Powerlifting Championship||Germany|
|1966||NABBA Mr. Universe amateur||London||2nd to Chet Yorton|
|1967||NABBA Mr. Universe amateur||London|
|1968||NABBA Mr. Universe professional||London|
|1968||German Powerlifting Championship||Germany|
|1968||IFBB Mr. International||Mexico|
|1968||IFBB Mr. Universe||Florida||2nd to Frank Zane|
|1969||IFBB Mr. Universe||New York|
|1969||NABBA Mr. Universe professional||London|
|1969||Mr. Olympia||New York||2nd to Sergio Oliva|
|1970||NABBA Mr. Universe professional||London||defeated his idol Reg Park|
|1970||Mr. World||Columbus, Ohio||defeated Sergio Oliva for the first time|
|1970||Mr. Olympia||New York|
|1972||Mr. Olympia||Essen, Germany|
|1973||Mr. Olympia||New York|
|1974||Mr. Olympia||New York|
|1975||Mr. Olympia||Pretoria, South Africa||subject of the documentary Pumping Iron|
|1980||Mr. Olympia||Sydney, Australia|
Selected notable roles:
- 1970: Hercules in New York as Hercules
- 1976: Stay Hungry as Joe Santo
- 1977: Pumping Iron as himself
- 1979: The Villain as Handsome Stranger
- 1980: The Jayne Mansfield Story as Mickey Hargitay
- 1982: Conan the Barbarian as Conan
- 1984: Conan the Destroyer as Conan
- 1984: The Terminator as The Terminator/T-800 Model 101
- 1985: Red Sonja as Kalidor
- 1985: Commando as John Matrix
- 1986: Raw Deal as Mark Kaminsky, aka Joseph P. Brenner
- 1987: Predator as Major Alan "Dutch" Schaeffer
- 1987: The Running Man as Ben Richards
- 1988: Red Heat as Captain Ivan Danko
- 1988: Twins as Julius Benedict
- 1990: Total Recall as Douglas Quaid/Hauser
- 1990: Kindergarten Cop as Detective John Kimble
- 1991: Terminator 2: Judgment Day as The Terminator/T-800 Model 101
- 1993: Last Action Hero as Jack Slater / Himself
- 1994: True Lies as Harry Tasker
- 1994: Junior as Dr. Alex Hesse
- 1996: Eraser as U.S. Marshal John Kruger
- 1996: Jingle All the Way as Howard Langston
- 1997: Batman and Robin as Mr. Freeze
- 1999: End of Days as Jericho Cane
- 2000: The 6th Day as Adam Gibson/Adam Gibson Clone
- 2002: Collateral Damage as Gordy Brewer
- 2003: Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines as The Terminator/T-850 Model 101
- 2004: Around the World in 80 Days as Prince Hapi
- 2012: The Expendables 2 as Trench
- 2013: The Last Stand as Sheriff Ray Owens
- 2013: Escape Plan as Rottmayer
- 2014: Sabotage as John 'Breacher' Wharton
- 2014: Maggie as Wade
- 2014: The Expendables 3 as Trench
- 2015: Terminator: Genesis as The Terminator/ T-800 Model 101
Schwarzenegger wanted to move from bodybuilding into acting, finally achieving it when he was chosen to play the role of Hercules in 1970's Hercules in New York. Credited under the name "Arnold Strong," his accent in the film was so thick that his lines were dubbed after production. His second film appearance was as a deaf mute hit-man for the mob in director Robert Altman's The Long Goodbye (1973), which was followed by a much more significant part in the film Stay Hungry (1976), for which he was awarded a Golden Globe for New Male Star of the Year. Schwarzenegger has discussed his early struggles in developing his acting career. "It was very difficult for me in the beginning – I was told by agents and casting people that my body was 'too weird', that I had a funny accent, and that my name was too long. You name it, and they told me I had to change it. Basically, everywhere I turned, I was told that I had no chance."
Schwarzenegger drew attention and boosted his profile in the bodybuilding film Pumping Iron (1977), elements of which were dramatized. In 1991, Schwarzenegger purchased the rights to the film, its outtakes, and associated still photography. Schwarzenegger auditioned for the title role of The Incredible Hulk, but did not win the role because of his height. Later, Lou Ferrigno got the part of Dr. David Banner's alter ego. Schwarzenegger appeared with Kirk Douglas and Ann-Margret in the 1979 comedy The Villain. In 1980 he starred in a biographical film of the 1950s actress Jayne Mansfield as Mansfield's husband, Mickey Hargitay.
Schwarzenegger's breakthrough film was the sword-and-sorcery epic Conan the Barbarian in 1982, which was a box-office hit. This was followed by a sequel, Conan the Destroyer, in 1984, although it was not as successful as its predecessor. In 1983, Schwarzenegger starred in the promotional video "Carnival in Rio". In 1984, he made his first appearance as the eponymous character, and what some would say was his acting career's signature role, in James Cameron's science fiction thriller film The Terminator. Following this, Schwarzenegger made Red Sonja in 1985.
During the 1980s, audiences had an appetite for action films, with both Schwarzenegger and Sylvester Stallone becoming international stars. Schwarzenegger's roles reflected his sense of humor, separating his roles from more serious action hero films. The alternative-universe comedy thriller Last Action Hero featured a poster of the movie Terminator 2: Judgment Day, which, in the alternate universe, starred Stallone. He made a number of successful films, such as Commando (1985), Raw Deal (1986), The Running Man (1987), Predator (1987), and Red Heat (1988).
Twins (1988), a comedy with Danny DeVito, also proved successful. Total Recall (1990) netted Schwarzenegger $10 million and 15% of the film's gross. A science fiction script, the film was based on the Philip K. Dick short story "We Can Remember It for You Wholesale". Kindergarten Cop (1990) reunited him with director Ivan Reitman, who directed him in Twins. Schwarzenegger had a brief foray into directing, first with a 1990 episode of the TV series Tales from the Crypt, entitled "The Switch", and then with the 1992 telemovie Christmas in Connecticut. He has not directed since.
Schwarzenegger's commercial peak was his return as the title character in 1991's Terminator 2: Judgment Day, which was the highest-grossing film of 1991. In 1993, the National Association of Theatre Owners named him the "International Star of the Decade". His next film project, the 1993 self-aware action comedy spoof Last Action Hero, was released opposite Jurassic Park, and did not do well at the box office. His next film, the comedy drama True Lies (1994), was a popular spy film, and saw Schwarzenegger reunited with James Cameron.
That same year, the comedy Junior was released, the last of Schwarzenegger's three collaborations with Ivan Reitman and again co-starring Danny DeVito. This film brought him his second Golden Globe nomination, this time for Best Actor – Musical or Comedy. It was followed by the action thriller Eraser (1996), the Christmas comedy Jingle All The Way (1996), and the comic book-based Batman & Robin (1997), in which he played the villain Mr. Freeze. This was his final film before taking time to recuperate from a back injury. Following the critical failure of Batman & Robin, his film career and box office prominence went into decline. He returned with the supernatural thriller End of Days (1999), later followed by the action films The 6th Day (2000) and Collateral Damage (2002), both of which failed to do well at the box office. In 2003, he made his third appearance as the title character in Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines, which went on to earn over $150 million domestically.
In tribute to Schwarzenegger in 2002, Forum Stadtpark, a local cultural association, proposed plans to build a 25-meter (82 ft) tall Terminator statue in a park in central Graz. Schwarzenegger reportedly said he was flattered, but thought the money would be better spent on social projects and the Special Olympics.
His film appearances after becoming Governor of California included a three-second cameo appearance in The Rundown, and the 2004 remake of Around the World in 80 Days. In 2005, he appeared as himself in the film The Kid & I. He voiced Baron von Steuben in the Liberty's Kids episode "Valley Forge". He had been rumored to be appearing in Terminator Salvation as the original T-800; he denied his involvement, but it was later revealed that he would appear briefly via his image being inserted into the movie from stock footage of the first Terminator movie. Schwarzenegger appeared in Sylvester Stallone's The Expendables, where he made a cameo appearance.
Return to acting
In January 2011, just weeks after leaving office in California, Schwarzenegger announced that he was reading several new scripts for future films, one of them being the World War II action drama With Wings as Eagles, written by Randall Wallace, based on a true story. On March 6, 2011, at the Arnold Seminar of the Arnold Classic, Schwarzenegger revealed that he was being considered for several films, including sequels to The Terminator and remakes of Predator and The Running Man, and that he was "packaging" a comic book character. The character was later revealed to be the Governator, star of the comic book and animated series of the same name. Schwarzenegger inspired the character and co-developed it with Stan Lee, who would have produced the series. Schwarzenegger would have voiced the Governator.
On May 20, 2011, Schwarzenegger's entertainment counsel announced that all movie projects currently in development were being halted: "Schwarzenegger is focusing on personal matters and is not willing to commit to any production schedules or timelines." On July 11, 2011, it was announced that Schwarzenegger was considering a comeback film despite his legal problems. He appeared in The Expendables 2 (2012), and starred in The Last Stand (2013), his first leading role in 10 years, and Escape Plan (2013), his first co-starring role alongside Sylvester Stallone. He starred in Sabotage, released in March 2014. He will reprise his role as Conan the Barbarian in The Legend of Conan and is set to star in a fifth Terminator movie Terminator: Genesis.
|Schwarzenegger in 2010|
|38th Governor of California|
November 17, 2003 – January 3, 2011
Mona Pasquil (acting)
|Preceded by||Gray Davis|
|Succeeded by||Jerry Brown|
|Born||Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger
July 30, 1947
Thal, Styria, Austria
Schwarzenegger has been a registered Republican for many years. As an actor, his political views were always well known as they contrasted with those of many other prominent Hollywood stars, who are generally considered to be a liberal and Democratic-leaning community. At the 2004 Republican National Convention, Schwarzenegger gave a speech and explained why he was a Republican:
I finally arrived here in 1968. What a special day it was. I remember I arrived here with empty pockets but full of dreams, full of determination, full of desire. The presidential campaign was in full swing. I remember watching the Nixon–Humphrey presidential race on TV. A friend of mine who spoke German and English translated for me. I heard Humphrey saying things that sounded like socialism, which I had just left.
But then I heard Nixon speak. He was talking about free enterprise, getting the government off your back, lowering the taxes and strengthening the military. Listening to Nixon speak sounded more like a breath of fresh air. I said to my friend, I said, "What party is he?" My friend said, "He's a Republican." I said, "Then I am a Republican." And I have been a Republican ever since.
In 1985, Schwarzenegger appeared in Stop the Madness, an anti-drug music video sponsored by the Reagan administration. He first came to wide public notice as a Republican during the 1988 Presidential election, accompanying then-Vice President George H.W. Bush at a campaign rally.
Schwarzenegger's first political appointment was as chairman of the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, on which he served from 1990 to 1993. He was nominated by George H. W. Bush, who dubbed him "Conan the Republican". He later served as Chairman for the California Governor's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports under Governor Pete Wilson.
In an interview with Talk magazine in late 1999, Schwarzenegger was asked if he thought of running for office. He replied, "I think about it many times. The possibility is there, because I feel it inside." The Hollywood Reporter claimed shortly after that Schwarzenegger sought to end speculation that he might run for governor of California. Following his initial comments, Schwarzenegger said, "I'm in show business – I am in the middle of my career. Why would I go away from that and jump into something else?"
Governor of California
Schwarzenegger announced his candidacy in the 2003 California recall election for Governor of California on the August 6, 2003 episode of The Tonight Show with Jay Leno. Schwarzenegger had the most name recognition in a crowded field of candidates, but he had never held public office and his political views were unknown to most Californians. His candidacy immediately became national and international news, with media outlets dubbing him the "Governator" (referring to The Terminator movies, see above) and "The Running Man" (the name of another one of his films), and calling the recall election "Total Recall" (yet another movie starring Schwarzenegger). Schwarzenegger declined to participate in several debates with other recall replacement candidates, and appeared in only one debate on September 24, 2003.
On October 7, 2003, the recall election resulted in Governor Gray Davis being removed from office with 55.4% of the Yes vote in favor of a recall. Schwarzenegger was elected Governor of California under the second question on the ballot with 48.6% of the vote to choose a successor to Davis. Schwarzenegger defeated Democrat Cruz Bustamante, fellow Republican Tom McClintock, and others. His nearest rival, Bustamante, received 31% of the vote. In total, Schwarzenegger won the election by about 1.3 million votes. Under the regulations of the California Constitution, no runoff election was required. Schwarzenegger was the second foreign-born governor of California after Irish-born Governor John G. Downey in 1862.
As soon as Schwarzenegger was elected governor, Willie Brown said he would start a drive to recall the governor. Schwarzenegger was equally entrenched in what he considered to be his mandate in cleaning up gridlock. Building on a catchphrase from the sketch "Hans and Franz" from Saturday Night Live (which partly parodied his bodybuilding career), Schwarzenegger called the Democratic State politicians "girlie men".
Schwarzenegger's early victories included repealing an unpopular increase in the vehicle registration fee as well as preventing driver's licenses being given out to illegal immigrants, but later he began to feel the backlash when powerful state unions began to oppose his various initiatives. Key among his reckoning with political realities was a special election he called in November 2005, in which four ballot measures he sponsored were defeated. Schwarzenegger accepted personal responsibility for the defeats and vowed to continue to seek consensus for the people of California. He would later comment that "no one could win if the opposition raised 160 million dollars to defeat you".
Schwarzenegger then went against the advice of fellow Republican strategists and appointed a Democrat, Susan Kennedy, as his Chief of Staff. Schwarzenegger gradually moved towards a more politically moderate position, determined to build a winning legacy with only a short time to go until the next gubernatorial election.
Schwarzenegger ran for re-election against Democrat Phil Angelides, the California State Treasurer, in the 2006 elections, held on November 7, 2006. Despite a poor year nationally for the Republican party, Schwarzenegger won re-election with 56.0% of the vote compared with 38.9% for Angelides, a margin of well over one million votes. In recent years, many commentators have seen Schwarzenegger as moving away from the right and towards the center of the political spectrum. After hearing a speech by Schwarzenegger at the 2006 Martin Luther King, Jr. breakfast, San Francisco mayor Gavin Newsom said that, "[H]e's becoming a Democrat [... H]e's running back, not even to the center. I would say center-left".
Wendy Leigh, who wrote an unofficial biography on Schwarzenegger, claims he plotted his political rise from an early age using the movie business and bodybuilding as building blocks to escape a depressing home. Leigh portrays Schwarzenegger as obsessed with power and quotes him as saying, "I wanted to be part of the small percentage of people who were leaders, not the large mass of followers. I think it is because I saw leaders use 100% of their potential – I was always fascinated by people in control of other people." Schwarzenegger has said that it was never his intention to enter politics, but he says, "I married into a political family. You get together with them and you hear about policy, about reaching out to help people. I was exposed to the idea of being a public servant and Eunice and Sargent Shriver became my heroes." Eunice Kennedy Shriver was sister of John F. Kennedy, and mother-in-law to Schwarzenegger; Sargent Shriver is husband to Eunice and father-in-law to Schwarzenegger. He cannot run for president as he is not a natural born citizen of the United States. In The Simpsons Movie (2007), he is portrayed as the President, and in the Sylvester Stallone movie, Demolition Man (1993, ten years before his first run for political office), it is revealed that a constitutional amendment passed which allowed Schwarzenegger to run for President.
Schwarzenegger is a dual Austrian/United States citizen. He holds Austrian citizenship by birth and has held U.S. citizenship since becoming naturalized in 1983. Being Austrian and thus European, he was able to win the 2007 European Voice campaigner of the year award for taking action against climate change with the California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 and plans to introduce an emissions trading scheme with other US states and possibly with the EU.
Because of his personal wealth from his acting career, Schwarzenegger did not accept his governor's salary of $175,000 per year.
Schwarzenegger's endorsement in the Republican primary of the 2008 U.S. Presidential election was highly sought; despite being good friends with candidates Rudy Giuliani and Senator John McCain, Schwarzenegger remained neutral throughout 2007 and early 2008. Giuliani dropped out of the Presidential race on January 30, 2008, largely because of a poor showing in Florida, and endorsed McCain. Later that night, Schwarzenegger was in the audience at a Republican debate at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library in California. The following day, he endorsed McCain, joking, "It's Rudy's fault!" (in reference to his friendships with both candidates and that he could not make up his mind). Schwarzenegger's endorsement was thought to be a boost for Senator McCain's campaign; both spoke about their concerns for the environment and economy.
In its April 2010 report, Progressive ethics watchdog group Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington named Schwarzenegger one of 11 "worst governors" in the United States because of various ethics issues throughout Schwarzenegger's term as governor.
Governor Schwarzenegger played a significant role in opposing Proposition 66, a proposed amendment of the Californian Three Strikes Law, in November 2004. This amendment would have required the third felony to be either violent or serious to mandate a 25-years-to-life sentence. In the last week before the ballot, Schwarzenegger launched an intensive campaign against Proposition 66. He stated that "it would release 26,000 dangerous criminals and rapists".
Although he began his tenure as governor with record high approval ratings (as high as 89% in December 2003), he left office with a record low 23%, only one percent higher than that of Gray Davis's when he was recalled in October 2003.
Allegations of sexual misconduct
During his initial campaign for governor, allegations of sexual and personal misconduct were raised against Schwarzenegger, dubbed "Gropegate". Within the last five days before the election, news reports appeared in the Los Angeles Times recounting allegations of sexual misconduct from several individual women, six of whom eventually came forward with their personal stories.
Three of the women claimed he had grabbed their breasts, a fourth said he placed his hand under her skirt on her buttock. A fifth woman claimed Schwarzenegger tried to take off her bathing suit in a hotel elevator, and the last said he pulled her onto his lap and asked her about a sex act.
Schwarzenegger admitted that he has "behaved badly sometimes" and apologized, but also stated that "a lot of [what] you see in the stories is not true". This came after an interview in adult magazine Oui from 1977 surfaced, in which Schwarzenegger discussed attending sexual orgies and using substances such as marijuana. Schwarzenegger is shown smoking a marijuana joint after winning Mr. Olympia in the 1975 documentary film Pumping Iron. In an interview with GQ magazine in October 2007, Schwarzenegger said, "[Marijuana] is not a drug. It's a leaf. My drug was pumping iron, trust me." His spokesperson later said the comment was meant to be a joke.
British television personality Anna Richardson settled a libel lawsuit in August 2006 against Schwarzenegger, his top aide, Sean Walsh, and his publicist, Sheryl Main. A joint statement read: "The parties are content to put this matter behind them and are pleased that this legal dispute has now been settled." Richardson claimed they tried to tarnish her reputation by dismissing her allegations that Schwarzenegger touched her breast during a press event for The 6th Day in London. She claimed Walsh and Main libeled her in a Los Angeles Times article when they contended she encouraged his behavior.
In 2005, Peter Pilz, from the Austrian Green Party, demanded that parliament revoke Schwarzenegger's Austrian citizenship due to his decision not to prevent the executions of Donald Beardslee and Stanley Williams, causing damage of reputation to Austria, where the death penalty is abolished since 1968. This demand was based on Article 33 of the Austrian Citizenship Act that states: A citizen, who is in the public service of a foreign country, shall be deprived of his citizenship, if he heavily damages the reputation or the interests of the Austrian Republic. Pilz claimed that Schwarzenegger's actions in support of the death penalty (prohibited in Austria under Protocol 13 of the European Convention on Human Rights) had indeed done damage to Austria's reputation. Schwarzenegger explained his actions by referring to the fact that his only duty as Governor of California was to prevent an error in the judicial system.
On September 27, 2006 Schwarzenegger signed a bill creating the nation's first cap on greenhouse gas emissions. The law set new regulations on the amount of emissions utilities, refineries and manufacturing plants are allowed to release into the atmosphere. Schwarzenegger also signed a second global warming bill that prohibits large utilities and corporations in California from making long-term contracts with suppliers who do not meet the state's greenhouse gas emission standards. The two bills are part of a plan to reduce California's emissions by 25 percent to 1990s levels by 2020. In 2005, Schwarzenegger issued an executive order calling to reduce greenhouse gases to 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050.
Schwarzenegger signed another executive order on October 17, 2006 allowing California to work with the Northeast's Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative. They plan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by issuing a limited amount of carbon credits to each power plant in participating states. Any power plants that exceed emissions for the amount of carbon credits will have to purchase more credits to cover the difference. The plan took effect in 2009. In addition to using his political power to fight global warming, the governor has taken steps at his home to reduce his personal carbon footprint. Schwarzenegger has adapted one of his Hummers to run on hydrogen and another to run on biofuels. He has also installed solar panels to heat his home.
|California Gubernatorial Recall Election 2003|
|Green||Peter Miguel Camejo||242,247||2.8|
|California Gubernatorial Election 2006|
|Green||Peter Miguel Camejo||205,995||2.3||−0.5|
In October 2013, the New York Post reported that Schwarzenegger was exploring a future run for President. The former California governor would face a constitutional hurdle; Article II, Section I, Clause V nominally prevents individuals who are not natural-born citizens of the United States from assuming the office. He has reportedly been lobbying legislators about a possible constitutional change, or filing a legal challenge to the provision. Columbia University law professor Michael Dorf observed that Arnold's possible lawsuit could ultimately win him the right to run for the office, noting, "The law is very clear, but it’s not 100 percent clear that the courts would enforce that law rather than leave it to the political process."
Schwarzenegger has had a highly successful business career. Following his move to the United States, Schwarzenegger became a "prolific goal setter" and would write his objectives at the start of the year on index cards, like starting a mail order business or buying a new car – and succeed in doing so. By the age of 30, Schwarzenegger was a millionaire, well before his career in Hollywood. His financial independence came from his success as a budding entrepreneur with a series of successful business ventures and investments.
Business ventures and investments
In 1968, Schwarzenegger and fellow bodybuilder Franco Columbu started a bricklaying business. The business flourished thanks to the pair's marketing savvy and an increased demand following the 1971 San Fernando earthquake. Schwarzenegger and Columbu used profits from their bricklaying venture to start a mail order business, selling bodybuilding and fitness-related equipment and instructional tapes.
Real estate investing
Schwarzenegger rolled profits from the mail order business and his bodybuilding competition winnings into his first real estate investment venture: an apartment building he purchased for $10,000. He would later go on to invest in a number of real estate holding companies.
In 1992, Schwarzenegger and his wife opened a restaurant in Santa Monica called Schatzi On Main. Schatzi literally means "little treasure," colloquial for "honey" or "darling" in German. In 1998, he sold his restaurant.
Planet Hollywood investment
Schwarzenegger was a founding celebrity investor in the Planet Hollywood chain of international theme restaurants (modeled after the Hard Rock Cafe) along with Bruce Willis, Sylvester Stallone and Demi Moore. Schwarzenegger severed his financial ties with the business in early 2000. Schwarzenegger said the company had not had the success he had hoped for, claiming he wanted to focus his attention on "new US global business ventures" and his movie career.
Other ventures and investments
He also invested in a shopping mall in Columbus, Ohio. He has talked about some of those who have helped him over the years in business: "I couldn't have learned about business without a parade of teachers guiding me... from Milton Friedman to Donald Trump... and now, Les Wexner and Warren Buffett. I even learned a thing or two from Planet Hollywood, such as when to get out! And I did!" He has significant ownership in Dimensional Fund Advisors, an investment firm. Schwarzenegger is also the owner of Arnold's Sports Festival, which he started in 1989 and is held annually in Columbus, Ohio. It is a festival that hosts thousands of international health and fitness professionals which has also expanded into a three-day expo. He also owns a movie production company called Oak Productions, Inc. and Fitness Publications, a joint publishing venture with Simon & Schuster.
Early love life
In 1969, Schwarzenegger met Barbara Outland (later Barbara Outland Baker), an English teacher he lived with until 1974. Schwarzenegger talked about Barbara in his memoir in 1977: "Basically it came down to this: she was a well-balanced woman who wanted an ordinary, solid life, and I was not a well-balanced man, and hated the very idea of ordinary life." Baker has described Schwarzenegger as "[a] joyful personality, totally charismatic, adventurous, and athletic" but claims towards the end of the relationship he became "insufferable – classically conceited – the world revolved around him". Baker published her memoir in 2006, entitled Arnold and Me: In the Shadow of the Austrian Oak. Although Baker, at times, painted an unflattering portrait of her former lover, Schwarzenegger actually contributed to the tell-all book with a foreword, and also met with Baker for three hours. Baker claims, for example, that she only learned of his being unfaithful after they split, and talks of a turbulent and passionate love life. Schwarzenegger has made it clear that their respective recollection of events can differ. The couple first met six to eight months after his arrival in the U.S—their first date was watching the first Apollo Moon landing on television. They shared an apartment in Santa Monica for three and a half years, and having little money, would visit the beach all day, or have barbecues in the back yard. Although Baker claims that when she first met him, he had "little understanding of polite society" and she found him a turn-off, she says, "He's as much a self-made man as it's possible to be—he never got encouragement from his parents, his family, his brother. He just had this huge determination to prove himself, and that was very attractive ... I'll go to my grave knowing Arnold loved me."
Schwarzenegger met his next paramour, Sue Moray, a Beverly Hills hairdresser's assistant, on Venice Beach in July 1977. According to Moray, the couple led an open relationship: "We were faithful when we were both in LA ... but when he was out of town, we were free to do whatever we wanted." Schwarzenegger met Maria Shriver at the Robert F. Kennedy Tennis Tournament in August 1977, and went on to have a relationship with both women until August 1978, when Moray (who knew of his relationship with Shriver) issued an ultimatum.
Marriage and family
On April 26, 1986, Schwarzenegger married television journalist Maria Shriver, niece of President John F. Kennedy, in Hyannis, Massachusetts. The Rev. John Baptist Riordan performed the ceremony at St. Francis Xavier Catholic Church. They have four children: Katherine Eunice Schwarzenegger (born December 13, 1989 in Los Angeles); Christina Maria Aurelia Schwarzenegger (born July 23, 1991 in Los Angeles); Patrick Arnold Shriver Schwarzenegger (born September 18, 1993 in Los Angeles); and Christopher Sargent Shriver Schwarzenegger (born September 27, 1997 in Los Angeles). Schwarzenegger lives in a 11,000-square-foot (1,000 m2) home in Brentwood. The divorcing couple currently own vacation homes in Sun Valley, Idaho and Hyannis Port, Massachusetts. They attended St. Monica's Catholic Church.
On May 9, 2011, Shriver and Schwarzenegger ended their relationship after 25 years of marriage, with Shriver moving out of the couple's Brentwood mansion. On May 16, 2011, the Los Angeles Times revealed that Schwarzenegger had fathered a son more than fourteen years earlier with an employee in their household, Mildred Patricia 'Patty' Baena. "After leaving the governor's office I told my wife about this event, which occurred over a decade ago," Schwarzenegger said in a statement issued to The Times. In the statement, Schwarzenegger did not mention that he had confessed to his wife only after Shriver had confronted him with the information, which she had done after confirming with the housekeeper what she had suspected about the child.
Fifty-year-old Baena, of Guatemalan origin, was employed by the family for 20 years and retired in January 2011. The pregnant Baena was working in the home while Shriver was pregnant with the youngest of the couple’s four children. Baena's son with Schwarzenegger, Joseph, was born on October 2, 1997; Shriver gave birth to Christopher on September 27, 1997. Schwarzenegger says it took seven or eight years before he found out that he had fathered a child with his housekeeper. It wasn't until the boy "started looking like me, that's when I kind of got it. I put things together," the action star and former California governor, told 60 Minutes. Schwarzenegger has taken financial responsibility for the child "from the start and continued to provide support." KNX 1070 radio reported that in 2010 he bought a new four-bedroom house, with a pool, for Baena and their son in Bakersfield, about 112 miles (180 km) north of Los Angeles. Baena separated from her husband, Rogelio, in 1997, a few months after Joseph's birth, and filed for divorce in 2008. Baena's ex-husband says that the child's birth certificate was falsified and that he plans to sue Schwarzenegger for engaging in conspiracy to falsify a public document, a serious crime in California.
Schwarzenegger has consulted an attorney, Bob Kaufman. Kaufman has earlier handled divorce cases for celebrities such as Jennifer Aniston and Reese Witherspoon. Schwarzenegger will keep the Brentwood home as part of their divorce settlement and Shriver has purchased a new home nearby so that the children may travel easily between their parents' homes. They will share custody of the two minor children. Schwarzenegger came under fire after the initial petition did not include spousal support and a reimbursement of attorney's fees. However, he claims this was not intentional and that he signed the initial documents without having properly read them. Schwarzenegger has filed amended divorce papers remedying this.
After the scandal, actress Brigitte Nielsen came forward and stated that she too had an affair with Schwarzenegger while he was in a relationship with Shriver, saying, "Maybe I wouldn't have got into it if he said 'I'm going to marry Maria' and this is dead serious, but he didn't, and our affair carried on." When asked in 2014 "Of all the things you are famous for ... which are you least proud of?", Schwarzengger replied "I'm least proud of the mistakes I made that caused my family pain and split us up".
Accidents and injuries
Schwarzenegger was born with a bicuspid aortic valve, an aortic valve with only two leaflets (a normal aortic valve has three leaflets). Schwarzenegger opted in 1997 for a replacement heart valve made of his own transplanted tissue; medical experts predicted he would require heart valve replacement surgery in the following two to eight years as his valve would progressively degrade. Schwarzenegger apparently opted against a mechanical valve, the only permanent solution available at the time of his surgery, because it would have sharply limited his physical activity and capacity to exercise.
On December 9, 2001, he broke six ribs and was hospitalized for four days after a motorcycle crash in Los Angeles.
Schwarzenegger saved a drowning man's life in 2004 while on vacation in Hawaii by swimming out and bringing him back to shore.
On January 8, 2006, while Schwarzenegger was riding his Harley Davidson motorcycle in Los Angeles, with his son Patrick in the sidecar, another driver backed into the street he was riding on, causing him and his son to collide with the car at a low speed. While his son and the other driver were unharmed, the governor sustained a minor injury to his lip, requiring 15 stitches. "No citations were issued", said Officer Jason Lee, a Los Angeles Police Department spokesman. Schwarzenegger did not obtain his motorcycle license until July 3, 2006.
Schwarzenegger tripped over his ski pole and broke his right femur while skiing in Sun Valley, Idaho, with his family on December 23, 2006. On December 26, 2006, he underwent a 90-minute operation in which cables and screws were used to wire the broken bone back together. He was released from the St. John's Health Center on December 30, 2006.
Schwarzenegger's private jet made an emergency landing at Van Nuys Airport on June 19, 2009, after the pilot reported smoke coming from the cockpit, according to a statement released by the governor's press secretary. No one was harmed in the incident.
Schwarzenegger's official height of 6'2" (1.88 m) has been brought into question by several articles. In his bodybuilding days in the late 1960s, he was measured to be 6'1.5" (1.87 m), a height confirmed by his fellow bodybuilders. However, in 1988 both the Daily Mail and Time Out magazine mentioned that Schwarzenegger appeared noticeably shorter. Prior to running for Governor, Schwarzenegger's height was once again questioned in an article by the Chicago Reader. As Governor, Schwarzenegger engaged in a light-hearted exchange with Assemblyman Herb Wesson over their heights. At one point, Wesson made an unsuccessful attempt to, in his own words, "settle this once and for all and find out how tall he is" by using a tailor's tape measure on the Governor. Schwarzenegger retaliated by placing a pillow stitched with the words "Need a lift?" on the five-foot-five inch (165 cm) Wesson's chair before a negotiating session in his office. Bob Mulholland also claimed Schwarzenegger was 5'10" (1.78 m) and that he wore risers in his boots. The debate on Schwarzenegger's height has spawned a website solely dedicated to the issue, and his page remains one of the most active on CelebHeights.com, a website which discusses the heights of celebrities. Men's Health magazine has estimated his height at 5'10".
Schwarzenegger's autobiography, Total Recall, was released in October 2012. He devotes one chapter called "The Secret" to his extramarital affair. The majority of his book is about his successes in the three major chapters in his life: bodybuilder, actor, and Governor of California.
Schwarzenegger's net worth had been conservatively estimated at $100–$200 million. After separating from his wife, Maria Shriver, in 2011, it has been estimated that his net worth has been approximately $400 million, and even as high as $800 million, based on tax returns he filed in 2006. Over the years as an investor, he invested his bodybuilding and movie earnings in an array of stocks, bonds, privately controlled companies, and real estate holdings worldwide, so a more accurate estimation of his net worth is difficult to calculate, particularly in light of declining real estate values owing to economic recessions in the United States and Europe. In June 1997, Schwarzenegger spent $38 million of his own money on a private Gulfstream jet. Schwarzenegger once said of his fortune, "Money doesn't make you happy. I now have $50 million, but I was just as happy when I had $48 million." He has also stated, "I've made many millions as a businessman many times over."
He bought the first Hummer manufactured for civilian use in 1992, a model so large, 6,300 lb (2,900 kg) and 7 feet (2.1 m) wide, that it is classified as a large truck and U.S. fuel economy regulations do not apply to it. During the gubernatorial recall campaign he announced that he would convert one of his Hummers to burn hydrogen. The conversion was reported to have cost about US$21,000. After the election, he signed an executive order to jump-start the building of hydrogen refueling plants called the California Hydrogen Highway Network, and gained a U.S. Department of Energy grant to help pay for its projected US$91,000,000 cost. California took delivery of the first H2H (Hydrogen Hummer) in October 2004.
Arnold Schwarzenegger has been involved with the Special Olympics for many years after they were founded by his ex-mother-in-law, Eunice Kennedy Shriver. In 2007, Schwarzenegger was the official spokesperson for the Special Olympics which were held in Shanghai, China. Schwarzenegger believes that quality school opportunities should be made available to children who might not normally be able to access them. In 1995, he founded the Inner City Games Foundation (ICG) which provides cultural, educational and community enrichment programming to youth. ICG is active in 15 cities around the country and serves over 250,000 children in over 400 schools countrywide. He has also been involved with After-School All-Stars, and founded the Los Angeles branch in 2002. ASAS is an after school program provider, educating youth about health, fitness and nutrition.
Schwarzenegger's home town of Graz had its soccer stadium named The Arnold Schwarzenegger Stadium in his honor. It is the home of both Grazer AK and Sturm Graz. After the Stanley Williams execution and street protests in Schwarzenegger's hometown, several local politicians began a campaign to remove his name from the stadium. In response, Schwarzenegger said "to spare the responsible politicians of the city of Graz further concern, I withdraw from them as of this day the right to use my name in association with the Liebenau Stadium", and set a deadline of two days to remove his name. Graz officials removed Schwarzenegger's name from the stadium in December 2005. It is now officially titled UPC-Arena.
The Sun Valley Resort has a short ski trail called Arnold's Run, named after Schwarzenegger in 2001. The trail is categorized as a black diamond, or most difficult, for its terrain.
People in Thal, Austria, celebrated Schwarzenegger's 60th birthday by throwing a party. Officials proclaimed "A Day for Arnold" on July 30, 2007. The mayor sent Schwarzenegger the enameled sign, Thal 145, the number of the house where Schwarzenegger was born, declaring "This belongs to him. No one here will ever be assigned that number again".
- Schwarzenegger, Arnold (1977). Arnold: Developing a Mr. Universe Physique. Schwarzenegger.
- Schwarzenegger, Arnold; with Douglas Kent Hall (1977). Arnold: The Education of a Bodybuilder. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-22879-8.
- Schwarzenegger, Arnold; with Douglas Kent Hall (1979). Arnold's Bodyshaping for Women. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-24301-2.
- Schwarzenegger, Arnold; with Bill Dobbins (1981). Arnold's Bodybuilding for Men. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-25613-5.
- Schwarzenegger, Arnold; Bill Dobbins (1998). The New Encyclopedia of Modern Bodybuilding (rev. ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-84374-2.
- Andrews, Nigel (2003). True Myths: The Life and Times of Arnold Schwarzenegger: From Pumping Iron to Governor of California (rev. ed.). New York: Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1-58234-465-2.
- Blitz, Michael; Louise Krasniewicz (2004). Why Arnold Matters: The Rise of a Cultural Icon. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-03752-0.
- Borowitz, Andy (2004). Governor Arnold: A Photodiary of His First 100 Days in Office. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-6266-8.
- Brandon, Karen (2004). Arnold Schwarzenegger. San Diego: Lucent Books. ISBN 978-1-59018-539-1.
- Saunders, Dave (2008). "Arnie": Schwarzenegger and the Movies. London: I. B. Tauris.
- Sexton, Colleen A. (2005). Arnold Schwarzenegger. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications. ISBN 978-0-8225-1634-7.
- Zannos, Susan (2000). Arnold Schwarzenegger. Childs, Md.: Mitchell Lane. ISBN 978-1-883845-95-7.
- Schwarzenegger, Arnold (2012). Total Recall. United States: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-84983-971-6.
- Baker, Todd (Director). Arnold Schwarzenegger: Hollywood Hero.
- Benzie, Robert; Ferguson, Rob (May 31, 2007). "Terminator gunning to save lives". Toronto Star. Retrieved August 20, 2012. "I am a Catholic and a very dedicated Catholic, but that does not interfere with my decision-making [....]"
- "Biography for Arnold Schwarzenegger". IMDb. Archived from the original on March 8, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Kurtzman, Laura (January 5, 2007). "Schwarzenegger Sworn in for Second Term". The Washington Post. Associated Press. Retrieved April 23, 2008.
- "Time of His Life". Schwarzenegger.com. Archived from the original on April 6, 2007. Retrieved April 18, 2007.
- "Arnie: 'I was abused as child'". The Scotsman (Edinburgh). August 4, 2004. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Ask Arnold". Schwarzenegger.com. 2000. Archived from the original on May 23, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Andrews, Nigel (2003). True Myths of Arnold Schwarzenegger. Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1-58234-465-2.
- Herman, Eric (August 11, 2003). "Ah-nold in cross hairs Rivals blast Calif. front-runner". Daily News (New York). Retrieved August 20, 2012.
- Brooks, Xan (August 8, 2003). "The Governator". The Guardian (London). Retrieved April 19, 2007.
- Leigh, Wendy (1990). Arnold: An Unauthorized Biography. Pelham. ISBN 978-0-7207-1997-0.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger: Mr. Olympia – 1970–1975, 1980". BodyBuild.com. Archived from the original on April 21, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Records: Arnold's father was member of Nazi storm troops". USA Today. August 24, 2003.
- Katz, Ephraim (2006). Film Encyclopedia. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-074214-0.
- "Profile: Arnold Schwarzenegger". BBC. August 31, 2004. Archived from the original on April 8, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Mr. Everything". Schwarzenegger.com. Archived from the original on April 16, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Schwarzenegger, Arnold (October 3, 2001). "ARNOLD'S "PERSPECTIVES"". Schwarzenegger.com. Archived from the original on May 23, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Interview in Pumping Iron – 25th Anniversary Edition DVD extras
- Poole, Oliver (October 6, 2003). "The girl who can't escape Arnie". The Daily Telegraph (London). Archived from the original on April 10, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- McIntosh, Lindsay (October 2, 2008). "Wag Bennett bodybuilder who helped Arnold Schwarzenegger". The Times (London).
- Staff, Arnold Schwarzenegger: Made in Britain, British Film Institute. Retrieved October 3, 2008. "Wag and Dianne Bennett, an East End couple who gave Arnie a home for three years,"
- "A tribute by Arnold Schwarzenegger". Regpark.net. Archived from the original on May 14, 2011. Retrieved April 3, 2011.
- Spiegel Online Artikel: "Mit Schwarzenegger durch Schwabing". October 8, 2007.
- Bradley, Bill (November 20, 2002). "Mr. California". LA Weekly. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Jennings, Randy (2003, October 21). Ric Drasin: Arnold's lifting partner! The Arnold Fans Website. Retrieved on December 16, 2009.
- Bland, Siskind (September 4, 2007). "Schwarzenegger May Have Violated Terms Of Non-Immigrant Visa". VISALAW.COM. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Campus Connection: Superior list of famous alumni?". Wisconsin State Journal. November 11, 2009. Retrieved April 11, 2012.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger’s competitive bodybuilding history 1963–1966". GMV Productions. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
- Megerian, Chris. (2013, March 1). Schwarzenegger to be executive editor of magazines. The Los Angeles Times.
- "Ask Arnold Training Seminar – Arnold Schwarzenegger Talks Bodybuilding Advice – Part 1". Youtube. March 6, 2011. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
- Farrey, Tom. "Conan the Politician". ESPN. Archived from the original on March 29, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Theunissen, Steve. "Arnold & Steroids: Truth Revealed". get2net. Archived from the original on October 8, 2003. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Schwarzenegger Wins German Lawsuit". Encyclopedia.com. UPI. December 1, 1999. Retrieved December 6, 2009.
- "Arnie settles $50m libel case". BBC News. December 22, 1999. Retrieved December 6, 2009.
- "The Smoking Gun: Archive". TheSmokingGun. Retrieved May 11, 2007.
- Collis, Clark. "EMPIRE ESSAY: The Terminator". Empire magazine. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Leamer, Laurence (2005). Fantastic: The life of Arnold Schwarzenegger. St Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-33338-6.
- "Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines (2003)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 8, 2013.
- "Arnold wants 'Terminator' statue killed". Killoggs. September 27, 2002. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Arnold downplays a Terminator Salvation cameo". SCI FI Wire. Archived from the original on March 13, 2009. Retrieved March 11, 2009.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger (Virtually) Back in Terminator Salvation". TVGuide.com. Archived from the original on May 20, 2009. Retrieved May 8, 2009.
- "McG Talks Terminator Salvation". reelzchannel.com. Archived from the original on May 1, 2009. Retrieved May 11, 2009.
- "Schwarzenegger: "Ich lese gerade drei Drehbücher" – "Krone"-Interview – Welt". krone.at. January 16, 2011. Retrieved April 3, 2011.
- "TheArnoldFans.com". TheArnoldFans.com. January 16, 2011. Retrieved April 3, 2011.
- "TheArnoldFans.com". TheArnoldFans.com. March 6, 2011. Archived from the original on April 21, 2011. Retrieved April 3, 2011.
- Benjamin Svetkey. "Arnold Schwarzenegger is back as 'The Governator'". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved October 18, 2011.
- Zakarin, Jordan (March 31, 2011). "'The Governator': Arnold Schwarzenegger Developing New Cartoon, Comic Book". Huffington Post. Retrieved October 18, 2011.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger to make superhero show". BBC. March 31, 2011.
- Melissa Maerz (March 31, 2011). "Arnold Schwarzenegger teams with Stan Lee on 'The Governator'". Los Angeles Times.
- Sara Hammel. "Arnold Schwarzenegger Halts All Acting Projects – Including Terminator". People. Retrieved October 18, 2011.
- Finke, Nikki. "Arnold Books ‘Last Stand’: Studio To Test Schwarzenegger’s Post-Scandal Popularity –". Deadline.com. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
- Fleming, Mike. "‘Expendables 2′ Sets Action Dream Trio: Arnold Schwarzenegger, Bruce Willis Join Sly Stallone". Deadline. Retrieved October 18, 2011.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger to File Revised Divorce Papers, Not Denying Spousal Support". ABC News. July 23, 2011. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
- Fleming, Mike (2012-10-25). "Arnold And ‘Conan The Barbarian’ Reunited: Universal Reboots Action Franchise With Schwarzenegger." Deadline.com. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- Arnold Schwarzenegger Confirmed for ‘Terminator 5′. Screenrant.com (2013-01-22). Retrieved on 2013-09-27.
- "Schwarzenegger: No country more welcoming than the USA". CNN. August 31, 2004. Archived from the original on April 8, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Noonan, Peggy (October 14, 2003). What I Saw at the Revolution: A Political Life in the Reagan Era. New York: Random House. p. 384. ISBN 978-0-8129-6989-4.
- "Arnold cast as Governor?". Schwarzenegger.com. October 4, 1999. Archived from the original on May 23, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Grey, Barry (November 6, 2003). "First debate in California recall election: Snapshot of a political system in crisis". wsws.org. Archived from the original on May 8, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Nicholas, Peter (July 18, 2004). "Schwarzenegger deems opponents 'girlie-men'". The San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on May 4, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "General Election – Governor". California Secretary of State. Archived from the original on February 19, 2007. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Pomfret, John (December 23, 2006). "Schwarzenegger Remakes Himself as Environmentalist". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 13, 2008.
- Marinucci, Carla (March 22, 2009). "Predictions for Schwarzenegger's Next Big Role". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on March 26, 2009. Retrieved March 23, 2009.
- "Demolition Man Trivia". IMDB. Retrieved May 13, 2014.
- "BBC News: Schwarzenegger 'damages Austria'". BBC News. January 22, 2005. Archived from the original on April 8, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008. "He said Mr Schwarzenegger, who has dual nationality..."
- "Schwarzenegger wins European Voice campaigner of the year award". European Voice. November 27, 2007. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Nelson, Soraya (April 15, 2006). "News: Schwarzenegger releases tax returns". OCRegister.com. Archived from the original on April 13, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Arnold opens 'flood' of McCain endorsements". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved May 7, 2008.
- Vogel, Ed (April 21, 2010). "Gibbons named on list of worst governors". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Archived from the original on April 24, 2010. Retrieved May 5, 2010.
- "Crew's Worst Governors". Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington. Archived from the original on April 24, 2010. Retrieved May 5, 2010.
- April 7, 2008 (April 7, 2008). "TV-commercial of Arnold Schwarzenegger against Proposition 66". Youtube. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- "Megan Garvey and Robert Salladay "Prop. 66 in Tough Fight", LAtimes.com". Los Angeles Times. November 1, 2004. Archived from the original on January 23, 2010. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- Jaffe, Ina. "Two Torn Families Show Flip Side Of 3 Strikes Law". NPR.
- Schwarzenegger leaves office with huge state deficit Xinhua English News. January 3, 2011
- "Sex scandal draws Arnie apology". BBC. March 10, 2004. Archived from the original on April 8, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Schwarzenegger sorry for behaving 'badly' toward women". CNN. October 3, 2003. Archived from the original on April 8, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Schwarzenegger's Sex Talk". The Smoking Gun. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- "Governor says marijuana is not a drug, 'it's a leaf'". Los Angeles Times. October 29, 2007.
- "Schwarzenegger libel 'settled'". BBC. August 26, 2006. Archived from the original on April 8, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "UK judge allows Arnie libel case". BBC. March 23, 2005. Archived from the original on April 8, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Young, Samantha (September 27, 2006). "Schwarzenegger Signs Global Warming Bill". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 15, 2008.
- Matthews, Karen (October 17, 2006). "Cal Joins Northeast Global Warming Fight". Fox News. Retrieved May 15, 2008.
- "The Governator's green agenda" Fortune Magazine. March 23, 2007. Accessed May 15, 2008.
- "SAE 2009 World Congress Special Opening Ceremonies to Feature Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger" SAE. March 10, 2009. Retrieved April 6, 2009.
- "The Global Journal". A New Obsession. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
- Smith, E. (October 18, 2013). "Arnold lobbies for White House run". New York Post. Retrieved October 19, 2013.
- Morgan, Kaya. "Real Life Action Hero". Millionaire Magazine. Archived from the original on April 30, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- ""Working" Out". Schwarzenegger.com. Archived from the original on May 23, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Williams, Lance (August 10, 2003). "Schwarzenegger reveals pumped-up finances". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on March 18, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Fleschner, Malcolm. "The Best Salesman in America?". Selling Power. Archived from the original on February 24, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "The foundation for taxpayer and consumer rights is in the wrong in its junk fax lawsuit where it falsely blames Arnold Schwarzenegger for faxes sent to promote a restaurant he doesn't own". Schwarzenegger.com. Archived from the original on May 23, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Arnie's Planet Hollywood split". BBC. January 26, 2000. Retrieved April 1, 2012.
- Paul Lieberman (January 26, 2000). "It's Hasta la Vista, Planet Hollywood". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 1, 2012.
- Weinraub, Bernard (August 17, 2003). "Schwarzenegger's Next Goal On Dogged, Ambitious Path". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 30, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Andrea N. Browne (9 Nov 2012). "7 self-made immigrant millionaires". Yahoo Canada. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
- "Arnie's ex-girlfriend pens memoir". BBC. September 9, 2003. Archived from the original on April 22, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Williams, Lance (September 15, 2003). "Actor's old flame says he's a great guy". The San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved April 19, 2007.
- Elsworth, Catherine (September 14, 2006). "Arnie puts his weight behind ex-lover's tell-all memoir". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Maria Owings Shriver Wed To Arnold Schwarzenegger". The New York Times. April 27, 1986. Archived from the original on May 28, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Pace, Eric (July 24, 1991). "Chronicle". The New York Times. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Brozan, Nadine (September 21, 1993). "Chronicle". The New York Times. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Brozan, Nadine (September 30, 1997). "Chronicle". The New York Times. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Schiffman, Betsy (June 27, 2003). "Next Stop – Governor's Mansion?". Forbes. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Lacayo, Richard (August 10, 2003). "The Mind Behind the Muscles". Time. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Dunteman, Dayna (May 2004). "Catching Up With Maria Shriver". Sacramento Magazine. Archived from the original on April 21, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Maria Shriver Ends Her Silence On Husband's Campaign". NBC. September 8, 2003. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Mark Z. Barabak (May 9, 2011). "Arnold Schwarzenegger, Maria Shriver announce separation". Los Angeles Times.
- Hendrix, Steve (May 10, 2011). "Arnold Schwarzenegger and wife of 25 years, Maria Shriver, say they’re separating". Washington Post. Associated Press.
- Dan Whitcomb (May 10, 2011). "Arnold Schwarzenegger, wife Maria Shriver separate". Reuters.
- Nancy Dillon (May 17, 2011). "Mildred 'Patty' Baena, 50, identified as the mother of Arnold Schwarzenegger's out of wedlock child: reports". NYDailyNews (New York). Retrieved October 18, 2011.
- "Schwarzenegger Fathered Child With Household Staff Member". Fox. May 17, 2011.
- "Mildred Patricia Baena, Mother of Arnold Schwarzenegger's Out of Wedlock Child Revealed (PHOTOS)". International Business Times. Retrieved October 18, 2011.
- "How Maria found out: Arnie's wife reportedly confronted lover about child". Sydney Morning Herald. May 20, 2011.
- Barabak, Mark Z.; Kim, Victoria (May 17, 2011). "Schwarzenegger fathered a with child his mistress, longtime member of the household staff". Los Angeles Times.
- Nagourney, Adam; Steinhauer, Jennifer (May 17, 2011). "Schwarzenegger Whispers Become an Admission". The New York Times.
- "Arnie 'Bought Home For Love Child And Mum'". Sky.
- "Schwarzenegger's son with housekeeper born days after Shriver gave birth". Chicago Tribune.
- Alan Duke (May 19, 2011). "Arnold Schwarzenegger's two sons born days apart". CNN.
- Arnold Schwarzenegger: The Boy 'Started Looking Like Me' People, October 1, 2012
- "Schwarzenegger: I fathered a secret child". MSNBC. May 17, 2011. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
- "Schwarzenegger Reportedly Fired Housekeeper 4 Weeks Ago". CBS. Retrieved October 18, 2011.
- "Ex-husband of Schwarzenegger's mistress speaks out". Express.co.uk. May 25, 2011. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
- Ex-husband of Schwarzenegger's lover plans to sue (AFP) May 29, 2011
- "Legal News Headlines". Research.lawyers.com. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger Officially Hires Attorney Bob Kaufman, Hammers Out Divorce Deets with Maria Shriver". TMZ.com. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
- Reich, Ashley (July 8, 2011). "Schwarzenegger–Shriver Divorce: Settlement Decides Who Gets House, Kids". Huffington Post.
- "Ministry of Gossip". Los Angeles Times. July 27, 2011. Retrieved October 18, 2011.
- Zervos, Cassie (June 4, 2011). "Love rat Arnold Schwarzenegger cheated with me: Brigitte Nielsen". Herald Sun. Australia. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
- Schwarzenegger, Arnold. "IamArnold. AMA 2.0.". Reddit. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- "Surgery Leaves Star Undimmed". The Free Library (Farlex). April 18, 1997. Retrieved July 29, 2008.
- Starnes, Dr. Vaughn A. (March 8, 2001). "Renowned Cardiac Surgeon Proclaims Medical "Facts" In Article "Represent No Facts At All"". Archived from the original on May 23, 2008. Retrieved March 3, 2009.
- "Schwarzenegger Has Elective Heart Surgery". The New York Times. April 18, 1997. Archived from the original on May 30, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Schwarzenegger, son get in motorcycle accident". USA Today. Associated Press. January 9, 2006. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "No Charges Against Schwarzenegger". Retrieved July 13, 2008.
- Navarro, Mireya (July 7, 2006). "Schwarzenegger Finally Gets a License". The New York Times. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
- "Calif. Gov. Schwarzenegger Breaks Leg in Skiing Accident in Idaho". FOX News. Associated Press. December 24, 2006. Archived from the original on April 14, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Schwarzenegger cleared to resume duties after surgery". Los Angeles Times. December 26, 2006.
- Santa Cruz, Nicole (June 19, 2009). "Governor's plane makes emergency landing in Van Nuys". The Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on June 23, 2009. Retrieved June 20, 2009.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger Height, Schwarzenegger's". celebheights.com. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Schwarzenegger Measured". ArnoldHeight. Retrieved October 18, 2011.
- Andrews, N: "True Myths: The life and times of Arnold Schwarzenegger," page 157. Bloomsbury, 2003
- Miner, Michael (September 23, 2003). "Poor Recall". Chicago Reader. Archived from the original on April 23, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Salladay, Robert (October 23, 2003). "Incoming governor's mantra: 'Action'". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on March 28, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Weintraub, Daniel. "Schwarzenegger Blinked" (PDF). National Conference of State Legislators. Archived from the original on April 14, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "The Governator II: At first it seemed like a bad joke". Arnoldwatch.org. October 7, 2004. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- "Arnold Height". ArnoldHeight.
- Mathews, Jay (August 3, 1999). "The Shrinking Field". Washington Post. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- Arnold Schwarzenegger talks scandal, new book with '60 Minutes'
- Williams, Lance (August 17, 2003). "Schwarzenegger worth $100 million, experts say". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on March 28, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Arnold and Maria's Surprise Split: How Much is at Stake in Divorce?". Extratv.warnerbros.com. May 10, 2011. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
- Matthews, Mark (April 15, 2006). "Gov. Schwarzenegger's Tax Returns Released". Abclocal.go.com. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
- Fleming, Charles (1999). High concept: Don Simpson and the Hollywood Culture of Excess. Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-0-7475-4262-9.
- "Thanks to Arnold, California to Pave the Hydrogen Highway". BMW World. Archived from the original on March 16, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- Wickell, Dale. "HUMMER H2H Hydrogen Powered Experimental Vehicle". About.com. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger Charity: Special Olympics, After-School All-Stars". Forbes. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- "Arnold Schwarzenegger Charity Work, Events and Causes". Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- "Board of Directors". Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- "After-School All-Stars, Los Angeles". Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- "How Vancouver almost lost the 2010 Olympics —Vancouver 2010 Olympics". Toronto: Olympics.thestar.com. February 12, 2010. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- "Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger at L.A.'s Pro-Israel rally". Retrieved 28 December 2013.
- Benhorin, Yitzhak. "Schwarzenegger: I love Israel". Ynet. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
- "Graz removes Schwarzenegger name". BBC News. December 26, 2005. Archived from the original on April 8, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "And ... here's Arnold's Run". Retrieved July 13, 2008.
- "Strudel, schnitzel shower Schwarzenegger at 60th birthday bash". USA Today. Associated Press. July 30, 2007. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
|Find more about Arnold Schwarzenegger at Wikipedia's sister projects|
|Media from Commons|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
- Official website
- Arnold Schwarzenegger official YouTube channel
- Arnold Schwarzenegger Museum
- Arnold Schwarzenegger: Wild Years – slideshow by Life magazine
- Arnold Schwarzenegger at DMOZ
- Office of Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger
- Complete text and audio of Governor Schwarzenegger's Speech to the United Nations on Global Climate Change AmericanRhetoric.com, September 24, 2007
- Complete text, audio, video of Governor Schwarzenegger's 2004 Republican National Convention Address AmericanRhetoric.com
- Archive of Correspondence pertaining to Governor Schwarzenegger and same-sex marriage AB 43 Project
- Interview in Oui magazine, August 1977 at thesmokinggun.com
- Excerpts from Time Out (London) interview, 1977 at time.com
- Schwarzenegger Interview on The Hour with George Stroumboulopoulos
- Arnold Schwarzenegger at the Internet Movie Database
- Schwarzenegger competing in Mr. Universe (1969) courtesy of British Pathe at YouTube (requires Adobe Flash)
|Party political offices|
|Republican nominee for Governor of California
|Governor of California